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He began to speak less formally, weaving his previously formulated questions into something that resembled a conversation. This led his interviewees to speak more candidly and with more self-reflection, moving beyond their celebrity images. Chirban's interactive interviewing required more empathy and listening skills on his part, but the trust that it established enabled him to enter the interviewee's world. The new relationship also allowed interviewees to reflect on their past with new understanding as the dialogue unfolded (itchie, 1997).
Interviewing is a complex and demanding task. It is a direct conversation the purpose of which is to gather information b; administering a set of questions. The interview is a key data collection tool for conducting surveys. eviewed literature describes the ways in which survey data can be gathered; questionnaire design and interview techniques, and analyses in detail the fundamental characteristics of the interview a structured method of obtaining information in…
Bauman, Zygmunt. 1978. Hermeneutics and social science. London: Hutchinson. Giddens, Anthony. 1984. The constitution of society. Cambridge, England: Polity Press.
Bruck, M., Ceci, S.J., & Hembrooke, H. (2002). The nature of children's true and false narratives. Developmental Review, 22, 520 -- 554.
Cannell, C. (1955). Review of "Interviewing in social research." Journal of Applied Psychology, 39(5), 388-389. doi:10.1037/h0038572.
Ceci, S.J., Huffman, M.L.C., Smith, E., & Loftus, E.F. (1994). Repeatedly thinking about a non-event: Source misattributions among preschoolers. Consciousness & Cognition, 3, 388 -- 407.
This chapter discusses the methodology to be used in the study. It describes the procedures that will be applied and followed systematically in conducting the research study. Steps involved in carrying out the research study are elaborated and a justification for the chosen research design is justified. The research design, unit of analysis, sampling design and procedures, instruments of data collection and data analysis are given in this section.
esearch methodology defines the explicit system and rules used to direct the conduct of a research Lunenfeld & Laurel, 2003.
A research methodology thus entails the process of caring out the research, and the procedures that the study follows in order to obtain result in a scientific manner. esearch methodology assures that the information derived from the conduct of a study meets the required standards for use in arriving at conclusion.
A research design is the abstract construction…
Barzun, J., & Graff, H.F. (2004). The modern researcher 6th ed. Belmont CA: Thomson Wadsworth
Groves, R.M., Floyd J. Fowler, J., Couper, M.P., Lepkowski, J.M., Singer, E., & Tourangeau, R. (2004). Survey Methodology. New York John Wiley & Sons.
Lunenfeld, P., & Laurel, B. (2003). Design Research: Methods and Perspectives. London MIT Press.
Disabled Workers in Small Firms
Differences in Job Satisfaction and Productivity Between Workers With and Without Disabilities in Large and Small Firms in Atlanta, Georgia
This chapter will discuss the methodology of the current study. Research design will be discussed followed by the research participant, instrumentation, and procedure. The purpose of this study is to fill a gap in information describing job satisfaction and productivity in workers with disabilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area. The purpose of providing this information is to enhance the ability of employers, job seekers, agency, and vocational planners to achieve stable, fulfilling, and productive employment for potential workers with disabilities, and additionally to explore the potential utility of further research considering performance of firms smaller than 500 employees.
Research Questions and Hypothesis
RQ1: Do workers with disabilities have higher, lower or the same perceptions of job satisfaction at larger or smaller firms?
Security Technologies and Methodology in the United States Air Force
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of security technologies and methodology in the U.S. Air Force. This work will first determine uncertainties and calculate the risk for each threat. This work will additionally identify any needed controls including technical, administrative and managerial controls. Finally, this work will describe the network security methodology and technology used in the Air Force and the access control technology utilized by the Air Force.
Cyberspace is reported as "pervasive in military operations across all domains" and reported as well is that it is "vital to how the United States conducts those operations." (Wimmer, 2012) Cyberspace was identified by Secretary of the Air Force, Michael Wynne and Air Force Chief of Staff, general T. Michael Moseley to be "a domain equal with Land, Sea, Air and Space." ( )
Wimmer, April L. (2012) Evaluating the Effectiveness of Air Force Foundational Cyberspace Training. Graduate Research Project. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA562742
Department of the Air Force. Air Force Training Program. AFI 36-2201. 15 September 2010. http://www.e-publishing.af.mil/shared/media/epubs/AFI36-2201.pdf
Department of the Air Force. Information For Designers of Instructional Systems -- ISD Executive Summary For Commanders and Managers. AFH 36-2235 Volume 1. Washington: HQ USAF, 2 September 2002. http://www.epublishing.af.mil/shared/media/epubs/AFH36-2235V1.pdf .
Project isk Management Methodology
From the e-Activity, choose one project risk management methodology (not ATOM), compare and contrast the steps of the methodology you chose with ATOM. Provide an example of how each methodology is clearly used.
egardless of the methods used for project risk management, the fundamental steps are the same, and they are roughly as listed below and used in this order:
Identify, characterize threats
Assess the vulnerability of critical assets to specific threats
Determine the risk (i.e. The expected likelihood and consequences of specific types of attacks on specific assets)
Identify ways to reduce those risks
Prioritize risk reduction measures based on a strategy
Taxonomy-Based isk Identification
Taxonomy-based risk identification is a very approach to project risk management that utilizes a breakdown of possible risk sources that is synthesized with best practices knowledge to create a questionnaire. The answers to the questions can facilitate the…
Carr, M., Konda, S., Monarch, I., Walker, C.F., and Ulrich, F.C. (1993). Taxonomy-based risk identification. Software Engineering Institute. SEI Identifier: CMU/SEI-93-TR-006
Padelford, L. (2013). Six simple steps to enterprise risk management. Information Management.
The survey would be distributed to respondents through Survey Monkey and would focus on a number of areas of organizational orientation related directly to the identification and elimination of redundancies. Among the areas upon which the survey would focus would the nature and causes of organizational redundancy; perceptions of the downsizing which has occurred in response to redundancy; a sense of organizational justice as this pertains to treatment of both the departed and survivors; the experiences pertaining to Survivors' Syndrome as this may or may not be present; the commonality of stress amongst survivors following downsizing; the degree to which those left behind report to feeling a sense of personal commitment to the organization; any feelings of citizenship within the community comprised by the organization; the impact of guilt felt over the departure of friends and co-workers; and the health consequences pertaining to sustained stress produced by changes in the…
Miranda, R. & Lerner, A. (1995). Bureaucracy, Organizational Redundancy and the Privatization of Public Services. Public Administration Review, 55.
Streeter, C.L. (1992). Redundancy in Organizational Systems. Social Service Review, 66(1), 97-111.
PTSD esilience & Treatment
In this section, two objectives are addressed: the methodology that has been used in this work is explained and secondly, the reasons for choosing this particular methodology are offered. To aid explanation of the premises, eight headings have been identified as under:
Time horizons and research type;
Data Quality issues; and The eight headings will make it easier to understand the logic behind the study itself as well as the aims of the subject chosen easier and hence to carry through the course of the methods adopted. Segmentation also aids the process of looking at percepts and pragmatic considerations (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2007).
The three mainline thoughts followed in research processes are those of Analytical, Positive, and Pragmatic. (Saunders et al., 2012).
PTSD is a very complex phenomenon and unique to each individual, though groups can be formed based…
Bouma, G.D. (2010). The research process. 4th Ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L. Manion, L. And Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education. Routledge Falmer. London.
Kerlinger, F.N. And Lee, H.B. (2000). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Oppenheim, A.N. (2000). Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement. London: Pinter Publishers Ltd.
Quality Improvement Strategies
Describe each methodology you researched. What are the pros and cons of each methodology? Choose one methodology to move forward with for your organizational QI plan. Explain why you chose that methodology over the others.
Hospital executives and quality improvement managers have experienced success at varying levels due to the introduction of varying concepts of Continuous Quality Improvement and Total Quality Management in different hospital operations for the past fifteen years. Several non-healthcare industries have transferred different quality improvement methodologies which have been being studied well and then implemented at various hospitals. Hospitals have dedicated their immense fiscal and human resources towards the implementation of leading methodologies. They were successful in attaining short-term success, yet they got frustrated due to the unsustainability of quality and cost effectiveness initiatives. Executives remained dedicated towards the implementation of quality improvement methodologies, yet they were still required to determine answer to…
Garlick, S., and Pryor, G. (2004). Benchmarking the university: Learning about improvement. Canberra, ACT: Department of Education, Science, and Training.
Laudon, K. And Laudon, J (2011). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (12th Edition) Harlow: Pearson Education.
Moyers, H. Shaw, J.G. New, W. (2004). Choosing A Quality/Performance Improvement Methodology: Methodology Comparisons: Six Sigma, Lean, Theory of Constraints and Customer-Inspired Quality. Shaw Resources. Taken from: http://www.shawresources.com/artchoosingqualityimprovementmethod.html
O'Reagain, S., and Keegan, R. (2000). Benchmarking Explained. In European Commission (Ed.) Benchmarking in Europe -- working together to build competitiveness. Brussels, Belgium: European Union.
As noted at the conclusion, these metrics and measures would be qualitatively analyzed by the consultant and quantitative values assigned for each of the questions which would correspond to the five general dimensions under consideration in the short-duration supply chain audit; high attribute examples would be assigned a "1," in this analysis, and a low-attribute example would receive a "7."
Short-Duration Supply Chain Audit Questions and Corresponding Performance Indicators
High Attribute Example = 1
Low Attribute Example = 7
Does formal product/service profiling and rationalization occur routinely to minimize the risk of obsolete inventory and other costs? What is the reservation capacity?
There are extensive programs in place to minimize the risk of obsolete inventory and other costs.
There are no programs in place to minimize the risk of obsolete inventory and other costs.
How well integrated are the company customer facing processes to the enterprise information…
Auditing the procurement and supply chain processes. (2009, June 5). International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001 Auditing Practices Group and International
Accreditation Forum Guidance. [Online]. Available: http://isotc.iso.org/ .
Auditing the supply chain (2009). Logistics Learning. [Online]. Available: www.logistics learningalliance.com.
any SEs struggle to maintain a consistent corporate focus as they expand their product lines and their markets. The increase in operational complexity sometimes obfuscates the goals of the organization. The first step in Six Sigma is to define the goals, and the overall corporate-wide goal definition is going to remain consistent even as the company grows and the amount of smaller goals increases.
Additionally, Six Sigma is a system that brings everything back to the bottom line. Other management systems have value to an organization, but do not necessarily integrate focus on processes with bottom line results. For an SE, this is a critical advantage to Six Sigma, in that it is one total program that can be used throughout the organization, rather than a hodgepodge of different quality programs through different parts of the company, with no focus on how each impacts the bottom line.
In a smaller…
Morris, Betsy. 2006, 'New Rule: Look Out, Not in.' Fortune. [Online] Available at http://money.cnn.com/2006/07/10/magazines/fortune/rule4.fortune/index.htm
Antony, Jiju. 2008, 'Pros and Cons of Six Sigma: an Academic Perspective' onesixsigma.com [Online] Available at http://www.onesixsigma.com/node/7630
Interview with Phil Samuel. 2008 onesixsigma.com [Online] Available at http://www.onesixsigma.com/bmg/Everybody-is-responsible-for-innovation-Interview-with-Dr.-Phil-Samuel-CIO-of-BMG-27032008
Ethics comprises of an intricate set of principles, morals and institutional outlines that standardize scientific activity. Educational and social researchers face complex challenges occasionally, when they encounter the conflict of their legal and moral responsibility towards protection of their participants on one hand, and maintaining the standards, criteria of quality and significance of research on the other hand. Although, the research design or findings does not always restrained or deteriorated by ethical principles. At times, ethics are supportive in enhancing the quality of research, while some other times it's not. Additionally, researchers "bear a special responsibility for protecting the interests of vulnerable groups throughout the research process" (Tangen, 2014, p. 678).
At all times, educational practitioners have realized the weighed down value of education and that the quality of education rests on ethical standards. The consciousness of educational researchers regarding the ethical dimensions of their research is increasing day by…
Abed, M. G. (2014-2015). A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, And How May These Be Addressed. i-manager's Journal on Educational Psychology, 8(3),1-14.
Comer, S. K. (2009). The Ethics of Conducting Educational Research on Your Own Students. Journal of Nursing Law, 13(4), 100-105. doi: 10.1891/1073-74126.96.36.199
Dooly, D. L. (2013). Academic Achievement in Arkansas High Schools Based on the Implementation Level of a Teacher Advisory Program. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/305027410?pq-origsite=summon
ESRC. (2015). ESRC Framework for Research Ethics. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from http://www.esrc.ac.uk/files/funding/guidance-for-applicants/esrc-framework-for-research-ethics-2015/
Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology
Envisioned research Methodology and Design
Descriptive Research Methods
Research Designs Considered
Explanatory Sequential Design
Exploratory Sequential Design
The Embedded Design
Research Validity and Reliability
Strengths and weaknesses
Method of Data Collection
Primary Data Collection
Secondary Data Collection
Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs
The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…
Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.
Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.
Analysis of esults:
The Disk Cleanup Tool should be part of normal maintenance on computers. The buildup of obsolete files overtime can cause degradation of your computer. After running disk clean up unneeded files were deleted which gave improved system performance.
Troubleshooting Tool 3: Virus scans
Having an up-to-date anti-virus software is an integral part of keeping your computer running smoothly. Simple steps should be taken to ensure your anti-virus is running properly. Ensure definitions are up-to-date by running live update regularly and have scheduled virus scans.
The following steps overview how to use Symantec Endpoint Protection:
1. Select Start (All Programs (Symantec Endpoint Protection (Symantec Endpoint Protection.
2. The status of "Your computer is protected." Should be displayed. If it is not, take the listed actions on screen to turn on protection. Select the "Live Update" button on the left-side of the screen.
Anonymous. (August 3, 2011). How to make a computer faster: 6 ways to speed up your PC. Retrieved from http://www.microsoft.com/atwork/maintenance/speed.aspx
Broida, Rick. (April 15, 2009). Disable Vista's Scheduled Disk-Defragmenting. Retrieved http://www.pcworld.com/article/163215/disable_vistas_scheduled_diskdefragmenting.html
Mitchell, Bradley. (May 13, 2010). Can't Connect to the Internet? Retrieved from http://compnetworking.about.com/od/internetaccessbestuses/tp/fixing-cant-connect-to-internet-problems.htm
O'Donnell, Bob. (January 1, 2005). PC Hardware Troubleshooting Tips. Retrieved from http://www.everythingcomputers.com/pc_hardware_trouble.htm
Multiple Value Methodologies
usinesses competing in the information age can no longer be measured in the short run by the traditional financial accounting model. This model developed for the Increasingly, companies must use multiple valuation methodologies to appropriately assess their IT investments. Traditional quantitative measures help companies get a grip on hard dollar figures, but don't allow the integration of measures derived from strategy such as customer, internal business process, learning and growth perspectives (Phadnis). In the endeavor to incorporate strategy, qualitative methodologies complement quantitative methodologies to capture the whole picture.
Two very common quantitative valuation methodologies include Economic Value Added (EVA) and Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) (Mayor, 2002). EVA equals net operating profit minus appropriate capital charges. y assessing a charge for the use of capital, EVA encourages managers to monitor assets as well as income, and keeps them aware of the trade-offs between the two. EVA considers…
Isfahani, K. (2004, June). Narrowing the search. Darwin Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2005 from http://www.darwinmag.com/read/060104/levers.html?action=print
Mayor, T. (2002, July 15). A buyer's guide to IT value methodologies. CIO Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2005 from http://www.cio.com/archive/071502/value.html
Phadnis, S. The balanced score card. Retrieved February 22, 2005 from http://www.symphonytech.com/articles/bscard.htm
Although every research setting will be unique in some fashion, there are some generalities involved in content analysis that can be followed by novice researchers. For example, according to Riffe, Lacy and Fico (2005), "Usually, but not always, content analysis involves drawing representative samples of content. The data collected in a quantitative content analysis are then usually analyzed to describe what are typical patterns or characteristics, or to identify important relationships among the variables measured" (p. 2).
Narrative analysis. This research methodology considers the narrative stories provided by narrators as representing their authentic social reality (Etherington, 2004). According to Etherington, "Narrative analysis views life as constructed and experienced through the telling and re-telling of the story, and the analysis is the creation of a coherent and resonant story" (2004, p. 81). Narrative analyses is not intended to identify commonalties or conceptual themes among narrative accounts, but rather relies on the…
Correlational research. This type of research identifies and evaluates the natural relationship that exists between different variables. According to Groat and Wang, "This characteristic means that it is particularly appropriate in circumstances when variables either cannot be manipulated for practical reasons or should not be manipulated for ethical reasons" (2003, p. 244).
Developmental designs. This type of research is used to measure changes that occur over lengthy periods of time (Developmental research, 2012). For example, a developmental design would be suitable for analyzing the differences in academic and social development in low-income vs. high-income neighborhoods. This research design is most common when working with children as subjects and can be undertaken using several methods: longitudinal, cross sectional, and cross sequential (Developmental research, 2012).
Survey research. Survey research collects data from a large number of respondents in an attempt to gain a better understanding about this sample as a whole (Grinnel & Unrau, 2005). According to Grinnel and Unrau, "It is essential, therefore, that survey research procedures produce data that is accurate, reliable, and representative so that findings can be generalized from a sample to the larger population or to different research situations" (p. 272). One of the main strengths of survey research concerns its flexibility for data-gathering purposes. De Vaus (2002) notes that, "A survey is not just a particular technique of collecting information: questionnaires are widely used but other techniques, such as structured and in-depth interviews, observation, content analysis and so forth, can also be used in survey research. The distinguishing features of surveys are the form of the data and the method of analysis" (p. 3). This main strength, though, is offset somewhat by the constraints that are inherent in the approach, but these constraints are frequently related to
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
job evaluation methodologies are techniques or systems used to evaluate jobs against universal factors and sub-factors. During this process, the job content is examined against the identified factors and then represented as a point or numeric value. This is followed by comparing the pre-determined pay structure of grades to identify the most suitable pay range assignment. Following the evaluation of a set of jobs in an organization, the unique interpretation of the levels of the factors in the organization and requirements for jobs becomes very crucial. The results of point factor job evaluation methodologies are determined through the use of factor comparison. Actually, one of the most powerful measures for conducting job evaluation is combining point-factor techniques with factor-comparison approaches (Henderson, 2006, p.2008).
There are several point factor job evaluation systems such as Lott's Point Method, Benge's Factor Comparison, NEMA Method, Hay's Profile Method, and Factor Evaluation System. While these…
Henderson, R.I. (2006). Compensation management in a knowledge-based world (10th ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wagoner, L. (n.d.). Job Evaluation Two Point-Factor Methods. Retrieved from University of Houston website: http://www.uh.edu/~wagon/WS_09.ppt
Disaster Preparedness Research: Proposed Methodology
Exploring the issue of disaster preparedness in emergency centers and trauma clinics require not only an understanding of the challenges that have been experienced in the past (i.e., lack of supplies and/or equipment, staff shortage, poor management, among many others) and through extant literature on the topic, but also an understanding of how these emergency centers and trauma clinics operate in the event of a disaster or an emergency.
It is only through understanding the operations of emergency centers and trauma clinics that the researcher would be able to fully explore, identify, and determine weak and strong points that is the current situation in emergency and disaster preparedness management. In order to do this, a research into the operations of emergency centers and trauma clinics must be conducted. In line with this requirement, the proposed methodology for the research study on determining points of improvement…
Decision Making Methodology
Decisions in business should be based on sound intuition and factual data. Oftentimes management has to make a judgment call of whether to evaluate from projections or from objective analysis of the circumstances. It is important for those in business to have proof to back the reasoning for making a decision which is sound and reasonable. According to Bazerman and Moore there are six main steps to making a sound decision this structure can be used for any problems requiring a resolution. The methodology is considered useful due to the fact that consistent results can be documented (Bazerman and Moore, 2005).
Identifying a business problem is the first step in the Bazerman and Moore decision model. A problem that recently presented itself in the workplace was related to tenants in the Wulvern housing complex.
Wulvern is part owner to a Senior Living Association that houses thousands…
In this way, all three methods of job analysis can integrate in order to provide an objective as well as global overview of the job being analyzed.
When analyzing the Packagers job, all three methods will then be used in an integrated way. Because of the size of the company, interviews and questionnaires have been considered as unviable. It would simply take too much time and effort to administer and analyze questionnaires. Interviews in turn would impose upon the work time of workers, and would not be sufficiently accurate to be of value to the analysis.
In order to assemble the information and complete the analysis in a timely manner, it was decided to delegate the self-reporting tasks to team managers. Each team manager will provide a self-report of his or her own, together with gathering self-reports from subordinates. These will then be consolidated and provided to the HR Manager.…
ChangingMinds.org. Job Analysis. 2010. http://changingminds.org/disciplines/hr/job_analysis/job_analysis.htm
HR-Guide.com. Job Analysis: Overview. 2010. http://www.job-analysis.net/G000.htm
McNamara, Carter. Employee Task and Job Analysis. Free Management Library, 2008. http://managementhelp.org/staffing/specify/job_nlyz/job_nlyz.htm
U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Job Analysis Tools. 2010. http://www.opm.gov/HiringToolkit/docs/jobanalysis.pdf
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
In your opinion what were the main issues expressed by the States
Concerning Homeland Security and states rights at the 2002 State Emergency esponse Commission Conference? Please justify your position.
Most of the states attending the 2002 State Emergency esponse Conference expressed an overall sentiment that in relation to security, things are going to vary from state to state based on the capabilities of the emergency response agencies in each state, as well as the types of hazards that states are likely to face in addition to WMD's i.e. For example, states have to take into consideration whether they have chemical facilities, nuclear facilities and similar hazardous materials to address. State also has to take into consideration whether or not they have highways that are used to transport hazardous or nuclear waste materials.
Colorado made the point that secrecy regarding Homeland Security measures will not…
Analysis for the Homeland Security Act." (2003). Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/analysis/index.html
Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma
Homeland Security Act" (2003). Retrieved November 21, 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/bill/index.html
Homeland Security Act of 2003." Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.theorator.com/bills108/hr1389.html
TECHNOLOGICAL GLOBALIZATION Methodology
In conducting a literature review, I attempted to identify the most salient issues affecting the current and impending trends in globalization so that I could effectively research them. Specifically, I was attempting to ascertain the various levels of stratification into which I could compartmentalize different facets of globalization. One can deconstruct globalization in many different ways: by the size and the scope of participating organizations, by their access to supplies and the management process associated with the supply chain, as well as by leadership issues related to expatriation and attempts to manage workers in foreign parts of the world. The potential problems that I can foresee involve merely encountering too many different aspects of globalization from a disparate perspective. Additionally, I will have to be able to quantify or evaluate the immediacy and relevance of the various facets of globalization I encounter, in order to properly categorize…
Software Processing Methodology
Understanding the Problem
Klyne Smith, DSE Candidate
Dr. Frank Coyle
esearch and Contribution Methods
Software Processing Methodologies
Where do we go from here (Spring 2010)?
Define measurement data points for Test Case analysis
Creation and Validation of the predictive model
Articles / Web Information
Software Processing Methodology:
Understanding the Problem
In this work, I examine three different Software Processing Methodologies. I start with the iterative model, followed by the spiral model, and conclude with the V-model. Each of these methodologies are discussed in length to gain a clear understanding of their similarities and differences. This paper focuses on gaining a key understanding of the methodologies and when it is best to utilize each.…
Alexander, Ian and Beus-Dukic, Ljerka (2009). Discovering Requirements - How to Specify Products and Services
Bass, Len and Clements, Paul, and Kazman, Rick (2003) - Software Architecture in Practice (2nd Edition)
Boehm, B.,(1976) Software Engineering, IEEE Trans. Computer, C-25,12,1226-1241
Creating and Curating Content
Linking Methodology to Content Creation
This paper briefly explores the topic of content strategy methodology, including justification for establishing a formal methodology, attributes of good content and how these intersect with the methodology. The concept of content as conversation is examined. New brain science research on the dynamics of conversation is presented as a framework for considering the attributes of good content. Pitfalls of an inadequate methodology of content strategy are discussed in conjunction with the attributes of good content, variables that are more likely to be present in content that is produced according to a comprehensive, thoughtfully developed content strategy methodology.
The discussion commences by focusing on definition of terms and the reasons why the approaches presented matter Experts in the field of content development have a propensity for referring to content as conversation. Content is not, in…
DeVault, G. (2014). Can you tell a story like a screenwriter? The science of storytelling and neuroscience: Your new tools. Market Research, About.com. Retreived http://marketresearch.about.com/od/market.research.social.media/fl/Can-You-Tell-a-Story-Like-a-Screenwriter.htm
Eizan, D. (2010). Personal-behavioral context: The new user persona. Context as a Content Strategy. [Slideshare.] Retrieved http://www.slideshare.net/danieleizans/context-as-a-content-strategy-creating-more-meaningful-web-experiences-through-contextual-filtering
Jones, C. (2014). The art and science of influential web content. Retreived http://content-science.com/clout-the-book/
Kissane, E. (2011, March 8). A checklist for content work. Content Strategy. Retreived http://alistapart.com/article/a-checklist-for-content-work
Waterfall Methodology and Agile Methodology in Application Development
Waterfall methodology represents a process of sequential designing, much like manufacturing and construction workflows. This implies that as each step (idea formation, initiation, evaluation, design, creation, testing, execution, and maintenance) is accomplished, developers progress to the subsequent step. Since the process is of a sequential nature, a developer will not be able to revert to any prior stage after its completion -- at least, not without having to begin from scratch. One cannot afford to err or make changes; therefore, the venture's outcome and a broad plan should be established right at the start and followed carefully thereafter (Agile & Waterfall Methodologies -- A Side-By-Side Comparison, n.d). In true Waterfall ventures, each of the above will constitute a separate software development stage, with each stage normally completed before beginning with the subsequent one. Also, stage gates typically exist between each. One example…
Agile & Waterfall Methodologies -- A Side-By-Side Comparison. (n.d.). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from http://www.base36.com/2012/12/agile-waterfall-methodologies-a-side-by-side-comparison/
Bowes, J. (2014). Agile vs. Waterfall - Comparing project management methods. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from https://manifesto.co.uk/agile-vs.-waterfall-comparing-project-management-methodologies/
Lotz, M. (2013). Waterfall vs. Agile: Which is the Right Development Methodology for Your Project? Retrieved April 28, 2016, from http://www.seguetech.com/blog/2013/07/05/waterfall-vs.-agile-right-development-methodology
criminal procedure and the idiosyncrasies of criminal practice vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction" (Jaros, 2010, p. 445). If what Jaros states is true, then it is probably true as well that evaluating the different circumstances surrounding the commission of crime is also widely diverse in its practice. There are a number of methodologies that are used in various research including studies relating to the study of criminal justice and different aspects of that arena; two of the more commonly used methodologies employ quantitative and qualitative methods of research.
The quantitative methodology is used by researchers who are seeking to quantify certain areas of study or the results of such studies. Quantifying involves numbers, percentages and numerically evaluated data. One of the benefits that can be derived when using quantitative evaluation is that such a method provides numerical data for comparative studies. Comparative studies show specific numbers calculated from participant…
Behavioral Sciences and the Law (2006) online accessed at Wiley Inter-Science on November 11, 2010, at www.interscience.wiley.com
Bhola, H.S. (1990) Evaluating 'literacy for development' projects, programs and campaigns: Evaluation planning, design and implementation, and utilization of evaluation results. UNESCO Institute for Education, xii
Bonta, J.; Wallace-Capretta, S.; Rooney, J.; McAnoy, K.; (2002) An outcome evaluation of a restorative justice alternative to incarceration, Contemporary Justice Review, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 319-338
Chaiken, J.M. & Chaiken, M.R.; (1982) Varieties of criminal behavior, Santa Monica: Rand Publishers
Internet Way: a Unifying Theory and Methodology for Corporate Systems Development
The face of business has changed drastically since the advent of the Internet. Traditional brick and mortar businesses are finding themselves with new marketing avenues. The Internet has led to the invention of a new comer to the business world as well, the e-business. These businesses exist only on the Internet. They do not have a traditional brick and mortar structure. In these businesses, customers place orders by phone or online, Pay for it via credit card, bankcard, or e-check. The item is shipped right to the customer's door.
This new type of retail store offers many advantages over the traditional brick and mortar storefront. Often e-stores can offer items at a fraction of the cost of traditional stores. They do not have the expenses involved in maintaining a storefront. The customer must pay for shipping; however, in many…
ased on the guiding research question, a deductive approach was deemed best suited for the purposes of the study proposed herein.
The selection of an appropriate research strategy is important to the successful outcome of a study (Maxwell 1996). ased on a review of the available research strategies, the research strategy to be used in the proposed study will be to use a qualitative analysis of the secondary literature to develop a custom survey to collect relevant quantitative primary data. This research strategy is highly congruent with the guidance provided by Poggenpaul, Myburgh and Van Der Linde who report, "There is a strong argument for qualitative research strategies as a prerequisite for quantitative strategies" (2001, 408). The use of both qualitative and quantitative data is also congruent with Neuman's observation that, "oth qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet…
Batra, R., & Homer, P. (2004) The situational impact of brand image beliefs. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14(3) 318-330
Benz, C.R., & Newman, I. (1998). Qualitative-quantitative research methodology: Exploring the interactive continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Costabile, M. (2000), A Dynamic Model of Customer Loyalty. Presented to 16th Annual IMP Conference, September 7th-9th, Bath (UK). [online] http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CBwQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.impgroup.org%2Fuploads%2Fpapers%2F43.pdf&ei=5q-sTarLD4W10QH2tfj4CA&usg=AFQjCNGRQdbe1PJHk7dPAY23xvIzBf2rvg&sig2=pNYCgID7L4yz5rihCh0chA
Thus, if the asset's usefulness will decline consistently after the first year of usage, it is best to use one of the accelerated depreciation methodologies, which will calculate a higher depreciation rate in the first year of usage (when the asset is producing most for the company) and a lower one in the subsequent years, when the asset is less useful for the company. Accelerated methods include the declining balance method and the sum-of-the-years-digits methods.
3. Answering this question first requires a differentiation between accounting (and accounting related activities) and physical reality. For example, cost flow assumption may not always reflect physical flow. In accounting, inventory errors generally correct themselves in the following years, mainly because the accounting methodologies can regulate the values in the following years. But physically, of course, is something different.
4. Basically, GAAP allows various methods of inventory valuation because it seems appropriate for the company…
Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies
Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research
Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…
Neill, James. (2007). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Retrieved:
The qualitative vs. quantitative debate. (2012). Writing at CSU. Retrieved:
Operation and Data Management at the Water-Authority: will there be a sustainable water supply for the next century. A case study of Water Infrastructure Management in the Caribbean. As the research problem implies, I intend to conduct a case study examining water infrastructure management in the Caribbean with the goal of determining whether existing water infrastructure management will provide sustainable water usage for the next century. The nature of the research problem requires a comparison of the currently available water resources, the renewable water resources, current water usage, and projected water demand over the coming century to determine if the water resources are adequate and will continue to be adequate for the foreseeable time period. Although the question could be approached from a quantitative perspective or a mixed-methods perspective, I believe that water usage and water management are as much about perceptions and beliefs as they are about quantitative analysis…
Brikci, N., Green, J. 2007. A guide to using qualitative research methodology. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
Shah, A. 2010. 'Water and Development', Global Issues. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
represented by different methodologies, describing the purpose of every methodology and providing an example of a research problem for every methodology. The ideas that will be discussed in this paper include exemplifying what encompasses a research problem and also making comparisons and contrasts between qualitative research and quantitative research with respect to their strengths and weaknesses.
To enable the researcher manipulate one variable while measuring other variables and therefore making it possible to examine cause and effect of research problems
To measure the relationship or correlation that exists between two variables
To question and interrogate a massive group of people regarding their philosophies and standpoints on a certain phenomenon
To develop a theory or theoretical model where none exists in the literature in relation to the sample
To describe and interpret…
Bryman, A. (2007). The Research Question in Social Research: What is its Role?" International Journal of Social Research Methodology 10: 5-20.
Choy, L. T. (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), 99-104.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage.
Design Methodology for producing Modularity
Aspects of modular product design:
Scope, procedures, goals, and objectives
Simple configuration control
Minimum requirement for labor
Precise and absolute descriptions of changes in question
Cooperative and responsive customers'
Effective coordination among project team members
111.2 CONFIGUATION Management TEMS AND DEFINITIONS
Software Configuration Management
Engineering Change equest
121.3 OLES & ESPONSIBILITIES
Configuration Control Board
Parallels between the data and functional design of the plan
Advantages of modularity
ELATIONSHIP TO SYSTEMS ENGINEEING
142.2 ELATIONSHIP TO POGAM Management
142.3 ELATIONSHIP TO SOFTWAE ENGINEEING
163. CONFIGUATION Management (CM)
173.1 CM POCESS
183.2 CM PLANNING AND Management
183.4 CONFIGUATION CHANGE Management
193.5 CONFIGUATION STATUS ACCOUNTING
213.6 CONFIGUATION VEIFICATION AND AUDIT
234. APPENDIX A EFEENCES
255. APPENDIX B. SAMPLE CM PLAN
CM -- Configuration Management
SOA - Service Oriented Architecture
Buckley, Fletcher J., Implementing Configuration Management: Hardware, Software, Firmware,
Second Edition, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ: 1993
Daniels, M.A., Principles of Configuration Management, Advanced Application Consultants,
Inc., Rockville, MD: 1985
This is when learning comprehension will decrease. As a result, these concepts should be used to create a foundation for everyone. (McLoughlin, 2005, pp. 125 -- 129)
This means that the ideas presented in a traditional format should be augmented with the PBL method. This will build upon the foundation that was established and it will help students to use these concepts on their own. It is at this point that the total amounts of learning comprehension will increase dramatically. Once this happens, is when the student will be able to recall these ideas at different times throughout the course of their lives.
Evidence of this can be seen with research conducted by Dobbs (2008). She determined that effectively integrating different traditional and PBL methods will help to improve learning comprehension. This is because these approaches are presenting these ideas to students in a various formats. (Dobbs, 2008, pp. 9…
What is Project-Based Learning. (2012). PBL Online. Retrieved from: http://pbl-online.org/About/whatisPBL.htm
World Education Report. (1998). UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/education/information/wer/PDFeng/wholewer98.PDF
Dobbs, V. (2008). Comparing Student Achievement. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Press.
Jin, D. (2011). Advances in Computer Science. Berlin: Springer.
Oral Hygiene Methodology
There is a significant amount of research that shows statistical correlation between oropharyngeal bacterial colonization and the presence bacteria responsible for ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Several interventions have been shown as effective in reducing the incidence of VAP, but many have not gained widespread clinical use in a majority of hospitals. esearch does show that the amount of oropharyngeal bacteria present in the mouth and oral cavity has a relationship to the propensity of developing VAP. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate levels of oral hygiene combined with the bacterial colonization of ventilator equipment. We expect that oral and mouth washes regularly administrated that include chlorohexedine will kill bacteria and reduce incidence of VAP infections on ICU patients. The aim of this study will be to survey the efficacy of chlorohexdedine mouth washes in a randomized group of patients who were placed in an…
Chlebicki, P., & Safdar, N. (2007). Topical chlorhexidine for prevention of ventilator-associated peneumonia: A Meta-analysis. Critical Care Medicine, 35(2), 595-602.
Collard, H., & Saint, S. (2005, June). Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. Retrieved from ahrq.gov: http://archive.ahrq.gov/clinic/ptsafety/pdf/chap17.pdf
Dodek, P., et al. (2004). Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumomia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(4), 305-13.
Lansford, T., et al. (2007). Efficacy of a Pneumonia Prevention Protocol in the Reduction of Ventilatory-Associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients. Liebert Open Access- Surgical Infections. 8 (5): 5505-10.
Theory Methodology and Human Development
Analyze a selected topic from a social scientific perspective by doing the following
Explain the significance of a suitable question, which you have formulated, for social scientific analysis.
The impact that video games, as a form of media entertainment, have been a matter of concern for politicians, parents, and legislators. However, the results generated from the scholarly literature are not in agreement; researchers continue to disagree about the impact that video games have on people.
Analyze three research problems (i.e., subordinate questions) that will help answer the social scientific question that you have formulated.
For purposes of this research, a quantitative research design is utilized.
What is the relationship of playing video games to increased levels of obesity?
Walsh, Gentile, Walsh, & Bennett (2006, p. 2) found that "children who spend more time playing video games are heavier, and are more likely…
Bergman, E.F., & Renwick, W.H. (2008). Introduction to geography: People, places and environment (4th ed.)
Brown RIF. (1991) Gaming, gambling and other addictive play. In Kerr JH, Apter MJ, eds. Adult play: a reversal theory approach. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, pp. 101 -- 18.
Brown RIF. (1993) Some contributions of the study of gambling to the study of other addictions. In Eadington WR, Cornelius JA, eds. Gambling behavior and problem gambling. Reno: University of Nevada, pp. 241 -- 72.
Perry, J.A., & Perry, E.K. (2009). Contemporary society: An introduction to social science (12th ed.)
innately superior: rather some methodologies may be more appropriate to certain types of research questions than others. The quantitative approach is fundamentally deductive, often using the scientific method of posing a specific hypothesis, amassing a large amount of data in which there are experimental and control groups, and then reaching a conclusion based upon controlling the variables involved in the study. In contrast, qualitative research is inductive and reaches conclusions based upon observed, specific evidence. There is no hypothesis to test. Rather than attempt to limit the variables that could affect the final results, usually the population under study is limited instead to allow for increased scrutiny. The variables under study may change.
Quantitative research is usually numerical in design and is based in statistical analysis. Although it may use questionnaires, qualitative research is based upon interviews and observations. Often these observations are participatory in nature, as the researcher becomes…
The following will provide a comparison of qualitative and quantitative research approaches. In the exploration of qualitative research the following characteristics are observed relating to the use of theory. The use of theory varies within qualitative designs (Creswell, 2009). In certain qualitative studies the researcher will generate a theory as the product of their research (Creswell, 2009). Qualitative studies also utilize theory as a lens in which to view a question (Creswell, 2009).When using theory as a lens, these views shape the research question, how data is collected, and provide structure for the summarized need for change (Creswell, 2009). The third way theory is utilized within qualitative research is through the use of an inductive process (Creswell, 2009). This process involves broad themes being gathered and then the researcher developing patterns through examination of collected data. Once these patterns are established the researcher compares findings with existing literature (Creswell, 2009). Overall, in qualitative research, theory can be used as an attempt to explain attitudes and behaviors while it also has the ability to possess variables and hypothesis (Creswell, 2009).
In contrast, quantitative research attempts to test theories in an attempt to answer questions (Creswell, 2009). Historical precedent exists within quantitative research which dictates the definition of a theory as a scientific explanation (Creswell, 2009). Under this definition, a theory examines an interrelated set of variables which are formed into a hypothesis in an attempt to determine a relationship
empirically based, containing sections on methodology (sampling, measurement, design, and findings). In paragraph form students are to utilize (Exercise #1) in Chapter 3 of a Developmental Guide to Research, as a guide on how to critique an article. he article review should be approximately 3 pages and include a discussion of how the Saint Leo University core value of integrity is demonstrated in the research.
Psychology article review
Donovan, Elizabeth, Mollie Wood, Kezia Frayjo, Ryan A. Black, Daniel A. Surette (2012). A
randomized, controlled trial to test the efficacy of an online, parent-based intervention for reducing the risks associated with college-student alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors. 37: 27-35. Retrieved: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460311002929
he question of how to treat the growing problem of alcohol abuse amongst college students is the subject of the journal article "A randomized, controlled trial to test the efficacy of an online, parent-based intervention for reducing the risks associated with…
The stated aim of the online intervention was to increase parent-child communication on the subject of alcohol and to reduce alcohol usage amongst students. 558 participants, comprising 279 parent -- teen dyads, were studied. The design was randomized and controlled study design, specifically a Solomon four-group design "on data collected from the baseline assessment and from the first follow-up assessment, conducted 30 days post-baseline" (Donovan et al. 2012: 26). One experimental group received the baseline assessment, while the other experimental did not; one control group received the baseline assessment while the other control group did not. This was to minimize the impact that simply 'being studied' could produce a result -- i.e., that self-consciousness about being studied could act as a facilitator of communication between the dyads and lead to greater self-monitoring of alcohol consumption.
The participants in the study were not 'balanced' demographically. 85% of the parents were female and, 62% were female. It was essential that both the teen and the parent agreed to participate in the study, and if one or the other refused, than the other party was told that they were ineligible. The participants were compensated for their time, "Participants (teens and parents) were paid $25 each for completing the baseline assessment, $25 for completing the post-test, $40 for completing the three-month assessment, and $50 for completing the six-month assessment, for a possible total of $140 per person" (Donovan et al. 2012: 26). The reasons for monetary compensation were not specified, although it was presumably to encourage participation. The online program MyStudentBody-Parent the experimental group viewed was comprised of articles, web videos, photographs, interactive tools, and 'cheat sheets' parents could download to spur discussion on the topic. The control group was merely given an e-newsletter of information.
At the end of the program, "the findings suggested that parents who participated in the online intervention were more likely to discuss protective behavioral strategies," versus the control group, while "students whose parents received the intervention were more likely to use a range of protective behavioral strategies" (Donovan et al. 2012: 26). However, there are some flaws in the study design. First and foremost, the fact that a parent-child pair had to mutually agree to participate in the study suggests that those who actively agreed to the intervention may have had a closer relationship already. The dyad's behaviors were evaluated through quantitative measures such as The Parent -- Teen Communication Scale (PTCS) and The Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale (PBSS), but self-reporting of addictive behaviors and about the parent-child relationship are notoriously inaccurate. The authors acknowledge this weakness and admit "while 66% of all college students drank alcohol in a one-month period and approximately 37% engaged in heavy episodic drinking," 49% of the teen subjects drank and 20% binge drank (Donovan et al. 2012: 34). The effectiveness of online intervention for high-risk groups or parents with less of a demonstrated commitment to being involved in their teens' lives is thus more questionable.
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
The Department of Homeland Security is fully aware of the importance of local and state first responders. Currently managed under the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other various offices, local firefighters, state and local law enforcement, and local emergency medical personnel would be subject to the Department of Homeland Security's authority (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Moreover, the Department is prepared to "develop and manage a national training and evaluation system to design curriculums, set standards, evaluate, and reward performance in local, state, and federal training efforts" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Through FEMA, emergency supplies, food and shelter would be allocated to supplement the work of local agencies that are already providing such needs at the community level (http://www.fema.gov).Moreover, FEMA would coordinate "private industry, the insurance sector, mortgage lenders, the real estate industry, homebuilding associations, citizens, and others" in high-risk areas (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).…
American Red Cross." http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/0,1082,0_319_,00.html accessed 11-17-2003).
The Department of Homeland Security." http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html .
A accessed 11-17-2003).
Emergency Food and Shelter." Federal Emergency Management Agency. http://www.fema.gov .(accessed 11-17-2003).
Luke & Associates depicted low rates of employee retention. etention levels did not promote sustainability in the organization, and did not generate any significant revenues in case of some departments of the organization. ecruitment, hiring, and employee training processes incurred high costs. Although these costs proved equitable when amortized over 8-10 years, they weren't sustainable when absorption was required within 2-3 years. The organization's management expressed anxiety over these low retention levels. Management was also concerned about the recurring ill fit of newly hired personnel with company culture and position demands, in relation to basic knowledge and demonstrated competences. To tackle this problem, the firm decided to take into account a venture involving action research program to study various tactics for improving key recruitment interview processes.
Action research, which comes under the participatory research category, involves stakeholders affected by practices, strategies and systems linked to specific situations or issues, which…
Burnes, B. (2004). Kurt Lewin and the planned approach to change: a re-appraisal. Journal of Management studies, 41(6), 977-1002.
Fountain, J. (2004). Focus assessment studies: A qualitative approach to data collection (Vol. 6). United Nations Publications.
McCreesh, N., Frost, S., Seeley, J., Katongole, J., Tarsh, M.N., Ndunguse, R., ... & White, R.G. (2012). Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 23(1), 138.
Salganik, M.J. (2012). Commentary: respondent-driven sampling in the real world. Epidemiology, 23(1), 148-150.
Interview ith Teacher of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
The United States educational environment consists of students from different cultural and linguistic background, and a classroom may consist of students who are native English speakers and students whose origins are from Latin America, Asia, Africa, Middle East and Europe. Thus, many teachers often face challenges in adopting an effective and appropriate methodology to teach students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
This study carries out an open-interview with a teacher of culturally and linguistically diverse students to enhance a greater understanding of his teaching methodology.
The researcher uses the open-interview method to allow the teacher to express all views about the strategy used in managing culturally and linguistically diverse students. The questions used to collect the information are presented in Appendix 1.
Outcome of the Interview with a Teacher of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
The teacher reveals that his…
Echevarria, J.J. Vogt, M. and Short, D.J. Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model. (4th Edition). Pearson. 2012.
Moore, K.D. & Hansen, J. Effective Strategies for Teaching in K-8 Classrooms. USA. SAGE Publications, Inc.2012.
SIOP . Frequently Asked Questions. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. USA. 2015.
Richard-Amato, P.A. Make it Happen: Interactive to Participatory Language Teaching - Evolving Theory and Practice (4th Edition). Pearson Education ESL. 2010.
Environmental Accounting DQ
Activity-based costing refers to costing methodologies identifying activities within organizations and assigning relevant costs to each activity against resources. The advisories are presented to all services and products based on the actual consumption of the items. The model assigns exclusive overhead costs to various direct costs in comparison with conventional costing. The ABC plan allows companies to have a sound estimate of cost elements for different products, services, and activities. The element helps in informing the company's decision for purposes of identifying and eliminating the services and products that are unprofitable while lowering prices for the overpriced service and product portfolio.
The application of random percentages in allocation of costs allows ABC to identify the cause and effect elements in objectively assigning costs. With the sequence of activities identified, the extensive costs for activities are attributed to various products to the scope in which…
Recommended during latter phases of research projects.
Recommended during earlier phases of research projects.
Projects in different areas are not linear in approach.
All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected.
The design emerges as the study unfolds.
The study of a drug interaction in x population is different than a study of language variation in y population.
Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data.
Researcher is the data-gathering instrument.
Sometimes subjectivity is at risk.
Data is in the form of numbers and statistics.
Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects.
Audience and style needs.
Objective -- seeks precise measurement & analysis of target concepts, e.g., uses surveys, questionnaires etc.
Subjective - individuals' interpretation of events is important, e.g., uses participant observation, in-depth interviews etc.
Both important to tell the entire story -- both sides of the picture.…
Education research can benefit from the quantitative paradigm precisely because it is so often a subjective field. Teachers and lecturers tend to take a subjective approach when working with their students. This is logical, as any field where human beings are involved will necessarily be subjective. However, the field of education should particularly be standardized, because it focuses on preparing the labor force of the future (Thomas, 1998). Future employers would therefore wish for a particular standard in their employees. This standard should be quantified. This quantification process can be achieved by applying quantitative research principles in education. The general subjectivity of the field can therefore be balanced by a more standardized logical approach. Logical facts discovered by these methods can then be used as a basis for personalized, subjective, and individual teaching approaches that each teacher considers appropriate for his or her classroom. The correlational approach involves the consideration of data to determine the degree to which two or more quantifiable variables relate to each other (Johnson, 2001).
This relationship is then used as a basis for further quantitative study. This is particularly useful in studies such as those focusing on education, as students' performance can be correlated with other influencing factors such as previous performance throughout the year. This can then be used in order to establish methodologies that would be more effective for future practice.
An advantage of this method is that it forms a good initial basis for further research. It provides the researcher with a sound springboard for further study. It can also produce useful data for retrospective analysis. A good correlation between variables can for
My taxonomy of decision-making approaches will be based, somewhat loosely, on brain dominance theory combined with what I have seen in my experience. The underlying principle is that people are either analytical or emotional in their decision making. These are the two basic types, but within these there are differences as well. For example, rational decision-making can be purely statistical -- using the numbers to guide the process, or it can be more qualitative-rational. On the emotional side, decision making can be "gut," which is fairly reactive, or it can be based on past performance, so more of a "what has worked before."
In the middle is a hybrid, which relies on a heavy amount of analysis, before the final decision is based more on feel. There might not be a much academic support for this one, but I do it myself all the time. The use of gut…
This was a mixed methods study that was applied to the topic of school psychology
The purpose of Powell et al.'s (2008) journal article was to show the benefits of mixed method study using the field of school psychology as an example.
Theoretical Framework: (Identify the theoretical/conceptual framework)
The article is a discussion/ / review of evidence of the efficacy of mixed methodology to psychology.
Specific Research Questions / Philosophical Underpinnings:
The overall research question was whether mixed methods is more beneficial than qualitative or quantitative methodology alone in addressing scientific research. The specific example that the authors gave was reliance on two different studies (one qualitative, the other quantitative) that used bullying as their topic
MAKE SURE THESE QUESTIO OR ASWERED WITH HEADIG SEE BELOW
Mixed method design: (present the elements of quantitative and qualitative and describe how these complement each other and why it was important…
None of the studies detail the consent procedure. Likely, the school was approached for consent by the researchers and consent given by school administrator (and perhaps by teachers) rather than by individual students.
Powell, H et al. (2008) MIXED METHODS RESEARCH IN SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY: A MIXED METHODS INVESTIGATION OF TRENDS IN THE LITERATURE Psychology in the Schools, Vol. 45(4), 291-309
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…
Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.
O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.
van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.
3. Section Three: Importance of Play Activities to Learning
Please indicate how often each item is true of the need for play activities for the visually impaired student using a 5-point scale (1 = Strongly Agree to 5 = Strongly Disagree).
1. Visually impaired children need the same amount of play opportunities as their normally sighted peers. http://www.surveymonkey.com/img/t.gif
Visually impaired children need the same amount of play opportunities as their normally sighted peers. http://www.surveymonkey.com/img/t.gif
2. Off-the-shelf toys and games can be easily adapted for use by visually impaired children. http://www.surveymonkey.com/img/t.gif
Off-the-shelf toys and games can be easily adapted for use by visually impaired children. http://www.surveymonkey.com/img/t.gif
3. Visually impaired children can benefit from play activities involving sculpting a variety of media. http://www.surveymonkey.com/img/t.gif
Visually impaired children can benefit from play activities involving sculpting a variety of media. http://www.surveymonkey.com/img/t.gif
4. Play activities that include both visually impaired and normally sighted children help…
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
GIS: Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
Based on the oskin article how does decision-making affect span of control during a disaster or emergency?
Decision making affects span of control directly during a disaster or emergency. How effective decision making is depends on the ability of the decision maker to adequately assess a threat and determine what forces or equipment must be utilized to moderate or defeat the threat before explosive damage can occur (Smith, 1997). A decision maker is more likely to maintain control during a disaster or emergency if his team of subordinates is well trained and well motivated. Such a team is more likely to respond in a positive and efficient manner when under the direction of a commander.
The decision-maker must adjust the level of control necessary during a disaster or emergency based on the severity of the emergency and the likelihood that widespread disaster will result.…
European Commission. (2003). "Guidelines for Best Practice User Interface GIS." ESPRIT/ESSI, European Commission. Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.gisig.it/best-gis/Guides/chapter1/chi1.pdf
Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma
Harrington, Andrew. "Field Experiences Highlight Mobile GIS Benefits." GeoPlace. Retrieved November 23, 2003, http://www.geoplace.com/gw/2003/0306/0306mgis.asp
Smith, Dan. August 1997. "CDI and QDR." The Defense Monitor, Center for Defense Information. Volume XXVI, No. 5 Washington, DC. Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.cdi.org/dm/1997/issue5/
team-taught student grades.
This research question leads to the correlation study approach in order to effectively answer the research question and provide the appropriate relationship that is between the dependent variables used in the research question.
In order to effectively answer this research question, there is need to have a large sample size that will bring out the correlation between the involved dependent variables. The data collection method that can give such sample size is the survey method since it will enable the researcher to survey the results, the behaviors, the outcomes of the group interactions and the possible variables that influence the results (egents of The University of Michigan, 2017). The data collection instruments or survey tools that would be suitable and will be used in this particular research are the questionnaires, structured interviews and the literature review of the existing literature on the subject.
Data collection tools
European Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training, (2017). Types of Data Collection Tools. Retrieved April 11, 207 from http://eqavet.eu/qc/tns/monitoring-your-system/review/utilising-data/Types_of_data_collection_tools.aspx
McNamara, C. (N.D.) Overview of basic methods to collect information. Free Management Library. Retrieved April 11, 207 from http://www.managementhelp.org/research/overview.htm
Regents of The University of Michigan, (2017). Survey Research Methods. Retrieved April 11, 207 from https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/instructors/setups/nes.jsp
Childhood Obesity and Fast Food
The paper is a research based on the topic of "The influence of fast food on child obesity." The study aims to evaluate and identify the root cause of child obesity. The study is based on a scientific approach by developing a hypothesis and then proving it through data collected.
The hypothesis of this research has been developed after a number of general observations. These observations came from generally observing the school friends, cafes and restaurants, and family members. It was observed that children who were eating fast food regularly were fat. Another observation was that when we talk to obese people they often mention that they blame fast food restaurants for their obesity. Since we have developed specific conclusions from general observations, it is an inductive approach.…
blended study, both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The blend between numbers-based data and analysis and more abstract and conceptual work is necessary because of the totality of what is being looked at and how the research will be done (Lund, 2012).
ationale for Study Type Selection
While the before and after results of hypertension of patients in this case will be strictly numerical and statistical in scope, the formulation and tracking of the interventions, education and so forth that will form the control for the experiment will certainly be based more on concepts, evidence-based practice and the ostensibly proper ways to enforce and impose interventions on patients (McDonald & Blackwell, 2006). After all, the behaviors and changes under way are not something more detached and simple like whether a medication is take or not or whether a therapy is administered. The people involved will be instructed on what to…
Hanley, J. A. (2017). Correction of Selection Bias in Survey Data: Is the Statistical Cure Worse
Than the Bias?. American Journal of Public Health, 107(4), 503-505.
Lund, T. (2012). Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research. Scandinavian Journal Of Educational Research, 56(2), 155-
American legal system is that a person innocent of a crime he or she may be accused of until proven guilty by a jury of peers. This means that the mutual decision of a jury had innumerous affects on both an individual and society. Based on this, it is clear that all aspects of how and why a jury makes decisions should be examined. An area that is particularly important is the presentation of evidence and its affect how a jury's verdict. More specifically, how does the presentation of DNA evidence affect the verdict in a trial?
To find an answer to this particular question, it is possible to set up an experiment that will mimic a court case with the presence of DNA evidence. Some metholodgical questions are:
Why is an experiment the best choice to answer this question, and what are its drawbacks?
How should the dependent variable…
leadership styles in evidence at Proctor & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive. The paper will begin with an examination of the different leadership theories. Of particular interest will be surveys that can identify leadership types. When looking at leader-member exchanges, the key for this paper will be to ask both leaders and followers questions to determine what leadership styles are in use at these two companies. The survey technique will be utilized.
There are four different methods of data collection, including questionnaires (surveys), interviews, observations and unobtrusive measures. The questionnaire method for this project has the advantage of being easy to gather and tabulate, and in that way it is relatively inexpensive to gather large amounts of data. This will be important given that the project requires information from many different managers in these two companies. Interviews are more in-depth, which allows for the gathering of richer, more detailed data. Observations can…
discloses to the reader something of what happened during the era under discussion. But it also reveals at least as much about the era in which the history was written. What is considered significant enough to mention, what events are seen as causative rather than incidental, who are the true villains - all of these things may change from one generation's historical account to that of the next, and not because new facts have come to light.
The authors under consideration here ask us to reconsider the nature of history in general as well as to reexamine the particular places and times that they are writing about. They seek to use substitute key theoretical concepts for the traditional chronological structure of history, asking us to consider not what came after what but who had power over whom, and how these social relationships are the causative elements of (each) history.
Caulfield, S. (2000). In defense of honor: Sexual morality, modernity, and nation in early twentieth-century Brazil. Durham: Duke.
Gutierrez, R. (1991). When Jesus came, the corn mothers went away: Marriage, sexuality, and power in New Mexico, 1500-1846. Palo Alto: Stanford.
Guy, D. (1991). Sex & danger in Buenos Aires: Prostitution, family, and nation in Argentina. Omaha: University of Nebraska.
Scott, J.W. (1999). Gender and the politics of history. New York: Columbia.
ACC = ((E/V) * Re) + [((D/V) * Rd)*(1-T)]
where E = Market value of the company's equity
D = Market value of the company's debt
V = Total Market Value of the company (E + D)
Re = Cost of Equity
Rd = Cost of Debt
T= Tax Rate
In this case, we have the following values for these parameters:
E/V = percentage of equity to finance the project = 60%
D/V = percentage of debt to finance the project = 40%
Re = Cost of Equity = required return by stockholders = 18.36%
Rd = Cost of Debt = required return by debt holders = 10.68%
T= Tax Rate = 36% = 0.36
ACC = ((0.6) * 0.1836) + [((0.4) * 0.1068)*(1-0.36)] = 0.027 = 2.7%
The firm's weighted average cost of capital is 2.7%.
b. The Net Present Value is calculate according to…
Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC). On the Internet at http://www.investinganswers.com/financial-dictionary/financial-statement-analysis/weighted-average-cost-capital-wacc-2905 . Last retrieved on July 22, 2014
Net Present Value. On the Internet at http://www.financeformulas.net/Net_Present_Value.html . Last retrieved on July 22, 2014
On the Internet at ? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modigliani%E2%80%93Miller_theorem l "Proposition_II_2" ?
school district wants to study the effectiveness of the new curricula, so the research question is "what is the effectiveness of the new curricula." This requires before and after data, where the new curricula is the independent variable. The school can therefore only really work with data that it had before implementing the new curricula. Presumably, this includes ethnicities, ages and grade, which are the most important variables. In this research, the independent variable is the new curricula, and the dependent variables will be the grades. Age and ethnicity will be lines along which the populations are drawn for this study.
The null hypothesis is that the new curricula is correlated with a significant increase in grades for ESL students. The alternate hypothesis is that the new curricula is not correlated with a significant increase in grades for ESL students.
The broad population is the entire set of ESL students…
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research.
Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.
Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…
Borlaug, S. (2007). Secondary Data Sources for Public Health: A Practical Guide.
Cambridge University Press.UK.
Hox, J.J. & Boeije, H.R. (2010). Data Collection Primary vs. Secondary. Utrecht University. The Nethertland.
Morrell, K. (2010). Quantitative Data Basic Introduction. USA.
This is largely due to time and logistical issues involved in conducting the face-to-face interviews. However, this still represents 50% of the entire sample population. Therefore, it is expected that the opinions expressed in the interviews will be a good representation of Iranian banks.
3.5 Data Collection
The primary aim of the study is to identify the challenges that Iranian banks face in the implementation of EMV. This research is divided into two portions. The first part will be the survey questionnaire. The second will be face-to-face interviews. Where possible, the researcher will visit the bank and administer the questionnaire in person. However, is some cases, this will not be possible, either because of the distances that need to be traveled or the schedule of the bank official. In these cases, the questionnaire will be emailed to the participant and they can return it at their convenience. As the sample…
Hall, C. 2009. New study pinpoints risk issues for Hispanic business owners. Houston Business Journal. Friday, May 8, 2009.
"List of Banks in Iran." 2010. Available at: http://openoffshorebankaccountsfornonresidents.com/ListofBanksinIran.htm. [accessed August 29, 2010].
Sumner, M. 2000. Risk factors in enterprise-wide/ERP projects Journal of Information Technology 15, 317 -- 327
While there were students of color in the community, their race was rarely, if ever, a source of conflict. The unfortunate outcome, however is that in being "Color Blind," and believed that everyone is being treated the same. In reality, the outcome does not celebrate the uniqueness of those same ethnic groups. The bigger implication in my work will be the study of the blending of economic classes. Prior to the consolidation of the schools, ainier had numerous rural one to four room schoolhouses. Each school had its own distinct area of the county and each group was resistant to blending with the others. This was an area of generational poverty. Families were land rich and money poor.
In the early 1970's, when Portland General Electric began construction on the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, there were the beginnings of a local population explosion. The first group to come to…
Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (2000). Escape from cluelessness: A guide for the organizationally challenged. New York: American Management Association.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Feagin, J.R., Orum, a.M. & Sjoberg, G. (1991). A case for the case study. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
international emphasis on education, including the study of languages and foreign cultures, is today still very limited and biased, creating a gap between the job skills and competencies acquired during studies and the international component increasingly present in every work environment, where the young graduate will have to travel or relate to foreign clients, suppliers and several stakeholders. De Wit, Jaramillo, and Knight (2005) report that the development of advanced communication, new technology, increased labor mobility, market economy and trade liberalization, increased private investment, decreased support of higher education, and the development of lifelong learning, are all key drivers for universities to have to internationalize their curricula. They also add that on the government side, the only attention given to this need is for educational programs preparing for government departments, and not for business and the industry at large. Therefore, it is evident that with an increasing global environment, the…
Glaser, B.G. And Strauss, A.L., (1967), The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research, Chicago: Aldine
Pattameak, J. (2009) EMPLOYERS' EXPECTATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS OF TOURISM Vol. 5 No. 4 June 2009 Pp. 306-321.
Perron, R. (2011) The 8th SMEs in a Global Economy Conference 2011: " Rising to the Global Challenge: Entrepreneurship and SMEs development in Asia " Retrieved from: http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/econ/finding-training-keeping-qualified-workers.pdf
Glaser, B.G. (1978) Advances in The Methodology of Grounded Theory, Sociology Press, Mill Valley, CA.