Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Students should be able to reflect on the process of problem solving.
easoning and Proof
Students should recognize that proofs are a fundamental aspect of mathematics. Within that understanding, they should develop the ability to select and use various types of mathematical reasoning.
The standard calls for students to communicate their mathematical thinking in a coherent and clear way to teachers, peers, and others. Students should be able to express their ideas with the correct use of mathematical language.
The standard requires that students be able to demonstrate the interconnectedness of mathematical ideas and recognize and apply mathematics in other contexts.
Students should be able to use representations to organize, record and communicate mathematical ideas. This will enable them to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena.
The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) is an initiative by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. On…
Choppin, J.M. (2009). Curriculum-contxt knowledge: Teacher learning from successive
Enactments of a standards-based mathematics curriculum. Curriculum Inquiry 39 (2),
287-320). Retrieved from ERIC database.
Mac Iver, M.A., & Mac Iver, D.J. (2009). Urban middle-grade student mathematics achievement growth under comprehensive school reform. Journal of Educational
One of the methods that has been suggested for improving interest in reading amongst middle school students is the diagramming of two different short stories or novels, dissecting the different arts of the plot and the methods of progression in both of the stories (Education.com 2010). By demonstrating the underlying mechanisms of literature, students can better understand the progression of both individual storylines as well as of the reader's interest, making a clear and concrete connection between the organization of information and its impact on the reader (Eductaion.com 2010). The desire to increase this understanding, it is hoped, will give yet another reason to engage in reading (Education.com 2010).
When it comes to writing, one of the most effective ways to encourage greater engagement and enjoyment in writing during the middle school years -- which are formative not only in terms of cognitive ability, but also in personality and in…
Education.com. (2010). Middle school reading activities. Accessed 24 December 2010. http://www.education.com/activity/middle-school/reading/
Steele, K. (2007). How to put your own voice in your writing. Accessed 24 December 2010. http://www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com/writing/sixtrait/voice/howto.html
Course scheduling would "move from teacher to teacher with the same group of peers throughout the school day" (Brown & Knowles 2007 p 227). This enhances the quality and depth of curriculum and instruction through more intimate governance. Empirical studies on the benefits of block scheduling show a general 12-15% increase in vocabulary scores (Wormeli 1999). According to the research, "When teams have some control over the class schedule, students have the opportunity to explore ideas for longer periods of time" (Brown & Knowles 2007 p 229). Each team should be within the context of a block structure, allowing students to be more engaged in that team's strategies and coursework during the shared time that extends over several classes. This would require longer class periods, but the research shows that if managed innovatively by collaborative teaching strategies, the students will most likely respond positively (Wormeli 1999).
Moreover, the new school…
Brown, D.F. & Knowles, T. (2007). What Every Middle School Teacher Should Know. 2nd ed. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Wormeli, Rick. (1999). Block classes change instructional practice: Carpe diem! On Target. National Middle School Association. Web. http://www.amle.org/portals/0/pdf/publications/On_Target/scheduling/scheduling_3.pdf
Governments of Eastern Hemisphere nations
Families, clan and tribal groups act to maintain law and order
As settlement patterns changed, new political developed to meet the complex needs of society.
Through time, the people have held different assumptions as to power, authority, governments and law.
Governments change over time to meet changing needs and wants of the people
Present systems of government have their origins in the past
The value of the nations affect the guarantee of human rights and how human needs are met.
The value of the nations are embodied in their constitutions, statutes and important court cases.
In modern political states governmental structures play an important role in maintaining social order and control
Human rights is a key factor in a totalitarian society.
The United Nations were created to prevent war, and to fight hunger disease and ignorance.
The rights and responsibilities defined by their constitution and…
New York State Resource Guide with Core Curriculum:
http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/ ciai/socst/ssrg.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Indeed, if students are not encouraged to perform better during these years, they may be lost not only to academics for the rest of their lives, but also to opportunities that they could have created for themselves in the future. They would also be unable to contribute to the manpower and output of the country as a whole. It is therefore not only a losing situation for students and schools, but also for the country as a whole.
In terms of implementation, the article appears to make some very useful suggestions. Particularly important in this regard is that all parties involved should liaise with each other. Students who transition should be in continuous communication not only with their current teachers, but also with their parents, high school teachers, and students at high schools. Communication is vitally important if these students are to understand the importance of maintaining not only their…
Although using standardized assessment to measure performance may be more difficult with this approach to learning, using these techniques teach students to learn and think independently, which many believe is a more important goal for students of this age, rather than meeting standardized proficiencies. This approach may better reflect the unique needs of middle school students who are facing particular intellectual, social, emotional, moral, and developmental challenges (Clark & Clark, 1993). These students are beginning to go through puberty, are beginning to become able to reason abstractly, are facing social and emotional pressures from their peers for the first time and have just begun to develop a sense of self. Advisory programs to accompany individual student research problems can be helpful so that students work one-on-one with teachers and adult mentors, but still advance their academic skill levels. This also shows students that adults are not 'the enemy' which helps…
Clark, S.N. & Clark, D.C. (1993). Middle level school reform: The rhetoric and the reality. The Elementary School Journal. 93(5): 447-460. Cited by Banks, Ron. (2003). Middle School. Clearing House on Early Education and Parenting. Retrieved 16 Aug 2007 at http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/poptopics/middle.html#2
Friedman, Adam & Richard Hartshorne, & Bob Algozzine (Summer 2005).
Middle Schools Online. Meridian: A Middle School Computer Technologies
Journal. 8 (2):1-6. Retrieved 16 Aug 2007 at http://www.ncsu.edu/meridian/sum2005/middle_schools_on_net/index.html
When this happens, they will recall these concepts and begin utilizing them. In a number of schools, this is enhancing everyone's understanding of the challenges that English language learners and other individuals will face in adapting with their new environment. (Graham, 2009) (Wang, 2010)
How does the research relate to these theories?
The research is showing that each one of these theories is effective at enhancing diversification inside middle schools. This is because they are taking a much different perspective, when it comes to understanding and addressing those challenges impacting students. The added flexibility makes educators more capable of addressing key problems when they are small and improving individual motivation. (Koop, 2008) (Ogot, 2008)
What are the theoretical assumptions and allegiances (based upon the data that was collected)?
The theoretical assumptions are that one strategy will work better in contrast with the others. When in reality, many of these ideas…
Alba, R. (2011). Schools and the Diversity Transition. American Behavioral Scientist, 55 (12), 1616 -- 1634.
Brozek, E. (2009). Supporting English Language Learners. Educators Voice. Retrieved from: http://www.nysut.org/files/edvoiceIV_ch2.pdf
Casas, M. (2010). Enhancing Student Diversity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Graham, S. (2009). It must be Me. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 38, 487 -- 499.
Of challenge too is finding a method that can best help the student gain and retain (as well as improve) reading skills both in and out of the classroom settings
The if/then statement
If self-instructional training is used then student's reading skills may be developed
Charn, L.K. (1991). Promoting Strategy Generalization Through Self-Instructional Training in Students with Reading isabilies, Journal of learning isabilities, 24, 427-433)
3. The problem question
Are there similarities between disability in math and disability in reading?
The problem statement
Knowledge of areas of similarities and differences in learning disabilities in both math and reading may be helpful in treating reading disability.
The problem's significance
Many research findings and theoretical studies show similarities between disabilities in reading and math. Evaluating areas of similarity and differences between the two fields may help instructors better help students who have reading…
Research and implementation of research on similarities / contrast between the two fields.
(Source: Kulak, A. (1993). Parallels Between Math and Reading Disability, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 666-673
Program Goals and Behavior Objectives
Because arbitrary benchmarks such as standardized test scores will not be used in isolation of other student data, the goals of the action plan envisioned herein will be strictly considered in terms of achieving a positive academic outcome as defined as the student successfully graduating from high school with at least a "C" average; this goal would be applied across the board to all students, with an analysis of how many scored above or below this average grade used to fine-tune the individualized plan for each student.
The objectives of the action plan, therefore, will be to provide all students with an individualized plan for their high school experience that includes specific references to what coursework will be required to help them gain admission to college or vocational-technical school in a given course of study, or to help them become better prepared for working in…
Arce, J., Borjian, a., Conrad, M., & Luna, D. (2005). No Child Left Behind: Who wins? Who loses? Social Justice, 32(3), 56.
Barrow, L.H. (2001). An analysis of middle school preservice faculty positions. Education, 122(2), 402.
Goldschmidt, P., & Wang, J. (2003). Importance of middle school mathematics on high school students' mathematics achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(1), 3
Hebert, T.P., & Neumeister, K.L. (2001). Guided viewing of film: A strategy for counseling gifted teenagers. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 12(4), 224.
There are some teaching strategies available that have been shown to generally improve student interest and motivation to improve their reading abilities and comprehension levels; however, because every student is unique, these strategies should be used as a guide rather than a cookbook in developing and fine-tuning teaching strategies for a given class. In this regard, Conley and Hinchman (2004) recommend that the following teaching strategies to help improve literary rates in middle school and beyond:
Continuous reading instruction with an emphasis on developing strategic knowledge for dealing with unknown words and comprehension; improving adolescent literacy rates requires reading instruction that continues in content areas across grades, especially as adolescents are required to read more demanding materials while responding to increasingly complex tasks and studies have confirmed the importance of direct and incidental vocabulary development (and teaching comprehension) through activating prior knowledge, determining importance, imagery, and summarization, across age groups.…
AEE Fact Sheet. (2007). Alliance for Excellent Education. [Online]. Available: http://www.all4ed.org/publications/ReadingNext/AdolescentLiteracyFactSheet.pdf .
Conley, Mark W. And Kathleen a. Hinchman. (2004). "No Child Left Behind: What it Means for U.S. Adolescents and What We Can Do about it the No Child Left Behind Act Promises All Students a Better Chance to Learn, but Does That Promise Include Adolescents?" Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(1):42.
Jobs for the 21st Century. (2006). Alliance for Excellent Education. [Online]. Available: http://www.all4ed.org/publications/Adolescent%20Literacy%20Policy%20Update.pdf .
This could hurt the ability of educators to evolve with new difficulties. At the same time, it is illustrating the benefits that this can provide inside the classroom. (Lee, 2008)
Key Elements: Select 2 key ideas from the article and consider how you can effectively connect them to your research question.
Two key ideas from the article include: using technology to speak to students in a format they understand and utilizing key phrases / words during the discussion. The way these insights are connected to the research question is they provide tools and techniques for improving diversity on the middle school level. This helps these institutions to more effectively accommodate a wide variety of students from contrasting backgrounds. (Lee, 2008)
eflection: Explain various ways that you could incorporate the learning theory expressed in the article into your teaching methods. Also, explain how the theory demonstrates Christian principles in teaching.
Lee, O. (2008). Science Curriculum and Student Diversity. The Elementary School Journal, 109 (2), 123 -- 137.
In short, there are numerous reasons to state the need for intervention of school counselor during the middle years, all of which can be summed up under the discovery that middle school students perform better academically, consider more intensively their future, and possess more achievement -- styled goals when they are in touch with a mentor (Zirkel, 2002). Students, at all ages, make choices, but middle school students are likely, for the first time, to make autonomous and independent choices that may significantly effect the rest of their life. Students seek differentiation from parents, responsibility, and independence, and it is the role of the counselor to assist students with decision-making skills and to help them select choices that are healthy and growth promoting.
Other areas that students need assistance in dealing with are class electorates as well as negotiating their way between multiple teachers and new peer groups. This complex…
Akos, R, Konold, T., & Niles, S. (2004). A career readiness typology and typal membership in middle school. The Career Development Quarterly, 53, 53-66.
Cobb, N. (2001). Adolescence: Continuity, change, and diversity (4th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Eccles, J., & Templeton, J. (2002). Extracurricular and other after-school activities for youth. Review of Research in Education, 26, 113-180.
Mahoney, J., Cairns, B., & Farmer, T. (2003). Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 409-418.
middle school, high school, and now college, is my ability to focus on an academic task when I really need to buckle down and concentrate. I get decent grades because I can give enough focus at the last minute, some call it "cramming," to get through the test, or get the paper done in time. But because I can't bring a consistent sense of concentration in a regular pattern, I become stressed when time comes to be tested, or to turn in a research paper or essay.
When I am assigned to read a book, I have a problem concentrating on the text, and very often I have to go back and read the whole previous page over again because I have no idea what I just read. Even very interesting fiction, my mind drifts off while I'm reading. But I have come to grips with my reading problem and…
In the future, this can hurt the conclusions and findings. (Hill, 2009)
Key Elements: Select one or two key ideas from the article and consider how you can effectively connect them to your research question.
The two most important ideas from the article are: increased parental involvement and improved academic socialization strategies. These ideas will help to promote diversity by having the student learn in a format and background they are comfortable with. Then, these concepts are reinforced using socialization to help the individual understand them from contrasting perspectives. This is the point that diversification is improving inside the classroom. The way that these ideas relate to the research question, is they are highlighting specific tools that are used to achieve these objectives. (Hill, 2009)
eflection: Explain various ways that you could incorporate the learning theory expressed in the article into your teaching methods. Also, explain how the theory demonstrates…
Holly Bible New International Version. (1983). Lebanon, TN: The Gideon's.
Hill, N. (2009). Parental Involvement in the Middle School. Developmental Psychology, 45 (3), 740 -- 763.
Activity Description and Summary
The community involvement activity I participated in was supervising a my middle school's fall dance. This activity required me, along with several other peers, to monitor and regulate the dance activities. The dance lasted 3 hours and was held in the school gymnasium where I teach.
Program Outcome ationale
The Program Outcome that most reflects this activity is School and Community Leadership. The outcome objectives are as follows for this selection:
Build strong community relations by modeling and promoting equity, fairness, and respect among faculty, staff, students, parents and community leaders.
Provide opportunities for stakeholders to develop and use skills in collaboration, shared decision making and responsibility for the purpose of maintaining a comprehensive program of positive home/school relationships.
Acknowledge and respect the goals, values, and aspirations of diverse family and community groups by engaging the support of business, philanthropic, political, social, and civic…
American College of Education. November 2013 Graduate Catalog.
Elias, M.J., Zins, J.E., Graczyk, P.A., & Weissberg, R.P. (2003). Implementation, sustainability, and scaling up of social-emotional and academic innovations in public schools. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 303-319.
These exams would also tap teaching performance and other capabilities unlikely to be adequately assessed using conventional paper along with pencil instruments." (Shulman, 1986, pp. 4 -- 14)
These different elements are important, because they are providing a foundation for helping the schools to become more competitive in mathematics. As, they are working together to create a basic standard for: improving learning comprehension and provide the ability to solve more complex issues. Over the course of time, this will help to increase the student's ability to understand a wide variety of concepts. This is the point that they will be more prepared to deal with the various challenges that they are facing in the 21 century. Once this occurs, it will help them to establish a foundation for adapting to the changes that they will have to deal with from: shifts in technology and through these transformations because of globalization.…
Content Knowledge for Teaching. (2010). Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Diagnostic Mathematics Assessment. (2011). University of Louisville. Retrieved from: http://louisville.edu/education/research/centers/crmstd/diag_math_assess_middle_teachers.html
Elementary and Secondary Education. (2004). NSF. Retrieved from: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind04/c1/c1s1.htm#c1s1l3a
Frequently Asked Questions. (2011). Core Standards. Retrieved from: http://www.corestandards.org/frequently-asked-questions
The Grace A. Dunn Middle School (grades 6, 7, and 8) in Trenton, New Jersey, has a demographic that reflects the ethnic diversity of the community. The Dunn Middle School is composed of: 5% Asian; 28.88% African-American; 60.93% Hispanic / Latino; 3% Native American; and 5% Caucasian (www.movoto.com).
There are approximately 289 females at Dunn Middle School (48% of the student population) and 310 males (52%).
How do the school's demographics match up with Trenton's demographics in Dunn Middle School's 08610 Zip Code? The neighborhood is composed of: 10% African-American; 2% Asian or Pacific Islander; 2% "mixed races"; 3% "others"; and 83% Caucasian. In the 089610 Zip Code, 48% of the population is male and 52% is female, the reverse of the population at Dunn Middle School.
As to the comparison between the Dunn Middle School and the reported ethnicities in the neighborhood, nearly 29% of Dunn School is…
Grace A. Dunn Middle School. (2012). Movoto School Rank for Grace A. Dunn Middle School.
Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://www.movoto.com .
Jersey Journal. (2012). Crime in Trenton still a hot topic at council meeting. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://www/nj.com.
Neighborhood Scout. (2012). Crime Rates for Trenton, NJ. Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://www.neighborhoodscout.com .
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…
Wake County Public Schools/Middle School Curriculum/Raleigh, NC/
New York State Education
This is an area that receives little attention, but it promises to be fruitful if attention is given to it. The health practitioner will combine attempts to reach this group with administrative policy and in combination; there will be a moderation of the problem at school.
The popular kids at school set the norms of the schools and influence the values within the school. The popular kids are generally not the ones who are obese they may make fun at obese children. An awareness program that allows popular children to observe the impact of their taunts and other unkind comments on their peers may strike within their hearts a desire to become part of the solution rather than the problem. When combined with an administrative approach that encourages more exercise that is physical and coupled with a school climate of support for eating healthy food. This strategy will create changes…
Anderson, Patricia M. And Butcher Kristin F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential
Causes the Future of Children, 16: (1): 19-45.
CDC Fact Sheet: Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meal Programs.
Crosnoe Robert & Muller Chandra (2004) Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and School Context: Examining the Educational Experiences of Adolescents at Risk of Obesity. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45 (4):393-407.
These include: question/answer, lecture, demonstration, discussion, individual student projects, laboratory, technological activities, and supervised practice. Previous research has demonstrated that the use of informal knowledge, real world settings and opportunities to apply mathematical thinking are effective instruction methods for introductory algebra. For this reason, instructional factors are related to achievement in algebra (p. 102).
When comparing the test scores from Japan and the United States, House and Telese (2008) found a correlations between positive beliefs in the student's mathematical ability and their test scores. Those who believed they could do well in math performed better than those who expressed a negative opinion about their skills, when compared to their peers. In addition, students who worked problems on their own had higher test scores. This supports Silver's (1998) analysis that much of the reason why American students have poorer test scores than their international peers is due to the classroom instructional…
Falco, L., Crethar, H. & Bauman, S. (Apr 2008). "Skill-builders: Improving middle school students' self-beliefs for learning mathematics." Professional School Counseling, 11(4). p. 229-235.
House, D. & Telese, J. (Feb 2008). "Relationships between student and instructional factors and algebra achievement of students in the United States and Japan: An analysis of TIMSS 2003 data." Educational Research & Evaluation, 14(1). p. 101-112.
Silver, E. (Mar 1998). Improving mathematics in middle school. Lessons from TIMSS and related research. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from http://www2.ed.gov/inits/Math/silver.html .
Middle school officials have been reporting a rash of mysterious absences recently. Upon examining information given by those officials and corellated by health department staff there appears to be a pattern to the absences. In the month of April there were only minor similarities in time and occurence of these absences in two schools. In contrast, in the month of May there were quite a few absences in two of the schools, Jackson and Truman, but not in the others.
The similarities first appear in the period of late April to early May, but those are few in number. The spike in absences occurs in May, from the 19th to 25th. There are two hypotheses for these occurences. The first hypotheses is that the absences are due to something as simple as the common cold. The second hypotheses for the spike in absenses is food poisoning or a…
Community Health dept. Intranet Kaplan.edu
Food Poisoning. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.livestrong.com/article/17793-common-causes-poisoning/#ixzz1E6UcQg57
West Nile Virus. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm
Preventing Dropouts Among Minority Middle School Students
The dropout rate of minority middle school students is rising. This can be contributed to a number of factors that cultivate frustration and develop low self-esteem among minority adolescent students. Middle school students already struggle with self-image issues, but when the added pressure of factors such as low literacy skills, poverty within the home, early pregnancy and low regard for education are also introduced, these students become lost in the system and develop the desire to give up or dropout thus eliminating their opportunity to break the cycle of poverty by becoming educated and obtaining higher level paying employment.
Statement of Significance
The educational sector is under pressure to meet the new federally mandated guidelines of the "No Child Left Behind" legislation. Early childhood education has previously been the focus of the national goal that every child will read by the time they…
Adam, M. (2003). Fighting the latino dropout rate. Education Digest, 6, 23-28.
Banfield, K., Johnson, P, Thomas, P., Thieroff, A. (2002). Defying latino statistics. New York
Amsterdam News, 10, 18.
Benz, M.R., Lindstrom, L., & Yovanoff, P. (2000). "Improving graduation and employment outcomes of students with disabilities: Predictive factors and student perspectives. Exceptional Children, 66(4), 509-529.
A Practical Comprehensive Career Counseling Plan for Middle School Students
Thankfully, dreams can change. If we'd all stuck with our first dream, the world would be overrun with cowboys and princesses. – Stephen Colbert
Many young people have a general idea about what they “want to be when they grow up,” but as the epigraph above makes clear, these ideas tend to change over time as they learn more about the world and what types of occupations are available to them. To this end, career counselors can facilitate this process by helping students learn more about their viable career choices depending on their individual preferences and aptitudes. This paper describes a proposed “career day/fair” for middle school students to help them become more knowledgeable concerning their career choices followed by a summary of relevant career counseling contributions by other researchers. Finally, an explanation concerning the importance of addressing career education…
Working with young people in an educational setting can be an enlightening experience, and one can quickly discover that most young students will do almost anything possible to please their teacher. This can be especially true in the elementary grades, but oftentimes the enthusiasm shown by these youngsters begins to wane by the time they reach the middle school groups.
Teachers of middle school students are therefore faced with instructing students who may or may not be motivated to be instructed, and this can be a very difficult situation, specifically when regarding a basic skill such as reading. Experts agree that "reading is a fundamental and necessary skill in order to successfully participate in society, yet employers lament that high school graduates lack the necessary literacy skills to be productive employees" (Kelley, Decker, 2009, p. 467). Many times the lack of reading skills can be traced directly to the lack…
Aarnoutse, C. And Schellings, G.; (2003) 'Learning reading strategies by triggering reading motivation, Educational Studies, Vol. 29, Issue 4, pp. 387-409
Fawson, P.C. & Moore, S.A.; (1999) Reading incentive programs: Beliefs and practices, Reading Psychology, Vol. 20, Issue 4, pp. 325-340
Gambrell, L.B.; Palmer, B.M.; Codling, R.M.; Mazzoni, S.A.; (1996) Assessing motivation to read, the Reading Teacher, Vol. 49, No. 7, pp. 518 -- 533
Guthrie, J.T.; Mcrae, a.; Klauda, S.L.; (2007) Contributions of concept-oriented reading instruction to knowledge about interventions for motivations in reading, Educational Psychologist, Vol. 42, Issue 4, pp. 237 -- 250
Fluency and Literacy in a Middle-School Math Classroom
Eyes roll at the sight of dreaded word problems. "I hate word problems," says the student. A familiar scenario for a middle school math teacher. Initially, such a math teacher might assume that the complaining student has difficulty translating words into mathematical concepts -- in other words, that the student does not understand the concept behind the math, but merely how to manipulate numbers, in imitation of the teacher, on sigh. hile this may be the case, Richard Allington also raises the provocative concept of reading fluency as an additional problem in the math classroom -- the student may understand the math, but feel so uncomfortable with the concepts he or she finds the additional manipulations required by the word problem to be tedious and time consuming. In other words, he or she has a low level of fluency, even though he…
Allington, Richard. What Really Matters for Struggling Readers. New York: Longman, 2001.
Journal Reflections on a Dust Bowl Tale
Out of the Dust -- the Depression in Adolescent Poetry
It is difficult to think of this work as too dark for young individuals, even middle school children, because of its emotional truth and absence of sensationalism. It is written in the poetic voice of an articulate young women about concerns many young people face in real life, namely that of death of a loved one, guilt, and also coping with physical accidents. Moreover, the death of Billie Joe's mother is not gratuitous, or merely a death for sensationalism's sake. The book shows the effects death of a young person's main maternal figure upon a family and a great historical economic crisis, that of the looming Great Depression in the Dust Bowl of Midwestern America. The historical context of the novel gives an added importance and weight to the mother's death and the…
Hesse, Karen. Out of the Dust. New York: Scholastic 1997.
eading is a fundamental part of a child's education. Many techniques have been utilized in an effort to make learning to read and reading comprehension easier for students (McCray 2001). One such technique is Sustained Silent eading (SS). The purpose of this discussion is to investigate Sustained Silent eading as it relates to reluctant middle school aged children. Let us begin our investigation by discussing the theoretical framework of Sustained Silent eading.
Sustained Silent eading (SS)
Jenson & Jenson (2002) report that The Uninterrupted Sustained Silent eading program (USS) was first implemented by Lyman Hunt at the University of Vermont during the 1960's (Jensen & Jensen 2002). By the 1970's the program was implemented into the American public school system (Jensen & Jensen 2002). Forty years after its initial inception this same program has an array of aliases including: Motivation in Middle Schools (MIMS), High Intensity Practice (HIP), Free Voluntary…
Broughton, M.A., & Fairbanks, C.M. (2003). In the Middle of the Middle: Seventh-Grade Girls' Literacy and Identity Development Here Is a Look at the Ways in Which a Group of Girls Perceived Themselves and How Their Perceptions and Behaviors Changed as They Moved from the Sixth Grade to the Seventh Grade: The Middle of Middle School. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 426
Brozo, W.G., & Hargis, C.H. (2003). Taking Seriously the Idea of Reform: One High School's Efforts to Make Reading More Responsive to All Students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 14
Crawford P.C.2004. Using Graphic Novels to Attract Reluctant Readers. Library Media Connection
Graham, S., & Taylor, A.Z. (1998). Exploring Achievement Values Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 606-620.
Mark Horton: A Nevada Middle School Teacher Who Compromised His Duty to Teach
ecently, a Las Vegas, a Nevada middle school teacher, Mark Horton, has been accused, by several students and their parents, of compromising his duty to teach, by engaging in lewd and lascivious behavior with young adolescent girls from his classes. According to Curreri and Planas:
Students in Marc Horton's physical education classes at Garside Middle
School called him "Mr. Horton." Other students, however, knew the 27-year-old teacher as "Softball Stud" or by one of his online computer identities,
"sleepiweasel77." Horton's apparent popularity with a handful of 13- and 14-
year-old girls, however, has resulted in his gaining another title: accused sex offender. (Las Vegas eview Journal, June 7, 2005, 1B)
Allegations of improper professional conduct by Horton include improper comments to and touching of these students, both inside and outside the classroom, as well as inappropriate e-mails…
Currieri, A, & Planas, J. Middle school teacher suspended for sexual misconduct. Las Vegas review journal. 7 Jun 2005. 1B.
Stein, N.D. (Summer 1995). Sexual harassment in school: The public performance of gendered violence. Harvard educational review,65(2). 145-
"What is sexual harassment?" The guidelines of the preventing from [sic] sexual harassment.Kokugakuin University. Retrieved July 15, 2005, from: http://www
As Kleiner & Movo*****z-Hadar show, the burden of proof lies with the mathematician eager to uncover some unknown universal law or theorem. His or her colleagues will, as the authors point out, be harangued and criticized because of a general resistance to new ways of thinking or profound revelations. Because of the difficulty in obtaining proof and subsequently communicating those proofs to the academic community, math remains one of the last bastions of reason in our society. Mathematics stimulates analysis and critical thinking, essential components of a good life. Philosophers use proofs too, such as to illustrate the existence or non-existence of God. Perhaps the most salient issue brought out by Kleiner & Movo*****z-Hadar in their article and the one most relevant to modern classrooms is their celebration of diversity of thought. While mathematics may occasionally manifest as speculation or even intuition, ultimately mathematicians demand proof: evidence, firmness, and rigorous…
Kleiner, Israel & Movo*****z-Hadar, Nitsa. "Proof: A Many-Splendored Thing." The Mathematical Intelligencer. 1997. 19(3).
Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9).
3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that have already been designed for the schools. How these previous policies have played roles in an improvement of academics of the children, their environments and their health are important parts of the review by the policymakers. It is important that funding is collected for the issues that affect health and academics of children.
4. The policymakers should make sure that the importance of school-based health clinics that can play roles in looking after the needs of the students.
Basch, C. (2011). Executive Summary: Healthier Students Are Better Learners. Journal of School Health 81, pp. 4-107.
Bruzzese, J., Sheares, B.J., Vincent, E.J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M.J., Mellins, B.R., and Evans, D. (2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2011 183, pp. 998-1006.
Gall, G., Pagano, M.E., Desmond, S., Perrin, J.M., and Murphy, J.M. (2000). Utility of Psychosocial Screening at a School-based Health Center. Journal of School Health 70, pages 292 -- 298.
Geierstanger, P.S., Amaral, G., Mansour, M., and Walters, R.S. (2004). School-Based Health Centers and Academic Performance: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations. Journal of School Health 74, pages 347 -- 352.
Moal chaacte, that is, having couage, being pesistent, dismissing distactions and so on in pusuit of the goal.
These ae attempts to define ethics by descibing actions, and faily specific constellations of actions at that. Fedeich Paulson, a 19th centuy philosophe of ethics, defined ethics as a science of moal duty (1899).
Almost 100 yeas late, Swenson also used the concept of study in defining ethics, saying that it included the systematic study of concepts such as ight and wong. Othe eseaches note that the idea of systematic study is common in dictionay definitions of ethics, with the Ameican Heitage Dictionay focusing on thee elements: " the study of moal philosophy, the ules of a pofession (o moe boadly the chaacte of a community), and moal self-examination (Soukhanov, 1992).
Hill (2004) offes a 'definition' that is mainly pactical but also incopoates some theoetical content. They believe that ethical…
references for confidentiality of records. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 62-67.
Welfel, E.R. (1992). Psychologist as ethics educator: Successes, failures, and unanswered questions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 182-189.
Welfel, E.R. (1998). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Welfel, E.R. (2002). Ethics in counseling and psychotherapy: Standards, research, and emerging issues (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Schools and Education
Over the last several years, the field of education has been facing tremendous challenges. This is because of shifts in how they address a host of issues and there are changing demographics of students. These are all signs of broader social implications which are having an effect on individual performance and their ability to adapt with a variety of situations. (Rury, 2013)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Rury (2013) who said, "e live in a time of considerable social and political turmoil, marked by economic uncertainty that has directly touched the lives of millions of Americans. Deep divisions and critical problems, as a range of issues are debated fervently, extending from economic policy, to poverty and inequality. If there is anything everyone seems to agree upon it the growing importance of education for the future. ithout expanding our present knowledge and abilities, it…
Ballantine, Jeanne. 2012. Schools and Society. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Hendrix, L. (2013). Education and Society. (Educational Autobiography).
Morris, Edward. 2012. Learning the Hard Way. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Rury, John. 2013. Education and Social Change. New York: Routledge.
Every school board now offers school-to-work (STW) programs, which are designed to meet the needs of a large portion of today's students - those who are work-bound as soon as they graduate high school. Many of these programs allow students to enroll as apprentices and accumulate hours and experience towards a qualifying certificate in a specific profession while earning credits towards their high school graduation diploma, as well.
While advocates of such programs argue that they give additional relevance and meaning to the educational process as a whole and give students real opportunities to make connections between theory and actual practice, opponents believe that these types of programs are pervasive and prevent students from receiving a thorough and valuable education.
This paper supports the opposing viewpoint of school-to-work programs, arguing that education that concentrates on job training results in graduates who are less adaptable and less able to…
Brandeis University. (1992). Future options education: Careers and middle school youth. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University.
Cook, Mary. (June, 2001). Do School-to-work Programs Help or Hinder Education? Ingram's Education Edition.
Starr, Linda. (1998). STW Programs. Education World. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.education-world.com/a_admin/admin081.shtml.
The 21st Century Education Foundation, (2001). U.S. Department of Education. School to Work Initiative. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.buildbridges.net/businesses/schooltowork.htm.
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ;d=5026476147' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…
Anderson, J.G. (1987). Structural equation models in the social and behavioral sciences: Model building. Child Development, 58, 49-64.
Arlin, M. (1976). Causal priority of social desirability over self-concept: A cross-lagged correlation analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 267-272.
Averill, P. (1987). The role of parents in the sport socialization of children. Unpublished senior thesis, University of Houston.
Bandura, a. (1969). A social-learning theory of identificatory processes. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 213-262). Chicago: Rand McNally.
Students who are bussed to a larger school can use the time to be productive; reading, homework, etc.
1.5-2 hours per day of commuting is unacceptable for students and will eat into their family and work time.
A larger school will provide greater opportunity for social networks, sports, music, drama, and more extracurricular activities.
Loss of community will make the younger students uncomfortable as well.
A larger school will provide greater academic opportunities for the HS students in preparation for university; there are more resources available.
The student to teach ratio will change and the students will be part of just another large classroom.
Thus, the question really comes down to potential. Neither side can equivocally state that the future of the students will be better or worse; there are arguments for both as well as the possibility that the solution will be quite positive for some,…
Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.
Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. New York: Sage.
Groves, R. a. (2003). Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books.
Hatton, J. (1996). Science and Its Ways of Knowing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Benjamin Cummings Publishers.
And when the parent comes to an event held in the classroom, it makes good sense to have interpreters available, and "invite the extended family," which of course is a very welcoming act of kindness and good judgment. The other parent in this list of "types" is the "Busy Parent," who is a person with a work schedule that is hard to get a hold of, or plan meetings for. Get the cell phone number of parents like this, and the email addresses, and "continue to send home their children's work on a regular basis, including writing samples, artwork, and test copies" - and even consider taking digital photos of class activities and attaching those pictures to emails that go to parents.
On a more serious note, the literature on school administration duties as far as training staff to be parent-active and family-friendly offers an article called "here's the Ministry…
Beaudoin, Nelson. (2006). Giving Stakeholders a Voice. Educational Leadership, 63(8), 74-75.
Flannery, Mary Ellen. (2005). A field guide to parents: famed for its vast appetite for information
And ability to protect its offspring, the parent genus has nonetheless eluded scientific study.
Until now. NEA Today, 24(2), 36-38.
School Legal Entanglement Plan
This Legal Entanglement Plan seeks to examine the policies, programs, strategies, and practices of a particular school with respect to its moral, legal, and ethical implications. The plan is developed based on a three-step process that will help in addressing the issue that could potentially become a liability or legal entanglement if left unaddressed. The plan will help in addressing the issue since it will be communicated to appropriate stakeholders.
Step 1 – Analysis
Moral and Legal Issues in School Strategies
One of the moral, ethical or legal issue facing Carson Elementary School in West Price and could escalate into a legal entanglement is school bullying, which poses significant threats on the welfare and well-being of students. Bullying is a broad concept that involves intentional aggression, power imbalance between the perpetrator and victim, and repetitive aggressive behavior (Cornell & Limber, 2015). Carson Elementary School recognizes that…
"Failure of any district to budget funds to meet statutory requirements is a very serious matter and will result in the executive county superintendent rejection of the budget. The district will be advised of any lack of budget approval with specific recommendations on necessary corrective revisions." (New Jersey Department of Education 2013, P 14).
3. Key Budget Terminology
There are numerous terminologies with regard to the school district budget. The most important budget terminologies are
The revenue is the money received by the school district within an accounting year. A fund is part of the revenue and there are four sources of revenue for the school district and this include:
Intermediate source, state, and Federal sources.
Expenditures are the expenses that the school district must fulfill within an accounting year. Part of the school district expenditures are the payment of teachers' salary, and travel expenses for…
Ernest & Young (2012).U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS the basics. Ernst&Young LLP.
State of New Jersey (2008).The Uniform Minimum Chart of Accounts for New Jersey Public Schools. Department of Education, Division of Finance.
New Jersey Department of Education (2013).Budget Guidelines Fiscal Year 2013-2014.Office of School Finance.
Several areas, if poorly designed, can lead to violent and criminal behavior, including parking lots, isolated spots on campus, locker rooms, and corridors. Often, violent behavior occurs in these areas when adults are not present (Astor, Meyer, and Behre, 1999, p. 3). Designing schools with more open areas, more planned classrooms, and a more defined perimeter can create a safer, less violent campus by creating a more functional and enjoyable educational experience. Thus, older, poorly designed schools often attract more violent behavior.
Location can also be a risk factor in certain schools, although that is not always the case. Another researcher notes, "Some urban schools are located [...] in slum neighborhoods where drug sellers routinely kill one another, as well as innocent bystanders, on the streets surrounding the school" (Toby, 1994, p.169). Children growing up in violence prone neighborhoods such as these may simply accept violence as a way of…
Astor, R.A. Meyer, H.A. And Behre, W.J. (1999). Unowned places and times: Maps and interviews about violence in high schools. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1, 3-42.
Crowe, T.D. (1990). Designing safer schools. School Safety. 43-47.
Jenkins, P.H.(1997). School delinquency and the school social bond. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 34 No. 3, 337-367.
May, D.C. (September 1999). Scared kids, unattached kids, or peer pressure: Why do students carry firearms to school? Youth & Society, Vol. 31 No. 1, 100-127.
eluctance of Parents to Visit the School
ole of Parents in Children's Education
Education has always been a very important part of human existence and has been an inseparable part of human civilization. There has been a lot of development on the education portal and mankind has learned great deal from the education function (Jeynes, 2005). Every milestone which is achieved and every development which is made in any direction is due to the knowledge provided through education. This function has been researched and is very much detailed in terms of style and method. Several researchers and experts have proposed and devised methods which can make education and knowledge imparting more effective and efficient (Hill & Tyson, 2009). Talking about a student at elementary level, it is all the more important to understand the needs of such young individuals and analyze the education function accordingly (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2007). This…
Jeynes, W.H. (2005).A metaanalysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education. 40(3), 237-269.
Stewart, E.B. (2008). School structural characteristics, student effort, peer associations, and parental involvement: The influence of school and individual level factors on academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 40(2), 179-204.
Hill, N.E. & Tyson, D.F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: a met analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 740-763.
Hill, N., and Taylor, L. (2004). Parental school involvement and children's academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4) 161-164.
The students will test you during these first few days. Without steadfast rules and well outlined disciplinary procedures, the students will not respect you.
In order to create a positive atmosphere of expectations, procedures and routines, it is also important to clearly outline to the class what is expected of them. However, in order to empower the classroom students, one beneficial strategy is to allow the students to help develop the classroom rules, procedures and expectations. y bringing the group together and making the classroom environment one in which they assisted in creating, the students will be more likely to both respect it and work with it.
Although there are numerous steps a teacher must take to create a successful learning environment in a full-inclusion classroom, taking firm and clear actions the first days of school are the most important. The purpose is to let the students know what the…
Gore, M.C. (2003): Successful Inclusion Strategies for Secondary and Middle School Teachers: Keys to Help Struggling Learners Access the Curriculum. SAGE Publications.
Hardmand, Michael L. (2007): Human Exceptionality: School, Community and Family. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Male, Mary. (2002): Technology for Inclusion: Meeting the Special Needs of All Students. Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Nowicki, Stephen and Marshall P. Duke. (1992): Helping the Child Who Doesn't Fit in. Peachtree Publishers.
The use of the Cognitive Tutor not only enriches students' experience at the academic task-level but also impacts the teachers' instructional practices and relationship with her students (Level 3) A district-wide survey of high school teachers using the program reveals that the Cognitive Tutor allows them more time to provide individual assistance to students; gives them the opportunity to adjust their instructional practices as a result of students progressing in problem solving; and makes Algebra more interesting and relevant to students (Schneyderman, 2001). These views imply that the use of the program makes teaching less burdensome in the sense that the teacher acts as facilitator of learning rather than instructor, which is one of the arguments for educational technology in general.
Due perhaps to the wide acceptance of the use of Cognitive Tutor and other instructional software in American classrooms, the "No Child Left Behind" Act called for…
Research evidence on implementation factors may suggest some explanations for the above findings. First, there are teacher-related issues. Technology products places demands on teachers' time and skills as they have to prepare the product, transfer the students to computer labs, maintain the technology, and monitor and help students as they use the software (Dynarski et al., 2007). Many teachers also feel that they have a significant need for professional development on how to manage classroom activities that integrate computer technology (Adelman et al. 2002 in Dynarski et al., 2007). In the ED study, although teachers underwent training and were confident at the end to use the products in their classes, their confidence dropped to some degree after they began using the products in the classroom (Dynarski et al., 2007). This may have been due in part to technical difficulties, which is another implementation factor issue. For instance, computer access may be limited, hardware can be unreliable, computer networks unstable, and technical support inadequate (Cuban, 2000 and Culp et al., 2003, in Dynarski et al., 2007). In the ED study, however, technical difficulties were considered "minor" as they were easily corrected or worked around (Dynarski et al., 2007).
These observations show how the other levels of school organization may affect the success of novel learning tasks and instructional design. Specifically, the teacher's belief about her efficacy and classroom management practices (Level 3) can send implicit and explicit messages to her students, that in turn may influence their academic performance (Eccles and Roeser, 1998). Hence, one of the recommendations of the ED study is to evaluate a second batch of students with the same teachers' implementing the products in their classroom. They hope to see the effect of teachers having prior experience and improved skills in using the products on students' performance (Dynarski et al., 2007). School resources (Level 5) in terms of adequate materials and technical capacity are also thought to be important for children's learning (Eccles and Roeser, 1998). Hence, it would be worthwhile to include recommending the upgrade of school computer networks and labs for Phase 2 of the ED study.
In summary, computer software such as the Cognitive Tutor can be beneficial for middle school and older students to improve their academic outcomes in challenging subjects like Math. For younger students such as those in grade school, the effectiveness of some computer software seems to be influenced by teacher and school factors. Although there is conclusive evidence from an ED study that reading and mathematics software don't significantly impact the performance of grade school and some middle school students, it could be worth addressing these contextual factors in a sequel study to re-evaluate the findings.
Another area that can be discussed in this section is the evidence of improvement in other after-school programs throughout the country. According to a study conducted by the University of California,
A two-year longitudinal Study of Promising After-School Programs examined the effects of participation in quality after school programs among almost 3,000 youth in 35 elementary and middle school after school programs located in 14 cities and 8 states. New findings from that study indicate that elementary and middle school students who participated in high-quality after school programs, alone or in combination with other activities, across two years demonstrated significant gains in standardized math test scores, when compared to their peers who were regularly unsupervised after school. Further, regular participation in after school programs was associated with improvements in work habits and task persistence. (Vandell, 2007)
The final area that investors are particularly interested in is whether their funds are…
Gardener, M., Roth, J., Brooks-Gunn, J. (2009). Can After-school Programs Help Level the Academic Playing Field for Disadvantaged Youth? Columbia University: Campaign for Educational Equity. Available at http://cms.tc.columbia.edu/i/a/document/11242_After-school_report_10-7-09_web.pdf
Vandell, D., Reisner, E., & Pierce, K. (2007). Outcomes linked to high-quality afterschool programs: Longitudinal findings from the study of promising practices. Irvine, CA:
University of California and Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates. Available at http://www.gse.uci.edu/docs/PASP%20Final%20Report.pdf
Performance Outcomes at Dunn Middle School in Trenton
Inner-city schools today are struggling with a litany of challenges that threaten the quality of education and the opportunities available to students. Issues such as high poverty rates, crime-afflicted neighborhoods, racial disparity and limited parental involvement all threaten to stand in the way of bright futures for such students. This is true for the attendees of the Grace A. Dunn Middle School in Trenton, which is working to overcome the obstacles typical of such resource-strapped urban schools. The discussion here outlines some of the areas of Dunn Middle School that require improvement and offers some suggestions on how to achieve this improvement.
Reviewing the Dunn Middle School performance outcomes, all evidence suggests that the school is in need of sweeping improvements. Under the thumb of mandatory state-proficiency tests, Dunn Middle School has struggled to yield any positive outcomes. The…
Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2008). ISLLC Standards. Coe.fgcu.edu.
Jennings, D.A. (2012). Schools in Need of Improvement in New Jersey. Statewide Parents Action Network.
NJ School Performance Report. (2013). Grace A. Dunn Middle School. State of New Jersey.
School Observation: Springfield Gardens Middle School
The focus of this school observation is PS 59, Springfield Gardens Middle School in New York City. The observation was conducted in three separate settings: a math class, the cafeteria, and the school's main office. The goal of the observation was to gain insight on the relationships between different stakeholders in the school community, including teachers, students, staff, administration, and parents, and how these relationships influence the connectedness of the school environment. The assumption is that school connectedness as summarized by Blum (2004), can be measured by the presence or absence of factors such as positive student-faculty rapport, high academic expectations, and publically displayed efforts to strengthen school culture and safety. The observations of the school, thus, considered school connectedness as evidenced by student-teacher rapport, exhibition of student work, teaching methods, and classroom comportment, and interaction between staff members. In addition, student body and…
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (2004). School "Connectedness: Improving Student's Lives." Baltimore, Maryland. Blum, R.
New York City Department of Education. (2010) "I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens: Progress Report, 2009-2010." NYC Department of Education, New York, New York. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/OA/SchoolReports/2009-10/Progress_Report_Overview_2010_EMS_Q059.pdf . 24, Feb. 2011.
New York City Department of Education. (2010) "I.S. 059 Springfield Gardens: Learning Environment Survey Report: 2009-2010." NYC Department of Education, New York, New York. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/OA/SchoolReports/2009-10/Survey_2010_Q059.pdf . 24,Feb. 2011.
Perhaps the biggest debate of public education over the past decade besides school vouchers has been the debate over whether or not it is legal to require students to wear a uniform to school. Increased crime, gang violence, poor academic performance in public schools has sparked the movement towards mandatory school uniforms. hile school uniforms may seem the perfect solution to the problem, to some its as good as putting a band-aid on a three-inch deep wound. There are many arguments for and against school uniforms in public schools; the main concern has to do with the legality of making uniforms compulsory for public school students. The focus of this paper will be to discuss the issues presented by those both for and against school uniforms. Additionally, the legality of such a policy if implemented will also be presented. Finally, facts and figures on those schools that have…
Brunsma, David and Kerry A. Rockquemore. "The Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement." 92(1): 53-62. The Journal of Educational Research (1998).
Court Orders School to Enroll Honors Student Who Protested Mandatory Uniform Policy. Retrieved on November 17, 2002 from web site http://www.aclu.org/StudentsRights/StudentsRights.cfm?ID=8077&c=156
Emert Suggests Mandatory School Uniforms. Retrieved on November 16, 2002 from web site http://www.morningsun.net/stories/092099/kan_0920990017.shtml
Holmquist, Micah. "Uniformed Public Schools." Retrieved on November 15, 2002 from web site http://www.stormpages.com/micahth/youth/su.html
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
SCHOOL ADVISORY PROGRAMS: Annotated Bibliography
Van Ryzin, M. (2010). Secondary school advisors as mentors and secondary attachment figures. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), 131-154.
his study assessed if students in two tiny secondary schools would actually nominate their advisor as part of their attachment hierarchy. he forty percent which nominated their advisor to be a secondary figure of attachment testified even more involvement in school and showed better gains in terms of adjustment and achievement in than those that did not. In accordance to the author, this particular finding could help in the development and refining of new theories regarding the factors which contribute to the success of mentoring relationships, together with the processes that aid in the growth and development of these relationships.
Johnson, B. (2013.) Linchpins or lost time: Creating effective advisories. Horace, 25 (2-3)
his study tested the theory that secondary school advisories are somewhat insidious around…
This article investigates the effect of a universal social-emotional program of learning, the Fast Track PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) program and teacher consultation, incorporated within the Fast Track selective prevention model. Measures examined educator and peer reports of violence, hyperactive-disruptive conducts, as well as social skills. Starting in the first grade and all through three consecutive years, teachers acquired training and support, and incorporated the PATHS program in their classrooms. The study investigated the major impacts of intervention and ways in which the child's traits and the environment in the school influenced results. The study concluded that properly-implemented multiyear social-emotional programs of learning could actually have important preventive impacts on the population-level aggression rates, social competency, as well as academic involvement in the elementary school years.
10. Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dymnicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D. & Schellinger, K.B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students' social and emotional learning: a meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Dev. 82(1): 405-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x.
This particular article presents results from a meta-analysis of 213 school-based, worldwide social and economic learning (SEL) programs entailing 270,034 kindergartens through high school learners. In comparison to controls, social and economic learning participants illustrated considerably better social and emotional skills, outlooks, manners, as well as academic performance which reflected an eleven percent point gain in success. School teaching personnel successfully carried out SEL programs. The utilization of four suggested practices for developing skills together with the presence of execution issues moderated the outcomes of the program. The findings of this study actually add to the growing experimental evidence-based outcome on the positive impact of social and emotional learning programs. Teachers, policy makers, and the general public are capable of contributing to healthy development of kids by encouraging the integration of evidence-based social and economic learning (SEL) programming into the standard educational practice.
This report is about my visit to the Roberto Clemente Middle School in Paterson, New Jersey. The visit was conducted on April 4th, in the afternoon. It was rainy. Paterson is a densely-populated urban area, and the school is in an urban neighborhood.
The visit was conducted by Dr. Goldman, who indicated that there was some issue that day where the students were scheduled to take a district test called Parcc but the system was down so that test had to be rescheduled.
This school caters to an ethnically diverse community. Dr. Goldman estimated that around 90% of the students speak another language at home, and use English mostly for school. The students are provided with bilingual classes in some case. The area is underprivileged, and most of the students receive a school lunch and breakfast. The school also provides what was termed "full service" for around 75…
It raises the need for both written and verbal communication skills to reach an optimum level that can persuade and cajole.
It is believed by many experts that this economic role will become more important in future years and that in order to achieve the status of superintendent, a candidate will have to display some experience or education in that field to ensure board members that he or she is capable of representing the district well (Thomas, 2002).
With Administrators, Staff and Teachers
School superintendents face a new level of issues when dealing with these three groups of employees, and it is very important how the man or woman in that position communicates layoffs, curriculum changes, school closures, firings, or an order to re-apply for their jobs, as has been done now in a significant number of districts around the country.
One of the superintendent's first priorities is to get…
Board perceptions. (2007, December). Retrieved May 28, 2009, from School Administrator Journal - GALE database (A172251160): .
Glass, T.E., Bjork, L., & Brunner, C. (2000). A study of the American school superintendency. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from eric.ed.gov (ED440475): http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/16/2d/e9.pdf
Hopper, J. (2005, December). Communication essentials: What superintendents need to know and want to share about communicating. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from Michigan edusource: http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:PvTiyj6oFJsJ:www.michiganedusource.org/PublicRelations/Supt_Communication_Essentials.doc+school+superintendents+communication+methods&cd=11&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
McAdams, D.R. (2009, February). Top 10 'guarantees' for a great relationship. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from EBSCO data base (AN 36326105): http://ezproxy.ppld.org:2054/ehost/detail?vid=2&hid=9&sid=99164b10-d3d2-43 AD-b5be-a37ac1448272%40sessionmgr7&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=tfh&AN=36326105
School Choice & the Social Construction of School Quality
In this article, Jennifer J. Holme explores how parents, who re-locate their homes for getting access to "higher quality" schools for their children, approach their choice of school. The author also seeks to understand the beliefs of such parents about what constitutes a "good and a "bad" school. Her research consists of interviews with forty-two selected parents who had used their financial resources to buy homes in school districts where they thought the best schools were located. The research reveals that the decisions of most parents in selecting or rejecting schools for their children are not based on knowledgeable information about the quality of schools and their choice is almost always based on information gathered from other parents in their social networks consisting of "high status," "high income" parents. The author concludes from her research that the parents give more credence…
The dedication shown by the principal, M. Jett, and the two instructors was truly tremendous, and it is obvious that the high-risk students attending ACE Academy are well served. The cramped environment, however, provides a challenge whose effects cannot really be mitigated while the school remains in the same space.
Though ACE Academy is only in its first year of operation, one way in which it could improve its educational process would be to establish an ongoing collaborative system of course adjustment and development, especially with the other schools in the county from which ACE's students come. This enables faster, more effective, and more directly needs-based instruction and courses to be developed (Lake 2003). The expansion of the school's physical size could also allow for the hiring of more instructors (in addition to the two currently employed by ACE Academy), which would further reduce the current student-teacher ratio and allow…
Jett, G. (2010). Personal interview, February 11.
Lake, E. (2003). "Course Development Cycle Time: A Framework for Continuous Process Improvement." Innovative higher education 28(10< pp. 21-33.
School Counseling in a Multicultural Society: An Overview
More and more diversity is becoming the buzzword in society at large and within educational facilities across the nation. As the population in the United States continues to become increasingly diversified and representative of individuals from varying ethnic, socioeconomic and racial backgrounds, educators are realizing an increased need for attention to the specific needs of diverse student populations.
The need for multicultural competencies development among school counseling professionals has recently been acknowledged by the American Psychological Association (1992) and the American Counseling Association (1995) whose ethnical standards dictate that school counselors should achieve a certain level of multicultural competence prior to embarking on a professional career in student counseling.
Despite the acknowledgment of a need for increased awareness and training to ensure a positive student/counselor relationship, there is little evidence that much is being done in the way of establishing a core…
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice [Brochure]. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611
Arredondo, P., Cheatham, H., Mio, J.S., Sue, D. & Trimble, J.E. (1999). Key words in multicultural interventions: A dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Atkinson, D.R., Morten, G., & Sue, D.W. (1998). Counseling American minorities: A
Another common use is in the generation of written work. Students can learn to revise and edit using a computer word processing program. Again, this supports the use of computers to learn keyboarding just as we teach manuscript and cursive writing: the keyboard is merely a third way to record information and generate data. Students can also learn to use spreadsheets and databases (Fouts, 2000), which can give them the tools to use computers in another way: to organize information, present it in a new way, or even to generate new information. For instance, even first graders can use a simple spread sheet to count how many red, blue, green and yellow m & m's are in a package, combine the information, average them, and with one or two keystrokes, produce a bar chart. In this way, computers can make higher levels of information available to students.
CHANGES in EDUCATION…
Fouts, Jeffrey T. 2000. "Research on Computers and Education:
Past, Present and Future." Prepared for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Selwyn, Neil. 2000. "Researching computers and education ®¢ glimpses of the wider picture." Computers & Education Vol. 3, pp. 93-101
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
interviews with school teachers. The author interviews three teachers and presents their empirical evidence as well as researched data to outline teacher assessments, and then presents some suggestions for change based on this gathered information. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
For the purpose of this research three teachers were selected for interviews. They were selected based on the grade levels that they teach, the diversity of the students both in ability and in ethnic background and size of population.
The three teachers used for this interview included an elementary school teacher, a middle school teacher and a high school teacher. The elementary school teacher was chosen because she works with an extremely diverse group of students. Her students come from four different nations and speak many languages other than English as the first language. In addition she has several special education students in her classroom which…
Student portfolios with a purpose.
The Clearing House; November 1, 2003; Juniewicz, Kit
Examining the quality of the evidence in preservice teacher portfolios.
Journal of Teacher Education; January 1, 2003; Delandshere, Ginette Arens, Sheila A.
Prestigious Leadership Program School
Every individual is influenced by core values that enable him or her to successfully extract meaning and significance from life. A number of my own specific achievements are directly related to attributes I have cultivated in response to the values that are important to me. These attributes are the defining points of my character and have consistently influenced my approach to and success in dealing with life itself. By nature I am analytical, disciplined and responsible, and these strengths have consistently allowed me to overcome obstacles and achieve my goals.
My ability to utilize logic and reason to analyze situations has played a significant part in my academic achievement, and allowed me to succeed in subjects in which others might necessarily not. I have always had the propensity to search for causes in relationship to determine the effects they produce. More importantly, I learned at a…
Students in these kinds of schools do not attend school longer, but they do not have a summer break that is longer than any of the other breaks that they take during the school year.
esearch done by McMillen (2001) indicated that there were 106 schools in the state of North Carolina that operated on the year-round school calendar for third through eighth grades during the 1997-1998 school year. McMillen (2001) then conducted an analysis of the academic achievements of these students and compared them to the academic achievements of students in the same grades that attended schools where the traditional calendar was still used.
Data for the study came from a database of statewide testing in which 95% of the public schools in the state participate. In order to determine the academic achievements of the students, McMillen (2001) looked at achievement test scores and demographic information that was collected…
References. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.ericdigests.org
Painesville City School District. (2008). Year Round Education. Retrieved February 20, 2008, at http://www.painevillecityschools.org
Polite, V.C. (1999). Combating educational neglect in suburbia: African-American males and mathematics. In V.C. Polite & J.E. Davis (Eds.), African-American males in school and society: Practices and policies for effective education (pp. 97-107). New York: Teachers College Press.
Poplin, M., & Weeres, J. (1992). Voices from the inside: A report on schooling from inside the classroom. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School, Institute for Education in Transformation.
Pothering, S.L. (1998). The decision-making processes of higher education undergraduate academic program development in a public liberal arts institution. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Caroline, 1998). UMI Dissertation Services.
The study used student projects as the main vehicle for integrating active learning methods into the lecture. The study took place during a 10-week class, with four projects being assigned to groups of size four to six. Projects centered on (1) statistical tests of goodness-of-fit; (2) design of a simple experiment and analysis of variance using two factors; (3) factorial design experiment and analysis; and (4) regression analysis. In each project, there was emphasis placed on the purposefulness of the experiment, the design, and the ensuing collection of data. Each project lasted about two weeks, including around 90 minutes of in-class work used for project instruction, questions, and discussion. A primary weakness of the research was insufficient time in which to conduct classroom presentations by the students themselves concerning their projects and the learning processes that took place.
Extent to Which Findings Can Be Generalized to Student Population. While the…
Heron, Alison H. (2003). A Study of Agency: Multiple Constructions of Choice and Decision
Making in an Inquiry-Based Summer School Program for Struggling Readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(7), 568.
Kvam, P.H. (2000). The Effect of Active Learning Methods on Student Retention in Engineering Statistics. The American Statistician, 54(2), 136.
Lewis, V.K. & Shaha, S.H. (Spring 2003). Maximizing learning and attitudinal gains through integrated curricula. Education, 123(3), 537.