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In fact, this is something that Obama discusses openly in his book, Dreams of My Father. In that book, Obama discusses the fact that his stepfather is Muslim and how he believes his stepfather's religion helped shape the man that he is. However, that book, written before Obama came into the national spotlight and certainly before his presidential bid, does not say anything about Obama being Muslim. It is not that the book ignores some of Obama's negative qualities. On the contrary, in the book, Obama details teenage and young adult drug use, anger about racial inequality in America, his own religious ambivalence in his young adult life, and a childhood that defies American stereotypes. (Obama, 2004). One who reads the book would find it difficult to imagine that the introspective author would omit a detail as salient as ever being a practicing Muslim, especially since one of the men…… [Read More]
As an alternative to the protectionist approach, Kellner advocates a media literacy that demonstrates the potential of new media and technology to empower students. Media can be used as strong avenues of self-expression and social activism (7). We should use media as a tool, and cease viewing the media as the enemy to educated civilization, as a pedestrian form of social expression. Protectionists fail to recognize the positive power of all media by overemphasizing the relevance of print. On the other hand, Kellner notes that educators must "avoid an uncritical media populism," in which we pander to the lowest common denominator in popular culture (8). Kellner's message is on balance and critical thinking. What modern educators need is a blend between the glorification of pop culture imagery and censorship. When technology is adapted for the use of education, it can be an immensely powerful tool. For example, students who are…… [Read More]
Undoubtedly, viewers who have seen his burly frame in Miller's Crossing (1990) and Goodfellas (1990) are naturally inclined toward the perception that his "Angelo Grotti" character in the ffice is a mobster and not an ordinary insurance salesman.
Had a less stereotypical portrayal of the character been used for the role, the central premise of the episode would have remained largely unaffected, except perhaps highlighting the silliness of any nefarious assumptions jumped to by Michael and his inept "backups" Dwight and Andrew. If anything, the fact that the Grotti character does seem to closely mirror so many of the mannerisms, behaviors, and speech patterns typically portrayed by the contemporary genre of mob images draws in the viewer. It reminds all of us who are viewers that we may be guilty of some of the same types of prejudices or assumptions parodied through their exaggeration by Michael.
The scene between Kevin…… [Read More]
With regards to student multiple-skill development, Kellner proposes that computers should be at the center stage of learning. Students should be able to not only operate the computer but also use it to gather data from the Internet, communicate across classrooms and cultural boundaries. He argues that computers should be used dramatically to transform the circulation of knowledge, images, and other modalities of different cultures. Not only presence but also use of computers should be made mandatory in all secondary schools so that students can learn to think critically early on during their student life. He writes,
Students should learn new forms of computer literacy that involve both how to use computer culture to do research and gather information, as well as to perceive it as a cultural terrain which contains texts, spectacles, games, and interactive media. Moreover, computer culture is a discursive and political location in which they…… [Read More]
Media Literacy and the CAAP Test
Media literacy is one of the most pressing needs in the current anti-intellectual, "alternative facts" American universe. The proliferation of fake news is in part due to lack of media literacy, and the inability to discern credible sources of information from untrustworthy ones. One of the tools that can be used to assess the quality of a media outlet or article is the aptly named CAAP test. The CAAP test evaluates a source according to five criteria: currency, reliability, author authority, organizational authority, and purpose or point of view. Three websites that can be reviewed using the CAAP test include the Vaccine esistance Movement (http://vaccineresistancemovement.org/?page_id=9788), Pro-Con.org (http://www.procon.org/). The CAAP test clearly reveals that the Vaccine esistance Movement is indeed a crap website, whereas the websites of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Pro-Con.org website offer current, reliable, authoritative, and unbiased information in…… [Read More]
Media as the Linguistic Discourse Analysis Object
esearch in Discourse Analysis - Linguistics
Discourse analysis' focus is noteworthy semiotic events. Discourse analysis aims to understand not only the nature of the semiotic event, but also the socio-psychological traits of the participants of the event. The proposed subject of research is media discourse analysis or media as the linguistic discourse analysis object. Media is highly relevant and almost fundamental to life in the 21st century. There is no doubt that there are social, perceptual, psychological, linguistic, and behavioral affects of technology and media upon users and communities. Objects of discourse analysis vary in their definition of articulated sequences of communication events, speech acts, etc. Media is nothing but a series of coordinated sequences of various communications events operating semiotically. Therefore, media discourse analysis is a worthwhile linguistic research endeavor. The hypothesis of the research contends that media discourse analysis, as part…… [Read More]
Arguably, the raw data at ikiLeaks is far more powerful than anything that can be found in traditional media or satire news. The audience here must also acquire the tools necessary to properly digest the information, as an audience accustomed to uncritical digestion of mainstream media will be challenged by the raw information presented devoid of spin and context.
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). ikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/ikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). hen news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Reilly, I. (2011). Satirical fake news and the politics of the fifth estate. University of Guelph. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:NR71829… [Read More]
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…… [Read More]
Meanwhile, "False Balancing" is where "both sides are seldom accorded equal prominence," Parenti asserts. As an example of this tendency, Parenti writes that when it comes to a conservative issue, NPR (National Public Radio), perceived as a liberal institution, interviews a "right wing spokesperson" alone. But when it's a liberal issue being discussed, NPR has a liberal and a conservative on together.
Endorsement / Disparagement: Some media use "labels" like "the president's firm leadership" and "a strong defense" without offering any details as to why the president's leadership is "firm" or the defense is "strong." The campaign in California (Proposition 226) against unions used the phrase "union bosses" often, to give a negative tone to unions, but corporate executives were never alluded to as "corporate bosses."
Framing: Another kind of manipulation mentioned by Parenti is "Framing": this involves "bending the truth rather than breaking it." Examples of framing include:…… [Read More]
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…… [Read More]
Also stated in their findings was that exposure in the laboratory of video games that were 'graphically violent...increased aggressive thoughts and behavior (2000:1) Also stated in this report is that other studies conducted by Anderson and Gentile give indication that videogames "have a strong effect on aggression..." particularly in children.
3. Coleman, Loren (2004) The Copycat Effect Paraview Publishing. Online available at http://www.paraview.com/coleman/index4.htm.
According to Coleman, the copycat effect has been a result of media coverage of events such as school shootings. Coleman brings to light how media affects culture within a society.
4. The Culture of Commercialism (2006) Media Awareness Network Online available at http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/ethics/rr_culture_commercialism.cfm.
This work states that "advertising projects false images commercialism distorts our culture by turning every event into a reason to consume.... [and that]...advertising perpetuates stereotypes..."
5. Digital Beginnings: Young Children's Use of Popular Culture, Media and New Technologies Popular Culture and Media Literacy: Research…… [Read More]
The age of typography began with the Enlightenment and flourished in the New World, and coincided with significant social, political, and economic changes. As Postman (2005) points out in Amusing Ourselves to Death, Protestants with a predilection toward intellectualism made books and reading integral to American life. "The influence of the printed word in every arena of public discourse was insistent and powerful not merely because of the quantity of printed matter but because of its monopoly," (Postman, 2005, p. 41). In other words, print had a monopoly on information, communication, and the exchange of ideas. Print became endowed with a level of political and social significance that it does not have in the digital age, as there are now multiple modes of information exchange. When printed matter was all there was, the very ideals of democracy depended on it.
During the typographic age, content was meaningful as well…… [Read More]
New media can seem threatening at first, as it signals deep and meaningful changes in the ways information is created and shared in the society. In "Mind Over Mass Media," Steven Pinker (2010) argues that new technologies are typically perceived as threatening until they become commonplace. Early hysteria and fear about new media soon subsides, as the actual effects of the new media are not as adverse as was initially believed. Even the printing press was considered evil in its day, according to Pinker (2010). New media has improved scientific research and has made vast amounts of quality information available more quickly to more people. One of the reasons why new media is not threatening is that the brain tends to keep information fragmented. Learning how to condense one's thoughts into a PowerPoint presentation does not imply that the same person will consistently condense his or her thoughts in other,…… [Read More]
..now requires understanding and manipulating the processes used to create messages in the modern world" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22) in fact the student is expected to be able to decode the information from various types of media. However the equally important point is also made that this expanding definition of what literacy comprises does not "...diminish the importance of traditional reading and writing skills; rather, it recognizes the increasing importance of information and communication technology" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22).
This is an important caveat to the enthusiastic embrace of modern technology and visual aspects of modern teaching. In other words, while visual literacy has become more important and while this aspect is closely linked to the use of modern technological tools such as computer, yet the basics of teaching and education should not be forgotten. Of equal importance however is the view that; "Today's students live…… [Read More]
Literacy is more than knowing how to read and write in a given language. At the level of college education, literacy pertains to mastering the means of communication for different subjects. Literacy therefore may entail understanding specific jargon of a chosen field, but it may also mean being literate in the modes of inquiry, paradigms, assumptions, and methodologies of specific subjects. Each college major will have different literacy needs and requirements for a successful college term and for graduation. It is crucial that college students master the literacy skills that relate to their chosen major, if they hope to graduate and succeed in their future career.
One type of literacy that pertains to almost all college majors is information literacy. According to the Association of College and esearch Libraries (ACL, 2014), information literacy is defined as "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information," (p. 1).…… [Read More]
Additional research showed that those who were frequently exposed to these movies were also inclined to develop risk-taking behavior (Greene and Kromar).
Vulnerable young women who had long-term exposure to sexually objectifying media could suffer from decreased self-esteem, according to another study (Aubrey 2006). A group of 149 female undergraduates in a big mid-Western university was surveyed for their responses after having been exposed to such media. The study revealed that the exposure could dent their global self-esteem if they already possessed the vulnerability to these media materials. An example is Seventeen Magazine, which is an example of a sexually objectifying medium (Aubrey).
The media are an effective instrument of war (Payne 2005). Recent conflicts clearly demonstrate that the transmission of information plays a significant part in warfare. Winning a war is considered as decisive as actually beating the enemy at the battlefield. Winning the medial war is, therefore, a…… [Read More]
Through a school-based project, students within the proposed COMA program would watch popular videos under supervision and then talk about the images afterwards, to assess different rapper's portraits of women, violence, crime, and sexuality. Students would also analyze rap lyrics in their English classes. This would encourage teens to not simply mindlessly listen to the music, without critically analyzing rappers' overt messages and rap lyrics' subtexts.
Bringing rap into the school would help to erase the 'us vs. them' divide that is part of much of rap's violent, negative, outsider appeal. It could also offer a springboard in which to discuss larger social issues about racism and sexism. Students would be asked to create their own rap music videos and rap songs to talk about issues that were important to them on a personal level. Incorporating rap as an expressive medium has been proven to be effective in many contexts.…… [Read More]
Identify two new pieces of financial information that you learned about this week that will help you make informed financial decisions about your future and eventual retirement.
Personal financial management and financial planning can be daunting. It helps to learn more about the tools people can use to plan their savings and budget for the future. One of the things I learned this week that will help me make informed financial decisions is how to be a responsible borrower. For one, I never considered credit cards as being a form of lending. Essentially, people who forget that credit cards entail borrowing money from a bank can get into a lot of trouble with debt accumulation. Next, taking out loans can be tricky. Student loans tend to have reasonable interest rates, but any amount of interest is still going to add up over time. The less the loan principal, the less…… [Read More]
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…… [Read More]
Media and Society
Media can be described as any channel of communication. Its influence could be seen on our daily lives. People have different opinions, but actually no one can ignore its influence on our lives. Today, radio, television, advertisements, books, magazines, newspaper etc., we are surrounded by it everywhere. Every minute, we get some information directly or indirectly (Uni Assignment Centre, 2016)
The most important question is the medium. Since media can both construct or destruct the facts (by selectively manipulation), it is necessary to understand that how properly they are using the medium. Media has its own importance in representing social issues since ancient times till modern era. Hence, to define its role, it is necessary to understand how it is turned and twisted by historians and practitioners. (Uni Assignment Centre, 2016)
Media has mostly been recognised as the medium of creating social and moral panic. Though it…… [Read More]
Social media reflects reality. However, social media also allows for a manufactured and manipulated version of reality. In as You Like it, the character Jacques states, "All the world's a stage, / And all the men and women merely players," (II, vi). Years before the advent of social media, Shakespeare was writing about how people spend their whole lives performing. Their personalities are their egos: something that is personally and socially constructed. Social media is similar to real life because it enhances the ability to create personas, change those personas at will, and project those personas to a target audience.
Social media is similar to real life because it makes it more possible to create different personas. With social media, the number of different personas that can be created is even more than what is possible in real life. In real life, the number of personas a person has is…… [Read More]
The other sector of life where information literacy is vital and omnipresent is the career field. It is not simply a matter of preference or choice. Many businesses actively embrace the harnessing and day-to-day use of computer and informatics technology because the business being able to thrive in the marketplace or even survive in general as a business can literally depend upon it. Such a state of affairs requires employees and leaders that are well-versed and adept in literacy regarding information, computers and informatics, among other things such as project management skills, leadership traits, and so on.
Job descriptions discoverable online are bereft and thick with requirements that relate to information, computer and informatics literacy. Examples include prospective employees being familiar with the construction and/or use of database technology, internet technology, familiarity with operations systems such as Mac OS and Windows, software suites like Microsoft Office and so on. Failure…… [Read More]
teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
"Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
Student is in 2nd grade and reading on Pre-Primer 2, per QRI-5. She has trouble with beginning and final sounds, sight words, retelling, and short vowels.
Literacy Intervention Plan
Literacy Intervention Action Plan
Each tutoring session will be between 30-40 minutes
*Some Days may be doubled up due to school scheduling
* "The teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
* "Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
*During each week, the fluency session will begin with a systematic review of the Dolch Sight Words. Week 1 will be the Pre-Primer Sight…… [Read More]
Literacy in Secondary School in Ireland
The literacy curriculum in secondary school in Ireland is based on a strategy of language-related lesson modifications, identified by Peregoy and Boyle as good methods of ensuring that differentiation occurs in the classroom. This strategy allows for the use of "visuals, concrete objects, direct experience, and other nonverbal means to convey lesson content" alongside the main lesson taught by the teacher in the classroom (Peregoy, Boyle 86). In my area, this is consistent with what we experienced in school, and differentiation is a huge part of the cycle -- as much of what is centered on literacy is done so with direct relation to experiential learning, the use of visual aids, and the expression of ideas identified in readings via nonverbal means, such as drawings, videos or performance in the classroom. At the same time, there is a notable urgency among literacy leaders and…… [Read More]
Children and Media
Technology surrounds everything that children participate in nowadays. From using computers to watching television, the media influences children in just about every activity that they are a part of. The mainstream and social media have had a great impact on the behavior of children, as they are consistently exposed to numerous forms of the media at all times. As technology advances and children are more and more prone to watching television and participating in activities over the Internet, children will always be affected by how the media is presented to them. It can be difficult to shelter children from the growing media influence, however, the effects of this phenomenon on both the psychological and cognitive development of children need to be analyzed and considered (Christakis & Zimmerman, 2009).
Social life has been completely revolutionized due to the existence of the Internet and the development of social media.…… [Read More]
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…… [Read More]
Multifaceted Media epresentations of Mental Illness in Australia
In the 21st century, the age of the digital and social media revolutions, as well as the age that demands information, media, and technological literacy from the average person, it is becoming common and respected knowledge that all forms of media have the power to influence behavior and attitudes. Media is a form of communication, entertainment, and education. While most media is not generally considered as contributing to normative/institutional education, media educates viewers nonetheless. Media educates viewers as to how to participate in various cultures by practicing similar beliefs, rituals, behaviors, attitudes, and preferences and more. Media teaches culture, whatever the culture may be. It is a common experience of the human condition to feel pressure to conform at various stages of life. The paper analyzes and reflects upon the messages the media sends viewers regarding attitudes of people with mental illnesses.…… [Read More]
In an information age, developing discernment and discrimination when digesting sources of information is a critical skill. Information literacy is the critical skill of being able to recognize credible sources and become a critical consumer of data. As Head & Wihbey (2014) point out, “finding useful information and a sense of what to trust” are now considered essential job skills (p. 1). Therefore, information literacy needs to be approached in a more serious manner. Knowing how to research and locate adequate, appropriate, and correct information is important in almost every field. Information literacy is not just a job skill; lifelong learning depends on developing information literacy (Module 1).
As importance as researching on the Internet can be, the ability to research is not sufficient. Information literacy involves an understanding of the process of delving into academic databases and utilizing the professional research skills that librarians can offer. Research shows that…… [Read More]
changing because of advances in technology. How we communicate with each other has changed dramatically with the implementation of powerful and popular social media platforms, like Facebook. Today, both teams and adults spend a surprising amount of time on the social media sites. The question here is whether or not such activities can actually be a positive potential in regards to the growth of literacy and language development.
Social media is a trend that is only continuing to grow. It is used by most adolescents and young adults, who are still rolling in terms of their literacy and reading skills. This current dissertation aims to explore how we use and prevalence of social media can actually assist in developing literacy skills. As teenagers and young adults spend so much time on social media sites like Facebook, they are bombarded with visual and textual material. The current research was aiming to…… [Read More]
" (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998)
Activities in the classroom that use generative themes derived from the adult learner's lives "have been seen to facilitate their acquisition of literacy." (Friere, 1992; as cited in: Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) According to Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson (1998) the use of "life-context-specific materials and activities in adult literacy programs is supported by research that documents the powerful role of context in learning." Stated as an example is "...workplace literacy programs teach literacy skills as they are needed within specific work contexts. Compared to programs that concentrated more on 'genera' literacy, adult programs that incorporated job-related materials were associated with larger increases in both job-related and general literacy." (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) However, it is noted that other studies state findings that "much of the growth made by participants in general literacy programs is likely to be lost if recently learned skills…… [Read More]
scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?
Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…… [Read More]
Language Development in Young Children
Early Childhood and Literacy
Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.
This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…… [Read More]
Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…… [Read More]
Value of Access to Excessive Visuals
Business - Advertising
Assessing Value of Access Excessive Visuals
The paper will consider visual literacy with respect to legal and ethical implications of the access to numerous visuals to users of the Internet in the 21st century. The overall subject matter of the Youtube video students were to watch has to do with copyrights and use. The Internet is a vast and useful resource. There is no doubt that its existence has changed and in many ways improved humanity and human relations around the world. As part and parcel of the Internet, users in most countries have at their fingertips access to an innumerable amount of material, including a vast number of visuals such as photographs, diagrams, and charts.
On the one hand, access to numerous visual sources can have positive effects. People can be exposed to works of art, to data infographics, and…… [Read More]
Warshauer, Mark. 2002. Reconceptualizing the digital divide. First Monday 7(7).
This article chronicles some ultimately ineffective ways to bridge the so-called 'digital divide,' or the divide between more affluent communities who have access to technology and those who do not. Unsupervised technological education often does not reinforce educational values, as manifested in the example of a self-teaching kiosk in India; even giving free computers to residents of rural Ireland did little to help the population understand the value of information technology; computers sat in boxes at an Egyptian university when no trainers existed to teach students how to use them.
But the 'digital divide' is not a chasm but a continuum and is inexorably related to race and class status. Barriers are manifested not simply in the cost of hardware, but also software and broadband access. These gradients of IT awareness are similar to those of literacy as…… [Read More]
Religious Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know -- And Doesn't," Prothero claims that "Americans are both deeply religious and profoundly ignorant about religion." The professed religiosity of most Americans belies a lack of actual knowledge about religion. As Prothero puts it, "They are Protestants who can't name the four Gospels, Catholics who can't name the seven sacraments, and Jews who can't name the five books of Moses," (p. 30). Most Americans, according to Prothero, are unable to distinguish a Muslim from a Sikh, and cannot even name the five major world religions beyond Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
Religious ignorance has very real consequences, other than being a simple embarrassment. As Prothero points out, religious ignorance led Americans to target any man wearing a turban after September 11. Religious ignorance is a sign of a broader xenophobia and general ignorance about cultures, people, and history beyond American borders. The consequences…… [Read More]
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…… [Read More]
Progression and Foundation of Language
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…… [Read More]
On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…… [Read More]
ocial Web and You
Explain how social media/web is changing or has changed the ways you, your family, and colleagues find information. Also, how has social media/web changed the ways you interact in your personal and professional life as well as within academic spheres? What functionalities do you think will be invented in the future? Make sure you support your argument with facts, figures, and intelligent analysis. Also, consider any opposing arguments. (One page).
When social networking was just getting started, critiques were concerned that it would lead to isolation -- that people would only connect online and would increasingly neglect their real time friends and family (Putnam, 2000). The Pew Foundation has been conducting a longitudinal study called the Internet & American Life Project that examines how people use the Internet and how that use is changing communication, social interactions, and political activism, among other dynamics. As…… [Read More]
Did your view of media literacy change over the course of the class? How will your consumption of media be affected?
As a result of taking this course, I think I have become a more critical consumer of the media. When I see a commercial, I am hyper-aware of how the product is being positioned in the market, and what types of narratives are being used to play upon the goals and aspirations of the target audience, such as being a 'good mom,' or 'hip and sexy' or even to live pain-free into one's old age. Although I was always aware of advertising, now I am better able to see how advertising works upon the psyche of the consumer. I also notice how certain ads are featured during certain kinds of television programs, or on certain Internet sites, to specifically reach a demographic.
I think I may also be slightly…… [Read More]
Marshall McLuhan is a maunderer. Relatively devoid of garrulous asides, McLuhan's interview with Playboy Magazine reveals his loquaciousness is only matched by his insight into the myriad effects of media both past and present, which he chronicles to the end of explaining the relevance of the latter. After a lengthy two pages of background information in which McLuhan's choicest quotes, biography, and literary career are well documented, the question and answer session with Playboy's Christopher Ricks begins with McLuhan maundering, and explaining why such a circuitous rout is essential to his work as a media specialist. The explanation of his decidedly protean approach segues into the primary effect of the media and the instant-access of information age during which the interview was constructed, in which the Toronto professor elaborates on the fact that people are essentially unaware -- and consequently, subjugated -- to the effects of the media due to…… [Read More]
Website Evaluation: Mayo Clinic
With the preponderance of misleading healthcare information on the Internet, it is important to become a discerning reader with strong science media literacy skills. The Mayo Clinic website has strong search engine optimization and arrives at or close to the top of Google searches for any health-related topic. Therefore, it is important to vet the Mayo Clinic website for strengths, weaknesses, and overall credibility.
The Mayo Clinic is an actual medical group, with clinics, hospitals, and research centers located throughout the United States. It is a credible source, and therefore an authoritative site in general. In a section of the Mayo Clinic website called “About This Site,” the authors (who refer to themselves as the Mayo Clinic Staff) explain their content development policy. Their content development policy effectively clarifies how the articles published on the Mayo Clinic website are written and edited, then developed for the…… [Read More]
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…… [Read More]
Developing a critical eye for the media also demands culling information from multiple sources and not believing everything stated by the media. The media is not an authority; the media consults authority figures to gather sellable data.
For "They Shoot Helicopters, Don't They?"
1. Matt Welch cites general "communication breakdown" and an "information vacuum" as main culprits in the misinformation leaked about Katrina (p. 13). However, Welch places the blame squarely on reporters for not having enough skepticism of the oral sources they acquire information during a natural disaster. Rumors spread readily during a disaster also because of a breakdown in telecommunications infrastructure. What Welch refers to as a:rumor mill" seems to be the source of much of the media's coverage (p. 13).
2. The kinds of rumors and stories spread by reporters and enhanced by sensationalist media coverage suggest that various lenses are used to view reality. One of…… [Read More]
The first thing noticed in this midterm was the lack of outline. There was no outline present and the first quote made no sense in relation to what the suject was aout. At first look it appeared to e aout the media ut then efore he introduced his thesis: "For instance, if certain media outlets cause an audience to have specific opinions, they will ultimately adapt their lifestyles in accordance to these opinions. An example of this process will e revealed and evaluated in this document." I egan feeling confused as to what exactly what the point he was attempting to make. He stated he wanted to do research and a study which: "This study, a survey rather," turned out to e a short survey detailing roadly which age groups used which media outlets, such as TV or internet.
He also decided to include gloal warming, one…… [Read More]
challenges face Director-General BBC maintain eithian tradition British public service broadcasting face technological change crises funding content ? Are lessons draw past?
The eithian tradition comes from John eith who was the British Broadcasting Corporation's director general. He created a concept of broadcasting that was centered along educating viewers. He was an autocratic leader which made the approach of educating viewers successful. He built internal checks which helped to control his benevolent style of dictatorship. He was greatly convinced that the strategy of educating viewers would greatly help the organization. He in fact summarized the purpose of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in three words which were to educate, to inform and to entertain. These remain to be a part of the mission statement of the organization to this very day. Other broadcasters around the world such as the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) which is located in the…… [Read More]
SUFING & MINING THE WAVE OF BIG DATA
What used to consider a simple annoyance or frustration has now become a respected field of inquiry. Consumer information has transformed into Big Data. As with many things that are vast, Big Data has the potential to intimidate. It is now the professional responsibility of people working in many fields to be aware of Big Data, and be able to use it to their respective organization's advantage. Navigating through and understanding what Big Data is a formidable challenge in of itself, yet not impossible. Effective management of the 21st century cannot fear or be overwhelmed by Big Data; managers must learn how to use Big Data like any other tool within their professional arsenal to maintain the status quo and even ahead or make establish new trends in business.
Big Data is in simple terms, mass quantities of data that are…… [Read More]
Masculinity & Femininity
Femininities and masculinities dictate more behavioral expectations for us in society. After reading through/watching the material for this week, comment on what you view as the state of masculinity/femininity discourses. How are these discourses useful? Can masculinity/femininity be a positive thing? Or should they always be critiqued for their reinforcement of strict gendered expectations? Explain.
It is always helpful to critique any social norms, especially those as pervasive and rigid as gender norms. Critiquing gender norms helps to increase media literacy, pierce through stereotypes, and hopefully also overcome structural inequities. As Allan points out in "Hazing and Gender," "gender norms are typically cast in ways that privilege masculinity over femininity." Masculinity is normalized, made the hidden and assumed default condition of humanity. The same conditions that cause white privilege to be a potent social and psychological reality are those that cause male privilege to be a…… [Read More]
Gender and Ads
In "Gender Advertisements," Erving Goffman argues that gender is a pervasive theme in modern advertising. The theme of gender is critical to advertisements because of the universal nature of gender, and because personal identity is inextricably linked with gender. Consumer behavior will be motivated best by advertisers skillful in exploiting the gender construct. Goffman shows that advertisements both create and reflect gender norms. By constructing an exaggerated patriarchy through imagery and symbolism, advertisers proscribe consumer behavior. Consumer behavior in turn influences general social norms. The author ultimately points out the subtle and overt patterns that pervade advertisements, encouraging strong media literacy.
As Goffman points out, "women, more than men, are pictured using their fingers and hands to trace to outlines of an object or to cradle it or to caress its surface," (29). Goffman calls this type of touch "ritualistic," because it differs from the…… [Read More]
In this article, the author describes the technological, demographic, and market forces shaping this new digital media culture and the rich array of Web sites being created for children and teens. Many nonprofit organizations, museums, educational institutions, and government agencies are playing a significant role in developing online content for children, offering them opportunities to explore the world, form communities with other children, and create their own works of art and literature. For the most part, however, the heavily promoted commercial sites, sponsored mainly by media conglomerates and toy companies, are overshadowing the educational sites. ecause of the unique interactive features of the Internet, companies are able to integrate advertising and Web site content to promote "brand awareness" and "brand loyalty" among children, encouraging them to become consumers beginning at a very early age. The possibility that a child's exploration on the Internet might lead to inappropriate content, aggressive advertising,…… [Read More]
Carrington's (2001) study focuses on a diversity of learning strategy potentials that is constructed not by way of race or ethnicity, but by individualized media preferences and sensory strategies for learning. Carrington presents the conclusion that such methods of literacy development which occur in one's formative stages before school will reveal learning dispositions. For example, her examination recognizes that early exposure to the internet bears a positive correlation to one's media literacy, cognitive proficiency and capacity to identify and locate content suited to their individual learning strategies and needs. The underpinning of this study, as it pertains to our larger purpose, is that one means through which to help include all cultural backgrounds in literacy instruction appears to be to diversify the media used in class and to largely incorporate computing advancements at every level. In addition to the benefits discussed here throughout, we can see that the present challenges…… [Read More]
prohibition is a moribund idea, a strong, well-organized anti-alcohol movement marches on. Its strength lies in dozens of church, health, consumer, and citizens' groups such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving," or MADD. MADD was founded in 1980 to combat problems related to drunk driving. Since its founding, MADD has expanded its mission and vision to include issues like underage drinking and drugged driving. MADD has been instrumental in influencing state governments to raise the legal drinking age to 21 in almost all parts of the United States, and to lowering the legal blood alcohol content for driving and operating equipment. Moreover, MADD believes that advertising alcohol should be banned and their reasoning is founded on four core ideas. Because alcohol advertising targets the most vulnerable populations such as underage drinkers, encourages greater consumption of the product, and sells false beliefs, lawmakers could consider curtailing the entire practice of alcohol advertising.…… [Read More]
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…… [Read More]
Interdisciplinary Social Studies Lesson
Lesson 1: Women's ights Movement
This current lesson will satisfy the requirements set by the state in the standard, SS.S.11.02 Civics. Essentially, this introduces 11th grade students to the civic nature of democracy and the United States Government. The lesson will help students "outline and evaluate and analyze the origins and meaning of the principles, ideals and core democratic values expressed in the foundational documents of the United States (Ideals of United States Democracy)" (Teaching History, 2014). It is crucial within 11th grade to introduce students to the democratic process through examination of the nation's history. Students will be able to understand how laws are made and altered as they are needed based on a changing national population. The specific standard within this larger set that will be addressed is SS.O.11.02.01. Here, students will be able to "explain the reasons for amendments ratified since 1900…… [Read More]
') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.
Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…… [Read More]
" (Scheibe, 2004)
Part of the problem for teachers in relating to the children of modern learning curricula is the tremendous competition from television programs that force children to process information in an entirely different manner. This assessment is a function of my observations with regard to the interest and understanding of children with regard to environments outside of their immediate radius. The television program appears to limit the viewpoint and concentration of many of my students, up to 1/3 of the class is unable to properly process information regarding a different environment, inclusively foreign and domestic.
According to Scheibe (2004), "In using a curriculum-driven approach, teachers sometimes take a narrow focus for a particular topic or lesson (e.g., linking current advertising appeals to a sixth-grade unit on Greek myths) or weave media literacy into ongoing activities in their classrooms (e.g., in a weekly discussion of current events). Sometimes media…… [Read More]
Technology has changed how we teach in the 21st century. Many diverse technologies surface every year, and educators find it difficult learning and integrating all the new technologies their institutions buy or identify. However, appropriate professional development and time to accomplish this is not their only concern. Educators are expected to use all these technologies in all course activities. This desire places much emphasis on technology (the medium) when educators are designing and implementing their courses and course activities.
As Cook and McDonald (2008) caution, frequently educators seek to use e-learning because it is a new technology, rather than because the technology enhances instruction. Educators, their supervisors, and stakeholders need to be reminded of the role of technology in the instructional design process, which should be used to enhance instructional delivery.
Technological Instructional Delivery
Educators at all levels have historically received enormous pressure to update their courses. In the last…… [Read More]
Montano urges a rigorous critical examination of children's literature for racism, linguicism, sexism, and bias. The importance of critical examination is to empower teachers, students, and parents to recognize the root causes of bias, prejudice, and stereotype. The function is not simply to point out obvious instances of racism, linguicism, sexism, and other biases. Moreover, it is not enough to include literature written from multicultural perspectives in classroom syllabi. As Gonzalez & Montano (2008) point out, it is important to recognize bias in all its forms: "The mere inclusion of multicultural literature is not enough to disrupt privilege or injustice. Nor is it enough to ask teachers to deconstruct stereotypes in texts and images if teachers are unaware of the subtle biases that exist therein," (p. 77). Montano calls the process of analysis critical literacy.
The process by which critical literacy can be attained varies but Montano provides…… [Read More]