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In contrast, the French hung on to fighting concepts that had been centuries old so that mostly anyone with a little military background could have guessed their response strategies in case of a war.
French Generals such as Ferdinand Foch and Philippe Petain were famous for their ingenuity during I, when the very concept of involving originality into warfare had brought them victory. However, considering the fact that Foch no longer lived to see his country fighting II, and, the fact that Petain seemed unwilling to share his knowledge with those involved in fighting against the Germans at the time, it would be easy to understand what kept France from properly using its forces.
The Germans had learnt a basic rule when concerning warfare: speed and maneuverability make the difference between a successful campaign and a fruitless one. Napoleon was known to have a fondness for offensive campaigns, being aware…
1. Black, Jeremy. (2003). "World War Two." Routledge.
2. Christofferson Thomas R., Christofferson Michael S. (2006). "France during World War II: From Defeat to Liberation." Fordham University Press.
3. Kaufmann J.E., Kaufmann H.W. (2006). "Fortress France: The Maginot Line and French Defenses in World War II." Praeger Security International.
4. Weber, Eugen. (1994). "The Hollow Years: France in the 1930s." Norton.
Indirectly, the technological and industrial endeavors of the First World War led to an increased emphasis on the importance of science knowledge and practical application throughout the country, and when there was no longer a war effort towards which to direct these energies, the fervor did not die away but rather found itself applied in new directions, such as crop dusting, increasing diversification of automobiles, and many other innovations (Highbeam 2010).
The 1920s ended with the market crash and the onset of the Great Depression, and though technology continued to advance its progress was necessarily slowed during this period. World War II saw a similar resurgence in technological and industrial innovations, however, and the following decade of the 1950s saw a major increase in the number and the affordability of many new or newer household technologies. Among these was the all important television, which would change the way the world…
Davidson, L. (2009). "WWI: New technologies." Accessed 8 June 2010. http://techcenter.davidson.k12.nc.us/group9/tech.htm
Highbeam. (2010). "The 1920s: Science and technology." Accessed 8 June 2010. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3468301016.html
Pursell, C. (2007). The machine in America. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
SCNET. (2010). "Information science in the twentieth century." Accessed 8 June 2010. http://www.libsci.sc.edu/BOB/istchron/ISCNET/ISC1940.HTM
S. system of communication was responsible for far too many problems, including the presidential conception of the value of the leader, Nhu Ding Diem. Key factors in this war were the misuse of technology in the south and intelligent use of simple technology by the north. The Battle of Diem Bin Phu was a classic miscalculation when the French thought that artillery could not be brought against them through the jungle. The North Vietnamese did just that, manually hauling big guns on jungle trails and over mountains, then followed with ammunition on bicycles. In addition they hid the guns in tunnels and set off charges in the jungle to confuse the French as to the sources of shelling.
After the French left, the U.S. set up Nhu Ding Diem as president of South Vietnam. Between him and his brother, they alienated more than half the population in short order with…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109396003
Best, Antony, Jussi M. Hanhim ki, Joseph a. Maiolo, and Kirsten E. Schulze. International History of the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge, 2004. Questia. 8 Oct. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109396005 .
Bull, Stephen. Encyclopedia of Military Technology and Innovation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004. Questia. 8 Oct. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106977476 .
Diffusion of innovation theory refers to the spread of ideas, materials, or strategies and can be applied both to counterterrorism policies or terrorist tactics themselves. By paying attention to the patterns of diffusion, governments can make more informed counterterrorism decisions or policies. At the same time, diffusion of innovation can show how terrorist tactics spread from one group to another or how extremism spreads throughout a region.
Applied to Boko Haram, the diffusion of innovation theory can show how terrorist tactics used by one extremist group spread or how extremist ideology spreads from one region or group to another. Likewise, diffusion of innovation can help the government of Nigeria better cultivate an informed and potentially evidence-based response policy by adopting counterterrorism tactics used by other nations in similar situations. For example, Boushey (2012) shows how public policy innovations are diffused. Punctuated equilibrium is a method of diffusion in which feedback…
innovation, design, creativity strategy organizations: Kudler
There are several key components to effective business and marketing strategy. Some of the most eminent of these are the prudent usage of creativity, innovation, as well as an appropriate design that customers and potential partners can relate to. An analysis of the strategy of two companies in particular, Kudler Fine Foods and iordan Industries, readily confirms these facts, and serves as a model for other organizations to pattern themselves after.
There is an innate simplicity in the strategy employed by Kudler Fine Foods, which was the creation of Kathy Kudler in the final years of the 20th century. The food retailer still relies on the marketing image of its founder simply trying to merge two exceedingly pragmatic ideas into one innovative one -- that in which it could "create one store that would stock a wide selection of the freshest ingredients as well…
Baihaqi. (2009). "Riordan manufacturing history." Riordan Manufacturing. Retrieved from http://riordan-manufacturing.com/riordan-manufacturing-history/
No author (2013). "About Kudler." Kudler Fine Foods. Retrieved from http://kudlerfinefoods.info/
No author (2010). "Riordan manufacturing: analysis of service request assessment." www.riordanmanufacturingblogspot.com.
Retrieved from http://riordan-manufacturing.blogspot.com/2010/04/riordan-manufacturing-analysis-of.html
Innovation at L3 Communications
Planning for Innovation
Management Systems and Innovation Metrics
Rewards and Incentives
Leadership's Commitment to Innovation
Leadership's Innovation Strategy Involvement
Ethics in Innovation
L-3 is a prime contractor in Command, Control, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C3ISR) systems, platform and logistics solutions, and national security solutions; L-3 is also a leading provider of a broad range of electronic systems used on military and commercial platforms (L-3, N.d.). The company's client base includes an array of different organizations such as the U.S. Department of Defense and its prime contractors, U.S. government intelligence agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Justice, allied foreign governments, domestic and foreign commercial customers and select other U.S. federal, state and local government agencies.
The L-3 concept was developed along three different central components that constitute the organization's…
Alipour, F., K., I., & Karimi, R. (2011). Knowledge Creation and Transfer: Role of Learning Organization. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), 61-67.
Halliday, S., & Beddie, F. (2009). Informal Learning. At a Glance. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, 12(1), 1-12.
Hooley, G., Greenley, G., Fahy, J., & Cadogan, J. (2010). Market-focused Resources, Competitive Positioning and Firm Performance. Journal of Marketing Management, 17(5-6), 503-520.
IMT. (N.d.). Innovative Micro Technology Receives Equity Investment From L-3 Communications to Partner on MEMS-based Strategic Technologies for Defense Applications. Retrieved from IMT: http://www.imtmems.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=89:innovative-micro-technology-receives-equity-investment-from-l-3-communications-to-partner-on-mems-based-strategic-technologies-for-defense-applications&catid=13:press-releases&Itemid=7
DRNC Leadership Practicum
Actions to Encourage Innovative Ideas
Major events are always a special concern to law enforcement and a test of its crowd control capabilities (Connors, 2007). Security management covers the entire duration of the events -- before, during and after. Even after the event, security management continues with the clearing up the place, administrative tasks, and debriefing and after-action report. The after-action report critiques all the operations conducted, such as deviations from the event plan and recommendations. Recommendations, in turn, tackle what should be kept and changes that should be made. These recommendations and changes may be innovative ideas from frontline officers on how to upgrade crowd control tactics. Frontline officers are valuable to the organization. They are more numerous than middle managers or frontline supervisors. They are also more knowledgeable about the situation and, at the same time, are the ones in daily contact…
Behn, R.D. (1995). Creating an innovative organization: ten hints for involving frontline workers. Vol. 27 # 3, State and Local Government Review: Government Leaders.
Retrieved on March 31, 2014 from http://govleaders.org/behn-innovation.htm
Connors, E. (2007). Planning and managing security for maor special events. Office of Community Oriental Policing Services: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on March
31, 2014 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/e07071299_web.pdf
Csh 21, La: Challenges and Innovations in Its Construction
Case Study House 21, LA. Challenges and Innovations in Its Construction
The Case Study House 21 (ailey House) epitomizes an icon in the Case Study program. It was implemented as a visionary project aimed at re-establishing the modern living that was implemented by John Entenza for arts and architecture magazine. After its completion in 1959, Arts and Architecture appreciated it as one of the immaculate imaginations in the development of the small contemporary house. It is pertinent to mention the development remains a vital global influence for architects. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges and innovations experienced in building by the time Case Study House 21 was developed. In this case, the paper analyzes the condition of the building industry regarding the materials and technologies available for construction.
As mentioned, the establishment of the above program was…
Dhir, R. K. et al. (2002). Innovations and Developments in Concrete Materials and Construction: Proceedings of the International Conference Held at the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK on 9-11 September 2002. Thomas Telford
Koenig, G. (2000). Iconic LA: Stories of LA's Most Memorable Buildings. New York: Balcony Press
Llinares-Millan, C., Fernandez-Plazaola, I. & Hidalgo-Delgado, F. (2014). Construction and Building Research. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
Rothstein, Mignon E. A Study of the Growth of Negro Population in Los Angeles and Available Housing Facilities between 1940 and 1946. University of Southern California.
technological innovations have had the greatest impact on this area in the last 100-200 years?
Technology and air war fare-
Originally, warfare was mainly perpetrated on ground due to the challenges in perpetrating war form the air. Within the last 100 years, however, huge progress has been made in technology that has led to a radical change in the field of air warfare in general leading to huge developments in that field. Three of the greatest inventions have been stealth technology, Rapture, and the drone.
tealth technology, also known as LO technology (low observable technology) involves a range of techniques that camouflages factors of air war such as personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, and missile and helps make them more invisible to preceptors on the ground. It also makes them more immune to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods. (Rao & Mahulikar, 2002). tealth technology was first developed…
Calo, M. (2011). The Drone as Privacy Catalyst. Stanford Law Review Online. 64 Stan. L. Rev. Online (29)
Mahulikar S.P., Sonawane H.R., & Rao G.A. (2007). "Infrared signature studies of aerospace vehicles." Progress in Aerospace Sciences 43 (7-8): 218 -- 245.
Rao G.A., & Mahulikar S.P. (2002). "Integrated review of stealth technology and its role in airpower." Aeronautical Journal 106 (1066): 629 -- 641.
Richelson, J.T. (2001). Science, Technology and the CIA. The National Security Archive. The George Washington University
Neuropharmacology & the Military
It is hard to argue with the basic premise -- the U.S. military exists to promote, by means of force or by means of deterrence backed by the threat of force -- American interests. In military situations, winning is the most important thing, and all other factors are secondary. This has always been true of military endeavors, and that has not changed today. Given that, the U.S. military seeks to be the world's best military. It is the best-funded, and it is the largest. It is also the most technologically-advanced. Where on one side of the technology ledger, the U.S. military is looking at robotics as the next innovation in combat, it is also examining the role that neuropharmacology can provide with respect to its human members, especially combatants. The United States military has a keen interest in neuropharmacology and the effects that it can have…
Farah, M., Smith, M., Ilieva, I. & Hamilton, R. (2014). Cognitive enhancement. Wires. Vol. 5 (2014) 95-103.
Forlini, C. (2013). Should physicians prescribe cognitive enhancers to healthy people? Academia.edu. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://www.academia.edu/2534780/Should_physicians_prescribe_cognitive_enhancers_to_healthy_individuals
Giordano, J. & Wurzman, R. (2011). Neurotechnologies as weapons in national intelligence and defense -- an overview. Synesis. Vol. 2011, T55-T71.
Ilieva, I., Boland, J. & Farah, M. (2012). Objective and subjective cognitive enhancing effects of mixed amphetamine salts in healthy people. Neuropharmacology. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://www.psych.upenn.edu/~mfarah/pdfs/MAS%20enhancement.pdf
Warfare to Napoleonic Era Warfare
Napoleonic era warfare is the battlefield strategies applied by national armies mainly in the 18th century. The warfare technique was engineered by Napoleon, who is believed by many historians to have been its master. The Napoleon warfare and French revolution led to the revolution of military tactics used. Today's warfare in contrast, refers to the methods, concepts, and technologies that were used by soldiers during and after the Korean War and World War 2. These methods and concepts are complex due to the widespread advancement of information technology
In fact, modern armies are required to modernize constantly to keep up with the modern warfare. Therefore, Napoleonic era warfare is both different and similar from today's warfare. This report endeavors to compare today's warfare to Napoleonic era Warfare.
Today's warfare uses complex methods and concepts due to the advancement in technology. There were the invention…
Barnett, Roger W. Asymmetrical warfare: today's challenge to U.S. military power. (Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, Inc., 2003).
Grant, R.G. Warfare in the modern world. (Austin, Tex.: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1999).
Haythornthwaite, Philip J. Napoleonic cavalry: Napoleonic weapons and warfare. (London: Cassell, 2001).
Rothenberg, Gunther Erich, and John Keegan. The Napoleonic Wars. (London: Cassell, 2000).
Supply chain management and logistics
Project Management Plan
the topic is a comparative study of logistic operation in the Military Vs commercial organization
Project Approval equirements
Many experts believe that there is not much of a parallel when it comes to the logistic operations in the Military and commercial organization. This proposal will show rather or not U.S. military logistics have no parallel in the commercial world -- from its scope and size to the lethal position of the term "mission-critical" throughout the course of wars. In this world, the soldier is the client waiting for products like bullets, food, water, medication and fuel for tanks and other war vehicles.
The purpose of the proposal is to gain a better understanding of the comparisons and differences among the two, with an end-state of affecting whether…
Chrlstgau, R. (2008, March 5). "Military PersoniK. I '.VilJ Not Parti- cipate In Any Activity Havin to do With (reatlnp. a Union for unlisted Men,." Retrieved from Ksouire: ***
Global Focus. (2015, February 13). Managing Supply Chains: What the Military Can Teach Business (and Vice Versa). Retrieved from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/managing-supply-chains-what-the-military-can-teach-business-and-vice-versa/
Quinn, J. L. (2014, May 5). THE ADVANTAGES AND D ISADVANTAGES OF UNIONIZATION WITHIN THE ARMED FORCES . Retrieved from ***
Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample
Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.
Carbon emissions and overall sustainability
anking and promotion characteristics with the military.
Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion
The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military
Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions
Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.
Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.
In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in…
1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1
2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf .
3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference
Potentially, this changes the way profit is used to build a larger network of computer users who now wish to harness the power of technology to develop a new world.
Chapter: 9 Socioeconmics
Berlin Wall Falls/Soviet Union Collapses
Citation: Koeller, D. (2003), Fall of the Berlin Wall. WebChron.
Tags: Political innovation, political/social upheaval, modernism in Europe
Summation: By the end of 1989, the Soviet-backed regimes of Eastern Europe no longer existed and the Berlin Wall, the quintessential symbol of the Cold War, had been decimated. This dissatisfaction with communism as practiced Soviet style was now being openly criticized, even in the ussian epublic, the so-called "homeland of communism." Extreme vocal critiques came first from the outlying republics and the ethnic minorities, many of who had been living in a tradition of autocracy for centuries. Gorbachev's message of change and openness, despite the appeal in the West, stripped the…
1972 in Review." (January 1973). UPI.Com.
Retrieved from: http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1972/1972-Election/12305688736666-2/#title
Butterworth, T. (May 24, 2007). Fifteen People Who Changed The World. Forbes.
Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/23/people-changed-world-tech-07rev_cz_tb_0524changers.html
This helps the nation to be able to protect its most vital secrets, by having a system that determines how and when information is released.
Identify and discuss at least three modern-day security applications that help both private and public security personnel secure locations and facilities.
Three different security applications that are being currently used include: network, host and anomaly-based protocols. A network-based solution is when you are analyzing the traffic patterns at your servers. This is important, because many unfriendly regimes will often try to conduct cyber attacks as a way to gain access to sensitive information. One way to monitor for this is to analyze the traffic patterns, where you are looking for unusual spikes. This will tell an organization early, if they are being targeted. A host-based protocol is when you are watching user logins and the kind of pages that people are visiting. In this case,…
Bell LaPladula Model. (2006). University of North Carolina. Retrieved from: http://www.cs.unc.edu/~dewan/242/f96/notes/prot/node13.html
Maximum Security. (2003). Indianapolis, IN: Sams.
Chapters 8, 9 and 10 in obert Burgelman's book help answer one of the questions posed for this assignment: "How do you resolve the apparent conflict between innovation as abandonment and strategy as persistence?"
Burgelman points out (151) that some big corporations seem to cling to highly conservative goals such as "minimal fluctuation, stability, and predictability" - which explains why the U.S. automobile industry was sluggish back in the 1970s and 1980s when it came to innovations. And because of that recalcitrance, the auto industry (123) was subsequently forced into change by the stunning success the Japanese auto industry's more efficient cars achieved.
To avoid those kinds of corporate hindrances, Burgelman suggests a "new-venture division" (NVD) should be part of corporate strategy. And so, within the structure of a visionary company, one should expect to see "two structures and associated cultures" (125): one, for existing technologies and a…
Burgelman, Robert A. Inside Corporate Innovation: Strategy, Structure, and Managerial
Skills. New York: Free Press, 1986.
Foster, Richard N. Innovation: the Attacker's Advantage. New York: Summit, 1986.
Moore, Geoffrey A. Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Technology Products
Improvement of Supply Chain Management Tools and Processes for Ultimate Strategic Achievement of Success in Military and Civil usiness
Today, both public and private sector organisations of all sizes and types are faced with the same need to optimize their supply chain management processes to the maximum extent possible in order to achieve and sustain high levels of performance and productivity. ecause supply chain management systems are frequently highly complex, it is vitally important to understand how these systems operate and what factors contribute to their successful management. Moreover, innovations in information technologies have changed the manner in which companies manage their supply chains, but these innovations have introduced yet additional management challenges. In this environment, identifying opportunities to optimize the supply chain management process represents a timely and important enterprise. To this end, this study reviews the relevant literature to provide an overview of supply chain management and the…
Bibliography." The Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 63-66.
"Parts of Supply Chain Management." (2015). Six Sigma. [online] available: http://www.sixsigmaonline.org/six-sigma-training-certification-information/parts - of-supply-chain-management.html.
Rosenbaum, B (2001, November/December), "The Technology-Enabled Supply Chain Network." Industrial Management, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 6-9.
Sabbaghi, A & Vardyanathan, G (2008, August), "Effectiveness and Efficiency of RFID Technology in Supply Chain Management: Strategic Values and Challenges." Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 71-74.
Smith, T (March 2003), "New Ideas for Streamlining the Supply Chain Game: Supply Chain Management Is Something Companies Are Becoming Increasingly Focused on, as the Task of Juggling Profits and Customer Satisfaction Becomes More Complex. Business Asia, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 22.
Leadership Styles of Sam Damon and Courtney Massengale
In the military setting, it is very common to hear statements like 'you are acting like a Courtney (Sam) on that issue'. Courtney Massengale and Sam Damon are the two main characters in the novel, Once an Eagle by Anton Myrer. The two are portrayed as significantly different army officers in a story that revolves around the key themes of unchecked ambition, devotion to country, career over family, corruption of power, ethics and morality, good vs. evil, and heroism. Both are portrayed as ambitious, dedicated, and aggressive men dedicated to the service of their country and its people; however, whereas Sam acts as a selfless, caring, and kind commander, Courtney presents himself as his exact opposite -- a charming professional out to portray a can-do image at whatever cost, even if it means stepping on his subordinate's toes just to get things…
ATTP. "Commander and Staff Officer Guide." Department of the Army, 2011. Web. 3 June 2015 https://fas.org/irp/doddir/army/attp5-0-1.pdf
Bass, Bernard and Riggio Ronald. Transformational Leadership 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Psychology Press, 2006. Print
JROTC. "Principles and Leadership." JROTC, n.d. Web. 6 June 2015 http://www.dimondjrotc.org/Leadership/Chapter1/Chapter1Lesson4/U2C1L4A0_Text.pdf
Mayer, Holly. Belonging to the Army: Camp Followers and Community during the American Revolution. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. 1999. Print
The 501st Combat Support Wing
The 501st Combat Support Wing is a U.S. Air Force unit based in AF Alcon Bury in England (501stCSW, n.d). The organization has its headquarters at the 3rd Air Force, amstein Germany. It served a community of more than 14,000 people. As a wing, it was able to provide combat support to facilitate communication, intelligent as well as global strike operations. The wing can trace its history to the World War II bombardment group, which operated and served the Pacific and was mostly used to bomb Japan's mainland. Between 1944- 1945, the tactical missile unit that carried the 501st served in Europe during the cold war. The combats objective was to ensure that the Norway and the UK based airbases were resourced, trained, and equipped. It was also supposed to ensure that it is sustained, and served well so that they could easily…
501st Combat Support Wing. (n.d.). Colonel Kevin P. Cullen, 501st Combat Support Wing (CSW) Commander. Retrieved from The Official Web Site of the 501st Combat Support Wing: http://www.501csw.usafe.af.mil/library/leadership/501stcswcommander.asp
501st Combat Support Wing. (2016, September 2). 501st Combat Support Wing. Retrieved from 501st Combat Support Wing: http://www.501csw.usafe.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=10607
The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.
After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."
This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…
Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.
Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html?wlc=1243220640
Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=
Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
Disruptive Technologies for the Military
Disruptive technologies are innovations that aid in creating new markets, eventually going on to disturb or even dismantle the current value networks and market, and to displace an older technology. Clayton M. Christensen, a professor at Harvard Business School, coined this term, now used frequently in technology and business literature for describing innovations that bring about improvements to any service or product, in ways not expected by the market (Lucas, 2012). The Professor first made use of the term in his best-seller "The Innovator's Dilemma" (published in the year 1997), wherein he classified new technologies into two groups: disruptive and sustaining. The former category refers to novel, inadequately refined technology, typically associated with performance issues, known only to some group(s), and normally lacking any proven practical use. Meanwhile, the latter category includes familiar technologies undergoing successive improvements. Disruption may be viewed from another perspective, if…
Brimley, S., FitzGerald, B., Sayler, S. & Singer, P.W. (SEPTEMBER 2013). Game Changers: Disruptive Technology and U.S. Defense Strategy, Center for American New Security
Christiansen, C. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
FitzGerald, B., Sayler, K., Lynn III, W.J. & Stavridis, J. (JUNE 2014). Creative Disruption Technology, Strategy and the Future of the Global Defense Industry, Center for American New Security.
Fonseca, M. (03/02/2014). Guide to 12 Disruptive Technologies. IntelligentHQ.com digital, retrieved from http://www.intelligenthq.com/technology/12-disruptive-technologies / on 20 February 2016
life stories in it in forming one's own DNP project.
Diffusion can be described as the procedure through which an innovation is conveyed via particular channels over time amidst members of a social system. An innovation, on the other hand, can be described as a practice, idea, or even object regarded as new by somebody or adoption unit (ogers, et.al). The process of diffusion basically entails both interpersonal communication and mass media channels. In the current world, information technologies like mobile phones and the internet are a representation of remarkable diffusion tools. Think of the following encounter of co-author Singhal in the Philippines.
In May 2006, as Singhal walked down Epifanio de los Santas Avenue (known as "Edsa") in Manila, Philippines, a Filipina associate noticed that "Edsa" was actually the street where cell phones brought down President Estrada's government. Taking in the bewildering look on Singhal's face, she explained that…
Cain, M., & Mittman, R. (2002). California Health Care Foundation -- Health Care That Works for All Californians. Diffusion of Innovation in Healthcare. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from http://www.chcf.org/~/media/MEDIA%20LIBRARY%20Files/PDF/PDF%20D/PDF%20DiffusionofInnovation.pdf
Rogers, E., Singhal, A., & Quinlan, M. (n.d.). Diffusion of Innovations. Retrieved March 10, 2016, from http://220.127.116.11:8088/2155562/Article_for_diffusion_and_innovations.
Thrower, T. (2014, December 7). Linked In. Disruptive Reinvention of Health Information Technology (HIT). Retrieved March 11, 2016, from http://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20141207004502-21163620-disruptive-reinvention-of-health-information-technology-hit
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…
bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.
Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.
Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.
Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.
Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
Military Field Artillery Advancements
Why the Tank was chosen as the topic for this paper
Essay Question: "Identify a change or development in warfare...which had a profound impact on the conduct of war between 1776 and 1918. Demonstrate why this change or development was important to the evolution of warfare."
The development in warfare...which had a profound impact on the conduct of war between 1776 and 1918... [and that was] important to the evolution of warfare was, in the opinion of this writer, the armoured tank. Granted, the very first tank, "Little Willie," was commissioned by the British in 1915 and wasn't put into use until the Battle of the Somme on September 15, 1916; and, granted, in WWI the tank did not have a "profound impact" on that war. But the tank's emergence in 1916 did indeed have a profound impact on the evolution of warfare into the…
Anderson, Rich. 2004. The United States Army in World War II. Military History Online.
Dastrup, Boyd L. 1992. King of Battle: A Branch History of the U.S. Army's Field
Artillery. Fort Monroe, Virginia: Office of the Command Historian, United States
Army Training and Doctrine Command.
Many renowned military analysts argue that concentration or mass is the most important principle of war. This is primarily because the combat tactic involves the concentration of an extremely huge quantity of military manpower and material as well as the development of military power with complete superiority over the enemy in relation to quantity. This principle of war is regarded as superior to other tactical approaches in battle such as combination of inferior mass with tactical opportunities for victory. Generally, the concentration of soldiers entails the decisive, harmonized use of superior fighting power for victory over an enemy. Given the significance of this principle in war, there are arguments that the U.S. committed a strategic mistake through breaching this principle of war through dividing its forces between Southwest Pacific and Central Pacific battles against Japan between 1943 and 1944. An analysis of the approaches employed by the U.S. Army…
Handel, M.I. (2001). Masters of war: classical strategic thought. London: Cass.
Marston, D. (2005). The pacific war companion. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.
Millett, A.R. (1996). Assault from the Sea: The Development of Amphibious Warfare between the Wars: The American, British, and Japanese Experiences. In Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett, eds. Military innovation in the interwar period. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rosen, S.P. (1991). Winning the next war: innovation and the modern military (pp. 130-147).
Did the war between Athens and Sparta set the stage for Philip II to rise to power?
Philip II's power worked out according to plan after his noticeable involvement in the 3rd Social War fought in the year 356 BC. Delphi was overrun and defeated by the Phocians. The Spartans as well as the Athenians entered the fray rooting for the Phocians. Though unable to unite in opposition to Philip II, the Athenians continued waging war till the treaty, Peace of Philocrates, was signed in the year 346 BC. South Greece was weakened further by such continuous discord. In the middle of this struggle, Philip II expanded his kingdom by capturing Crenides' urban areas and renaming it Philippi in the year 355 BC, destroying Methone in the year 354 BC, and annexing the Chalcidice promontory's ancient city Olynthus in the year 348 BC (MAG).
How did Philip II build the…
New Technology/Changes in Warfare from End of French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars to American Civil War eginning
Warfare Change in Technology
In France, reforms began after the great Seven-Year-long war. The war ended in French calamity in1763. Evidently, it was important to have reforms to field soldiers that could fight for French interests and honor. The government suggested that light infantry should be increased. This later brought about initiatives for conventional infantry training in techniques for light infantry. This training created soldiers that could fight both in open and close order. The multiple gun calibers used by the artillery unit were taken away; and they were left with only four varieties. There were new guns, which were more portable and lighter than the earlier ones. The new guns featured standardized segments and enclosed rounds. Lidell-Hart stated that according to Jean du Teil, "light mobile guns for use in the field when used…
Gibson. "Napoleon and the Grande Armee: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rma.html .
History.com. "Civil War Technology." 2010. Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/civil-war-technology .
Scholastic. "Strategy and Tactics, Military." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/strategy-and-tactics-military .
Zapotoczny, Walter. "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution On Warfare." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.wzaponline.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Inductrialrevolution.292125935.pdf.
Scramble for Wealth in Africa
1880-1900 was a period that was characterized by rapid colonization of the entire African continent by European nations. This was what was known as the scramble for Africa and it took place due to various economic, social as well as political evolutions that were taking place in Europe. This scramble was known as the race of Africa or partition of Africa was a process of invasion, occupation and eventual annexing of the African territory by European powers during the new imperialism period.
By 1880, around the coast of Africa and a small distance inland found along major rivers like Niger and Congo were under the European rule which was only a small part of Africa. This paper will therefore look at the scramble for Africa and the reasons that led to this evolution. There are various factors that led to the impetus scramble for Africa,…
Global security.org (2013). The Scramble for Africa - 1880-1899.retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/scramble-for-africa.htm
Boddy-Evans, A. (2010). What Caused the Scramble for Africa? Retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://africanhistory.about.com/od/eracolonialism/a/ScrambleWhy.htmc
International, Multi-Service Tests and Best Practices of Weapon Systems
International test and evaluation (IT&E) programs benefit the United States and its allied partners by allowing them to access facilities and environments to achieve joint force and coalition operational realism, sharing data, costs, and T&E technologies. Conducting international tests allow the weapons system to be tested in its operational environments and ensure it can perform as expected. International testing improves interoperability among the coalition and joint forces as they will have an opportunity to test the equipment using their test protocols and determine its usability before purchase. Costs can be reduced when there are different nations interested in the system. All nations can share costs, data, test planning, conduct, analysis, and reporting.
Multi-service tests are conducted by two different DoD components. This is vital as it ensures a weapons system to be used by two components can interface properly with both…
Doughert, G. M. (2018). PROMOTING DISRUPTIVE MILITARY INNOVATION: Best Practices for DoD EXPERIMENTATION and PROTOTYPING PROGRAMS. Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University, 25(1).
On page 138 Halberstam explains that the initial American units "…thrown into battle were poorly armed, in terrible shape physically, and, more often than not, poorly led" (Halberstam, 2007, 138). The U.S. was trying to get by "…on the cheap," Halberstam explains, and it Korea "it showed immediately"; Truman wanted to keep taxes low, he wanted to try and pay off the debt from the enormous expenditures in II, and as was referenced earlier, Truman really wanted to keep military expenditures down.
But what that austerity program meant was that the first troops that were being trained at Fort Lewis (prior to their orders to fight in Korea) were asked to "…use only two sheets of toilet paper each time they visited the latrine" (Halberstam, 138). Moreover, the lackluster performance by the initial troops sent into harm's way in Korea was reported back in the states and caused serious concerns.…
Halberstam, David. 2007. The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War. New York:
Kaufman, Burton I. 1983. The Korean War: Challenges in Crisis, Credibility, and Command.
Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
The development of the atomic bomb as well as its perceived success rate however made further development in chemical and biological weaponry unnecessary.
It is worth noting that biological weapons were never employed significantly in World War I and World War II. The effects of biological weapons even if crude has been pointed out by Spiers (2010) when he mentioned how Japanese surrendered in 1945 abut six of their soldiers released several plague-infested rates as well as sixty horses that were infested with the deadly glanders into the relatively quite and safer Chinese countryside. This left Changchun as well as its environs unsafe for habitation until the 1950s
A review of literature indicates that the United States never actively used chemical or biological weapons as part of its military operations. In its history of military development and its rise to be the world superpower. There are cases however when…
Anderson, F (F) ed. The Oxford Companion to American Military History
Black.J (2002) America as a Military Power: From the American Revolution to the Civil War
Chambers, JW (1999)ed., The Oxford Guide to American Military History
Doughty, R., Gruber, I, Flint, R, Grimsley, M and Herring, G (1995)American Military History and the Evolution of Western Warfare. Wadsworth Publishing
International Peace Conference
The purpose of this work is to examine the First International Peace Conference and identify the background, or what led to the meeting of delegations, the factors, actors and what was as stake. Further to explore the decisions and interactions that took place as well as the outcomes of the conference. Finally to evaluate the outcome and examine what might have been done differently as well as how the effect of a different outcome may have demonstrated itself historically.
The spring and summer of 1899 was witness to the gathering of twenty-six nations of the world for the First International Peace Conference which was held at the "House in the Woods" at The Hague by generous offer of The Netherlands Queen, Wilhemenia. Although the gathering failed to effectively address disarmament the adoption of other important agreements and conventions paved the way for collective efforts to follow.
Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at: http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?bitusud=ABQ7578-0169-53
Mahan, Captain A.T. "The Peace Conference and the Moral Aspect of War. The North American Review 515 (Oct. 1899) 439-440. Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin?ntisid=ABQ7578-0169-38
Paterson, T. et.al. (2000) "American Foreign Relations" V.1. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company 239
Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at http://cdl.library.cornell.educgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0169-53
For example, in decision making style differences arise from professional backgrounds, "the decision cycle of a fighter pilot (the Navy Captain) [is] measured in seconds while that of an infantry officer (the Colonel) in hours and days." If one compounds this paradigm with career Statists, who tend to measure decisions in months or years based on "never enough data," we can see the conundrum (Marks, 2007).
For generations, though, training on both sides has been based on a world polarized by fear -- of mutual destruction, or of the United States and the Soviet Union continuing to militarize in order to maintain the balance of power that would ensure the other side refrained from ever having the advantage. . Through it all, though, the economic model that drove both sides certainly caused the downfall and bankruptcy of the U.S.S.., and an overall change in the very idea of war as…
Horibe, F. (2001). Creating the Innovation Culture. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Marks, E. (April 2007). Three Years Before the Mast. American Diplomacy. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/item/2007/0103/life/marks_three.html
Rife, R.L. (1998). Defense is from Marx, State is from Venus. Army War College. Retrieved from: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc / …/dod_from _mars_state_from_venus.doc
Smith, R. (2007). The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World.
The Greco-Persian Wars were still in their early stages at this point, but it would be Xerxes, not Darius, that continued and stepped up efforts to invade and conquer the Attic Greeks.
If the Battle of Marathon had turned the other way, as many at the time expected it to and as many historians and tacticians believe it easily could and by all rights should have, the entire course of Western and even world history would have been drastically altered. Europe was built on the ideas and culture of the Greeks, particularly the Athenians. The eventual conquering of the Greek and the establishment of the oman Empire led to the spread of Greek philosophy, art, and science throughout the then known world; if the Persians had been successful in their attempt to conquer the Greeks, this culture would most likely not have existed by the time the omans came around.…
"Background on the battle of Marathon." (2004). Accessed 3 August 2009. http://www.guilford.k12.ct.us/~rebhunj/documents/DAY6MARATHON.pdf
Foster, J. (2009). "Battle of Marathon: Greeks vs. The Persians." Accessed 3 August 2009. http://www.historynet.com/battle-of-marathon-greeks-versus-the-persians.htm
Gill, N.S. (2009). "Persian wars: The battle of Marathon." Accessed 3 August 2009. http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/persianwararticles/a/MarathonBattle.htm
Herodotus. "The Persian Wars." Histories. Accessed 3 August 2009. http://www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/Herodotus-Marathon.html
This will continue to be the case for the foreseeable decades as the United States fights wars that are so far not yet even imagined. If these wars have been fought (as many have suggested) over the presence of the scarce resource of oil, the next wars may be fought over the even more precious resource of water.
Looking not too far into the future, the next wars may be fought over the consequences (the magnitude of which has not been determined) of climate change. As the surface of the world itself changes with rising seawater and increasing disastrous floods, hurricanes, and droughts, the nature of war is likely to change ever more dramatically and ever more quickly. Petraeus has proven to be the kind of military leader who can understand that strength is based on intelligence and flexibility, not a clinging to traditions and -- most importantly -- the…
Bacevich, a. (2008). thinks our political system is busted. In "The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Petraeus, D. (2007). The U.S. Army / Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24fd.pdf .
Smith, R. (2007). The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World. New York: Knopf.
Early on in my career I recognized that building coalitions was a highly regarded quality within the federal government, and it became my goal to be respected by both civilian and military leaders. Throughout the course of my career, I have been able to build strong relationships with many outstanding colleagues and have been involved with successful actions at high levels of government which have allowed me ample opportunities to build strong networks and support systems. There are four important examples of coalition building that I would like to discuss here.
The first example was my colleague's recommendation that I be chosen to represent women in the military on a commemorative stamp issued for that purpose. I was surprised and delighted that I had built a strong enough relationship with this colleague to be recommended for this honor. Even though there were hundreds of applicants interviewed, I was…
Another important example of building coalitions comes from my work at the Office of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs. There are many high-level interconnected government relationships that I must deal with daily, and have been working in this job since 1998 at the cabinet level. I hold the title of Senior Civilian Protocol Officer and must communicate both policy and guidance to VA employees throughout the world. In addition to working with these individuals, I also work with Congressional committee staff, White House staff, and those in other governmental organizations, which allows me to learn about and communicate with many different kinds of people on many different levels.
The fourth and final example of building coalitions comes from 2000, when I led a team of 50 individuals to establish and create the USO Exhibit located in the Pentagon. Now in it's fifth year, the exhibit is viewed by over 100,000 tourists per year, and cost $50,000 to create. During the creation of the exhibit, I coordinated staff policy, maintained focus, and met goals and objectives for the Secretary of Defense. For our performance, my team and I received honor awards; I also received the Secretary of Defense Meritorious Service Award.
The performance that I have continued to give to each organization that I have been involved with throughout my career has helped me to win support for many of my ideas and has created important relationships with many colleagues. Leadership roles are valuable to me, and I ensure that customer complaints are handled properly and new procedures are implemented, as well as ensuring that there is a consensus developed among all of those that are participating in a particular project so that it can run smoothly and be completed on time. By building coalitions I have the opportunity to share my experience and to help others with their skills.
eserve Personnel Management Systems Division: Officer Evaluations
This paper engages in a thorough assessment of the culture, organization and technology of the reserve personnel management that operates as a branch within the Personnel Service Center of the United States Coast Guard: specifically the Officers Evaluation Systems. The method used to assess this particular branch relies heavily on ethnographic skills and related techniques. According to the official website of the U.S. Coast Guard, this is the division which handles "boards, panels, promotions, evaluations, advancements, retirements, resignations, discharges and separations for all reserve officer, chief warrant officers, and enlisted members" (uscg.mil, 2013). This is the division which deals with assignments, copies of records, medical issues and disability, individual ready reserve, promotions, separations, reserve retirement requests, policy waives and a host of other connected factors.
By scrutinizing closely factors like culture, organization, technology and related issues, one is able to obtain an accurately…
Boisjoy, R. (2013). Professional Responsibility and Conduct (Ethical Decisions - Morton Thiokol and the Challenger Disaster) . Retrieved from Onlineethics.org: http://www.onlineethics.org/Topics/ProfPractice/PPEssays/thiokolshuttle/shuttle_pro.aspx
Goldstein, H. (2005, September 1). Who Killed the Virtual Case File? Retrieved from ieee.org: http://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/software/who-killed-the-virtual-case-file/0
Howard, A. (2012, February 22). Data for the public good. Retrieved from Oreilly.com: http://strata.oreilly.com/2012/02/data-public-good.html
Israel, J. (2012). Why the FBI Can't Build a Case Management System. Computer, 73-80.
However, she concludes that the effect of PMCs, as a whole, cannot be determined by this one example. Supply in the current PMC market has a tendency to self-perpetuate. As more PMCs enter the market, new threats are developed that the firms provide protection against. "Moreover, demand does not penalize firms that service 'illegitimate;' clients in general. Consequently, the number of actors who can wield control over the use of force is limited mainly by their ability to pay." (605). This results in a draining of current security institutions resources. Their security coverage is worsened. By increasing the availability of military force, more actors are involved in conflict and less reason is needed to contest existing institutions, destabilizing nations.
Herz (1957) was correct in his understanding that the territorial states of yesteryear are forever changed. Sovereignty in today's world is tenuous at best. International law has been created to…
Arquilla, J. & Ronfeldt, D. "Cyberwar is Coming!" Comparative Stategy. 12.2. (Spring 1993): 141-165.
Herz, J. "Rise and Demise of the Territorial State." World Politics 9.4. (Jul 1957): 473-493.
Homer-Dixon, T. "The Rise of Complex Terrorism." Foreign Policy. 128. (Jan-Feb 2002): 52-62.
Leander, a. "The Market for Force and Public Security: The Destabilizing Consequences of Private Military Companies." Journal of Peace Research. 42.5. (2005): 605-622.
This makes the book extremely applicable in military situations, because it speaks to the military leader and troops expressly at many points.
It is also applicable in non-military situations, because it appeals to the teamwork nature that most people crave, and it also appeals to just about anyone who has served in the military, because they understand the very nature of Pacetta's ideas and theories. If thoroughly analyzed, most businesses do resemble military organizations. There are rules that must be followed, tactics to plan, goals to reach, an "enemy" the business must conquer (your competition), and innovations to make the business more competitive than the enemy. Thus, Pacetta's militaristic views are useful for just about any organization, and they make sense. They may seem hardnosed at first, but they are actually quite practical and quite successful when they are applied to businesses that need more impetus to succeed.
Pacetta, Frank, with Roger Gittines. Don't Fire Them, Fire Them Up. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.
This is making it difficult for the world community to work together on issues such as nuclear proliferation. (Lewis) (Montgomery) (Zariff)
The main reason is because China has built several pipelines going from Iran into their country. This is providing them with the resources (i.e. oil and natural gas), which are helping to fuel continuing economic growth and the development of Chinese markets. At the same time, the increased amounts of military spending have meant that China has become increasingly hostile towards any kind of efforts to deal with these issues. (Lewis) (Montgomery) (Zariff)
As a result, other nations throughout the Middle East and Asia have begun their own nuclear weapons programs in response to these threats. In the coming decade, we need to redefine the war on terror away from: simply preventing terrorist attacks themselves to aggressively going after those nations that support these activities. This means directly confronting…
Lewis, Jeffrey. "North Korea -- Iran Nuclear Cooperation." CFR, 2010. Web. 9 Mar. 2012
Montgomery, Evan. "Understanding the Threat of Nuclear Terrorism." CSB Online, 2010. Web. 9 Mar. 2012
). Indeed, when Dix exhibited Der Krieg in Berlin in 1924, he was criticized by the right wing press and eventually when Hitler came into power in 1933, Dix was fired based upon pressure from Hitler's government that contended that his paintings were antimilitary. According to Dix's dismissal letter from the Dresden Academy, his artwork "threatened to sap the will of the German people to defend themselves." To add insult to injury, Hitler's assault upon Dix did not end there. The Nazis also destroyed several of his paintings not long after he was dismissed from the Academy (Id.). Dix, however, did not let this injustice destroy his creative spirit. In 1933, he used oil and tempura on wood to paint The Seven Deadly Sins, an allegorical painting that represented Germany's political situation under Hitler. In this painting, Dix utilized the figure of the lazy Sloth because Dix blamed the German…
Apel, Dora. "Heroes and Whores: the Politics of Gender in Weimar Antiwar
Imagery." The Art Bulletin 79.3 (1997): 366+. Questia. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
Avgikos, Jan. "Max Beckmann and Otto Dix: Neue Galerie." Artforum International Oct.
2005: 275. Questia. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
Invention of Gun Powder and the Impact it Had on the Chinese Society and Warfare
The invention of gunpowder was driven by the quest for unending life. Gunpowder, however, ended up being more or less a death potion, responsible for the development of the deadliest war weapon, after the atomic bomb. An invention dating back to the Song and Tang Dynasties, between the 9th and 11th centuries, gunpowder came to be considered one of China's "Four Great Ancient Inventions,' alongside the compass, printing, and papermaking. Due to its explosive nature, gunpowder was first used for fireworks, and later, as an explosive in war. Prior to gunpowder invention, the Chinese military used fire as their main war weapon. Fire, however, had limited coverage, and Chinese strategists sought to develop a weapon with wider coverage.
Gunpowder was employed in warfare in the 15th century. It evolved from the ancient cannon to the…
Black, Jeremy. War: a Short History. Maiden Lane, NY: Continuum, 2009.
Chase, Kenneth. Firearms: a Global History to 1700. West Street, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Gunpowder and Firearms. Washington University. http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/miltech/firearms.htm
Panciera, Walter. "Venetian Gunpowder in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century: Production, Storage, Use." In Gunpowder, Explosives and the State, edited by Brenda Buchanan, 93-120. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2006.
Army has been modernizing its logistics function for the past half century, and a wide range of legacy systems remain in place. For example, logistics automation systems, collectively termed the Standard Army Management Information Systems (STAMIS) have been deployed by the combat service support community to provide improved logistics support to warfighters. Although these systems have proven valuable to warfighters in the field, supporting these legacy systems has become a challenge for Army logisticians due in large part to their lack of interconnectability. These legacy systems also have a number of limitations that require updating and efforts have been underway to replace these systems with more efficient approaches to provide warfighters with the materiel and information they need to prosecute military actions on the 21st century battlefield. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical observations and views from Army subject matter experts to determine what constraints may be…
Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review. Briarcliff Manor: Oct 2008. Vol. 33, Iss. 4; pg. 825
Andersson, Ake E. (1981). Structural Change and Technological Development. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 11(3), 351. Retrieved November 13, 2008
Besaw, B. (2005, August). Army Logistician (Improving Logistics Automation Support). Army
Logistics University. Retrieved September 18, 2012, from http://www.almc.army.mil/alog/issues/sepoct05/logautosupprt.html
International Issues and National Security
Due to increased telecommunications, e-commerce and globalization, the world is becoming more and more of a global community everyday. However, research suggests that due to these changes in society, economy and politics, that many issues are present and emerging with urgent need of attention. As the world becomes a smaller place to live, international issues present today will continue to be issues in the future for organizations doing business and governmental policies. It is evident that in order for a change to take place, effective unified leadership is needed to combat these issues burdening the world community. Not only have these issues of war, poverty and environment been on the minds of the American government for decades but also they have entered into the global arena as American policy has slowly become embedded in the policies of other nations. It is the foreign policy of…
Environment and Security. 18 Oct. 2005
Falk, Richard, and Krieger, David. "Iraq and the Failures of Democracy." Waging Peace Foundation Briefing Booklet: The Iraq Crisis and International Law. Santa Barbara: Waging Peace, 2003.
Gallagher, Michael D. Testimony. Committee on Government Reform Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations. House of Representatives. Washington, DC. 17 March 2004.
Issues in Brief: Energy and Environment. 18 Oct. 2005
careers, many social workers will encounter individuals who are veterans of active duty military service. Like other client populations, veterans may experience issues with their day-to-day living requirements that require assistance, but these individuals may also experience a wide range of problems that are unique to service in the armed forces. This paper reviews the relevant literature to determine how current social work policies in the United States address issues of inequality, oppression or social justice for military veterans, the social work staff's ability to provide quality social work services, and ethical issues that affect social work values and practice in this area. An analysis concerning alternative approaches that social work and others could advocate or organize on behalf of veterans is followed by an assessment of which models of advocacy (Jannson or Hayes & Mickelson) are currently being used with this client population. Finally, a summary of the research…
Adams, C. (2013, March 13). Millions went to war in Iraq, Afghanistan, leaving many with lifelong scars. McClatchy Newspapers. Retrieved from http://www.mcclatchydc.com/
Franklin, E. (2009, August). The emerging needs of veterans: A call to action for the social work profession. Health and Social Work, 34(3), 163-169.
Haynes, K.S. & Mickelson, J.S. (2000). The debate. In Affecting social change: Social workers in the political arena (pp. 23 -- 39). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Likewise, a similar study by Desai et al. (2000) that compared traditional lecture format training with CBT found that, "The CBT subjects' overall end-of-training and one-month-after-training performance was significantly better than [the traditional lecture method] subjects' performance" (p. 239).
By sharp contrast, the analysis of the effectiveness of CBT by Bowman et al. (2009) found that the effectiveness of this alternative can be adversely affected by a number of Navy-specific factors, including the pace of operations in some settings, an enormously diverse population that often requires more individualized instruction, and that self-paced formats can actually serve to increase student failure rates. Nevertheless, Dye (2004) emphasizes that the Navy has taken steps to integrate lessons learned and best practices into newly developed CBT curricular offerings, and notes that improvements in the support technologies continue to provide better ways of individualizing computer-based training opportunities in the future. In fact, one of the…
Bowman, W.R., Crawford, a.M. & Mehay, S. (2009, August 24). An assessment of the effectiveness of computer-based training for newly commissioned surface warfare division officers. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School.
Computer-based training. (2009, March). Navy Inspector General report to the Secretary of the Navy. NAVINSGEN computer-based training study.
Desai, M.S., Richards, T. & Eddy, J.P. (2000). A field experiment: Instructor-based training vs.
computer-based training. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27(4), 239.
Source: Hockett 1940:264
This land surveying method proved to be highly accurate, a feature that was in sharp contrast to the methods that had been used in some American colonies such as Virginia that allowed the use of so-called "indiscriminate locations," a practice that caused an enormous amount of land boundary disputes (Hockett 1940). hile the land surveying method used pursuant to the Land Survey Ordinance of 1785 was partially based on techniques that had evolved in New England, the origins of some of the features included in the legislation remain unclear (Hockett 1940). Notwithstanding this lack of historical precision concerning the origins of the features contained in the Land Survey Ordinance of 1785, the land surveying methods it set forth were so efficient and effective that the same techniques were applied to the rest of the country as westward expansion continued, eventually dividing all of the public lands in…
Allen, John L. North American Exploration, Vol. 3. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press,
Ariel, Avraham and Nora Ariel Berger. Plotting the Globe: Stories of Meridians, Parallels, and the International Date Line. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1991.
Air Force Brake Case
The Air Force was providing a contract that featured the manufacture of brakes to be implemented in an aircraft. The B.F. Goodrich Wheel and Brake Plant in Troy, Ohio won the contract, on June 18, 1967, and the organization agreed to supply wheels and brakes for the new Air Force light attack aircraft.
However, the clause in the contract was that the testing that was to be done before the product was accepted must adhere to the stipulated standard. On failure of the trial test done on the provided products a controversy arose. A former employee, Kermit Vandivier, took the role of a whistle blower and it was claimed that the organization falsified reports undermining the ethical codes of the contract. A full investigation was conducted under governmental supervision and it was realized that the Air Force A7D Aircraft Brake Problem was the tip…
I. Seeking to Define and Understand Joint Interoperability
There has historically been a challenge in attempting to properly understand in complexity in defining joint interoperability. This is related in the work of Faughn (2002) entitled: "Interoperability: Is it Achievable?" published by the Center for Information Policy Research at Harvard University. It is stated by Faughn that: "...the "shortfalls in operability among U.S. forces, first publicized by the press at the time of the Grenada invasion, became the catalysts for legislation and changes in defense policy, guidance, and procedures, and for numerous attempts to ensure joint interoperability. Despite tremendous planning and expenditure of funds, true interoperability, especially in the theaters with the greatest potential for conflict, continues to elude the Department of Defense (DOD)." (Faughn, 2002) Faughn relates that there are seven key factors that: "...hamper the achievement of interoperability." (p.7) These are stated to…
National Research Council, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, Committee to Review DOD C4I Plans and Programs, Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, December 1999), Chapter Two, 1, 2, [Online]. URL: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309064856/html/64.html
Hillman Dickinson, "Planning for Defense-Wide Command and Control," in Seminar on Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence, Guest Presentations, Spring 1982 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Program on Information Resources Policy, I-82-3, December 1982), 23, [Online]. URL: http://www.pirp.harvard.edu/pubs_pdf/dickinsdickins-i82-3.pdf
Snyder, Frank M. (1993) Command and Control: The Literature and Commentaries (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1993), 111.; as cited in Faughn (2002) p. 19
VADM Arthur K. Cebrowski, and John J. Garstka, "Network-Centric Warfare -- Its Origin and Future," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, January 1998, pp. 28-35. VADM Cebrowski has since retired and is currently the Director of the Secretary of Defense's Office of Transformation; as cited in Roberts and Smith (2003) p.4.
, 10). Certainly, it is no mystery that given this reliance upon the mother country that the British government would be surprised and ill equipped to deal with a full scale and united rebellion in the American colonies on the eastern American seaboard.
The policy of the British prior to the period of the evolution had largely been hands off. However, the Tea Party went too far and the British had to respond (one wonders what else they would have done). They had just won the equivalent of world war in 1763. British had fought in almost every of the globe from India to Canada, India, the Philippines and the 13 American colonies. Unfortunately, to borrow an apt analogy, the British had only the military in the tool kit once their tax collection efforts failed. If a hammer is all one has in the toolbox, most solutions will look like…
Beer, George Louis. British Colonial Policy, 1754-1765. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University
Press, 2010. (accessed February 9, 2012).
McDougall, Walter. "The Colonial Origins of American Identity." Orbis (2004): 7-19.
White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region.
It takes place during the war in 1916, (before America became involved), and it shows the attack by French soldiers of a German position known as the "Ant Hill." The position is on the Western Front, near Verdun in France, and it is a gripping look at the trench warfare tactics of the war. The French soldiers are clearly unready for an attack, but the crazy General makes them attack in spite of their worthiness, because of his own selfish needs and wants. Ultimately, it is no surprise that the attack fails, the men simply were not ready, and some of them will not even leave the trenches because they know it is hopeless. The General is enraged because of this, and he convinces his commander that he must discipline the men because of their "mutiny." He chooses three men to court-martial as an example to the other soldiers.
9/11 and the ITPA
Under the National Security Act of 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was charged with the task of coordinating all national intelligence activities within the U.S. government. One major reason for this change was the failure of coordination and analysis across the intelligence agencies in predicting the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Indeed, so glaring were the failures to 'connect the dots' in determining the intentions of the Japanese that they gave rise to at least as many conspiracy theories as the September 11 attacks, such as the idea that Franklin oosevelt knew about the attack in advance and permitted it to happen so the U.S. would enter the Second World War. In practice, the coordination of intelligence activities never really occurred, and many similar failures occurred in the future, such as the CIA's inability to predict the outbreak of the Korean War or…
Best, R.A. And A. Cumming. (2011). "Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals." Congressional Research Service. 7-7500, January 12, 2011.
Fingar, T. (2008). "Analytic Transformation: Unleashing the Potential of a Community of Analysts." Office of the Director of National Intelligence, September 1, 2008.
Hearing of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. (2007). Progress on Intelligence Reform, January 23, 2007.
Progress on Intelligence Reform. (2007). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, January 23, 2007.
secondary literature and a survey of practitioners concerning the fact that Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) acquisition costs are often excessive because first article testing (FAT) requirements are often misapplied to DLA contracts. This study was guided by three objectives: (a) to determine the frequency of misapplication of First Article Testing requirements to Defense Logistic Agency contracts; (b) to determine Engineering Support Agency and Defense Logistics Agency employee interpretations of First Article Testing requirements; and, (c) to provide Engineering Support and Defense Logistics Agency employees with First Article test requirement discriminators that will assist with appropriate First Article Test requirement application to Defense Logistics Agency contracts. This study was also guided by the following research questions: (a) what major factors do Engineers and Defense Logistics Agency employees consider prior to applying First Article Test requirements to contracts?, and (b) what specific discriminators can be applied to First Article Test requirement decision…
Borenstein, S. & Markoe, L. (2006, September/October). Prime vendor. The IRE Journal, 29(5),
Chandler, G.N. & Lyon, D.W. (2001). Issues of research design and construct measurement in entrepreneurship research: The past decade. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice.
Diversity-Why is it Important in Army
The term ‘diversity’ has commonly been used to describe the variations in characteristics among two or more individuals; it can cover visible (for instance, age, gender, race) as well as invisible (for instance, knowledge, values, culture) characteristics. Considering the attention paid to diversity by contemporary firms, understanding the reason for this focus on workforce diversity and what it implies within the armed forces personnel management context is valuable (Kamarck, 2017). Within the armed forces, the subject of diversity is complex in nature, conceptually as well as with respect to its administrative and more practical implications. Diversity constitutes one among the biggest and trickiest HR management challenges faced by military HR leaders in the last twenty to thirty years. Increased diversity in the areas of recruitment, employment and development has challenged conventional armed forces organizational principles, standards, outlooks, and beliefs. It has led to the…
In the 1999 report of William Cohen to the U.S. President and U.S. Congress reveals that the strategic vision sets out what the United States has on its agenda to accomplish in relation to technological and logistical strategies. Included in these strategies are modernization of intelligence processes as well as security, information operations, information assurance, and critical infrastructure protection. In a 2004 Department of Defense Submission - Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Inquiry into Australian-United States Defense Relations' report, it is stated that the alliance, now ongoing for approximately fifty-three years between the United States and Australia "has never been closer." (2004) it is stated that the ANZUS Treaty provides "shape, depth and weight to the Australia-U.S. alliance and remains today the foundation of a relationship that is one of our greatest national assets." (Cohen, 2004) the continued commitment of the United States to the Asia…
Transatlantic Interoperability in Defense Industries: How the U.S. And Europe Could Better Cooperate in Coalition Military Operations, September 2002.: http://www.europeaninstitute.org/pdf/IO.pdf
Engler, Alan; Glodowski, Al; and Lee, Rocky (2004) Coalition Operations: Politically Necessary Yet Operationally Challenging. 8 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.jfsc.ndu.edu/current_students/documents_policies/documents/jca_cca_awsp/Coalition_operations_4-5-04.doc
Cohen, William S. (1999) Annual Report to the President and the Congress. Secretary of Defense DOD report 1999. Online available at http://www.dod.mil/execsec/adr1999/index.html
Statement of Admiral Dennis C. Blair, U.S. Navy Commander in Chief U.S. Pacific Command Before the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific and Subcommittee on Middle East and South Asia on U.S. Pacific Command Posture (2002) 27 February 2002 Online available at http://www.fas.org/asmp/resources/govern/107_hircBlair.htm
The coelation between coopeative initiation and eceptive tendencies, howeve, is much weake" (p. 32).
The oveiding theme that emeges fom all of the foegoing analytical models is the fact that although intenational conflicts and be effectively modeled and deconstucted in ode to gain a bette undestanding of the pecipitating factos and how they play out in eal-wold settings, they do not necessaily povide the insights needed to develop esolutions to these conflicts no do they povide peemptive altenatives that could stop the conflict fom stating in the fist place. Indeed, epidemiologists use compaable techniques to undestanding how disease pocesses evolve and spead thoughout a human population, but diffeent techniques ae equied to develop coesponding cues and teatments fo thei diseases. Similaly, the analysis of intenational conflicts that is needed to help decision-makes identify viable solutions will equie an additional and supplemental type of analytical methodology.
Given the potential fo death…
references. New York: United Nations University Press.
Bercovitch, J. (1999). Resolving international conflicts: The theory and practice of mediation.
Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Kenneth B. (1962). Conflict and defense. New York: Harper and Row.
Goertz, G. & Diehl, P.F. (1992). Territorial changes and international conflict. New York:
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…
Bruce, J. & Bennett, M. (2008). "Foreign Denial and Deception: Analytical Imperatives,"
Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles, and Innovations. Washington, DC:
Burch, J. (2008). The Domestic Intelligence Gap: Progress Since 9/11? Homeland Security
King Edward I of England and his Castle Building Scheme
The reign of King Edward I (1272-1307) was marked by almost constant military activity in the British Isles and France. Edward's policy of expansion and conquest in Scotland and ales was aggressive and, broadly, successful. Among the notable characteristics of Edward's warlike policies was the construction of a large number of castles, above all in ales, as centers of military and civilian administration in conquered territories. The programme of Edwardian castle-building was second only to that which followed the Norman Conquest of 1066, and in terms of the size and complexity of the structures themselves it is without parallel in British history.
The first part of Edward's reign was dominated by war in ales, which lasted (with interruptions) from 1276 to 1284; the second part, from 1290-1, by war in France and Scotland. These campaigns arose from Edward's determination to…
Platt, Colin. The Castle in Medieval England and Wales. London: Secker & Warburg, 1982.
Pounds, N.J.G. The Medieval Castle in England and Wales. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Prestwich, Michael. War Politics and Finance under Edward I. London: Faber, 1972
Prestwich, Michael. Edward I. London: Methuen, 1988.
The Guerilla Tactics section shows how U.S. soldiers had to learn to fight in completely different ways in Vietnam, because the Vietcong fought in such different and difficult ways. It is a lot like the suicide bombers and roadside bombs used now in Iraq, which are also new techniques for a new generation of war. The air war was essential to success in Vietnam, and America did have the advantage there, and many new innovations in fighter technology came out of the war. Finally, the Siege of Khe Sanh shows the dedication of Marines who held their base after 77 days of siege through incredible odds. It shows the dedication of the people who fought in Vietnam, and the inability of the North Vietcong to take the base, even when it was weak and undersupplied.
Some of the most interesting things about this site are the detailed information on some…
Editors. "Battlefield: Vietnam." PBS.org. 2008. 24 April 2008. http://www.pbs.org/battlefieldvietnam/