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Civilian and Military Organizational Competencies
This essay examines instances of planning for and implementation of information technology in civilian and military organizations that require similar organizational competencies.
hen the military adopted A-staff restructuring, it not only implemented standard business practices to improve communications and efficiency, it also communicated the news as many businesses would. The Air Force Print News website provided details of the realignment to the A-staff structure, much as a business' newsletter would communicate a similar organizational change. The article discusses the Air Force adoption of the organizational structure that closely mirrors the Army's G-staff, the Navy's N-staff and the joint J-staff. According to Brig. Gen Sabol, the effort helps the Air Force optimize internal communications as well as helps them communicate more efficiently with other services (Lopez, 2006).
The affected Air Force functions were to be re-named and realigned so that similar functions at all levels were…
Lopez, C.T. Staff Sgt. (2006). Headquarters Air Force realigns similar to 'J-staff" model. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123015891
Managing supply chains: What the military can teach business (and vice-versa). 2003. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm;jsessionid=a830fe1c16ad9a882ac02226606e4c53601e?articleid=894
Price, D.E. (2004). Organizing for expeditionary operation transforming headquarters financial management into the commander's A-8 staff. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4018/is_3_38/ai_n6355526/?tag=mantle_skin;content
Reese, J. (2006). Army adopting Lean Six Sigma. Army News Service. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.military.com/features/0,15240,87414,00.html
The third factor that shapes the organizational culture is the relationship that exists between the employer and employee. As already stated earlier, Second Continental Congress stands out as one of the earliest bodies in the working relationship for perpetuating for the establishment of different organizations that cater for the security of the country.
Organizational structure refers to the level and nature of interaction between employees, supervisors, and management team who are at various cadres of job status. Essentially, U.S. military has adopted a horizontal form of organizational structure that eliminates a lot of bureaucracy. Junior employees, who are also part of the associates, interact freely with supervisors and management team. Problem and challenges are shared out based on equality, and every suggestion is treated with the importance. This factor has been instrumental in promoting the quality of collectivism rather than individualism (Driskill & Brenton, 2005).
Lastly, the national culture of…
Driskill, G.W., & Brenton, a.L. (2005). Organizational Culture in Action: A Cultural Analysis Workbook. New York, NY: SAGE.
Durant, R.F. (2007). The greening of the U.S. military: Environmental policy, national security, and organizational change. Washington, D.C: Georgetown Univ. Press.
The ability to lead is an important trait in the organizational world today. With organizations encountering increasingly complex situations, leaders have a role to successfully steer their organizations through those situations. They must properly influence and guide their followers in the achievement of organizational goals and objectives (Bateman, Snell & Konopaske, 2016). Leadership ability is particularly important in military organizations. The security environment has become ever more challenging, warranting even more effective leadership (Laver, 2008). Military organizations now grapple with challenges such as craftier enemies, international terrorism, increased incidence of natural disasters, and reduced budgetary allocations. Internally, military organizations face challenges relating to issues such as personnel motivation and retention, capacity building, and veteran welfare. Yet, military organizations must constantly ensure national security. Navigating the increasingly complex security environment requires military leaders to have certain qualities. This paper discusses these qualities. Attention is particularly paid to situational leadership, integrity, people…
Communication is crucial to any organization as it provides the basis through which people share information, understand each other, and build effective working relations. Most organizations, including the military, have a clear-cut chain of command, such that communication therein is vertical. Vertical communication can be bottom-up or top-down, with the former being the flow of information from management to employees (APACOE, 2014). It provides the framework through which employees can make known to the management their opinions, perceptions, values, needs, expectations, to name but a few. Top-down communication, on the other hand, enables management to make employees aware of organizational projects, plans, visions and missions (APACOE, 2014). The effective combination of these ensures a conducive working environment, builds trust, boosts employee morale and participation, and ultimately leads to organizational success.
Importance of Organizational Communication
As has already been mentioned earlier, communication is vital for the success of any organization. The…
APACOE. (2014). The Role of Communication. APA Center for Organizational Excellence. Retrieved from http://www.apaexcellence.org/resources/creatingahealthyworkplace/theroleofcommunication/
Joint Doctrine. (2001). Joint Doctrine for Civil Military Operations. Collingdale, PA: Diane Publishing.
The Crimson Void. (2010). Military Communication: Problems, Precedents and Solutions. Word Press. Retrieved from http://thecrimsonvoid.wordpress.com/2010/08/10/military-communication-problems-precedents-and-solutions/
ole in Alibaba Value Chain
IT role in Value Chain
With mounting pressures from market competitors driving ever-evolving business needs, firms are seen to increasingly count on information technology/systems for competitive advantage and attaining business agility. Differentiation can help achieve value creation throughout a business's value chain, via activities that create services and products that increase performance or reduce costs. Business information systems are pervasive and impact all points on a business value chain. Further, they also impact competitive scope, whilst reshaping how a business's offering fulfills consumer needs. All value activities of an organization possess an information processing element which incorporates steps needed for capturing, manipulating, and channeling requisite data for performing the activity (ole of IT in Michael Porter's Value Chain Framework, 2009).
ight from logistics activities to servicing, information systems carry out the functions of control and optimization, and hence, transform processes and products to provide more…
Alibaba: Company Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.alibabagroup.com/en/about/overview
Role of IT in Michael Porter's Value Chain Framework. (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.managedecisions.com/blog/?p=6
What is Alibaba? (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://projects.wsj.com/alibaba/
Despite the high operational tempo though of the U.S. military, it is still an organization that undergoes constant transformation in not only to meet the various missions thereof but in keeping with the changing times. The changes that the American defense forces are contained in policy changes that originate with the National Command Authority and executed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff down the chain of command. Of late, two policies will pave the way for major paradigm shifts in the very fabric of the U.S. military. These policy changes are the repeal of the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy banning acknowledgement of gays in the service and the gradual pull-out of troops in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Late in July 2011, President Obama along with Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral ichael ullen signed the certification for the implementation of the…
For the last few years following the 9-11 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the United States military has been overstretched with two major wars involved in (Iraq and Afghanistan) and several other missions ranging from low-intensity conflicts, humanitarian efforts to continuous training and exercises on its own or with allies and partners across the globe. As the only remaining superpower and acknowledged "police" or the world, the United States uses its military to project its might and ensure that intransigent nations or entities are made to abide by international laws. Despite the high operational tempo though of the U.S. military, it is still an organization that undergoes constant transformation in not only to meet the various missions thereof but in keeping with the changing times. The changes that the American defense forces are contained in policy changes that originate with the National Command Authority and executed by the Joint Chiefs of Staff down the chain of command. Of late, two policies will pave the way for major paradigm shifts in the very fabric of the U.S. military. These policy changes are the repeal of the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy banning acknowledgement of gays in the service and the gradual pull-out of troops in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Late in July 2011, President Obama along with Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Michael Mullen signed the certification for the implementation of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) Repeal Act of 2010. The final paragraph of the document states that "the Act is consistent with standards of military readiness, military effectiveness, unit cohesion, and recruiting and retention of the Armed Forces (DADT Repeal Act of 2010)." The policy or law prior to its development has faced several hurdles especially from those who are bent on not allowing gays and lesbians in the U.S. Armed Forces. At the end of it all, what prevailed is the rationale and logical decision that fighting for one's country is not dependent on one's gender or sexual orientation but the desire to be of service without any reservations whatsoever. Although there are still several days
Military-Led econstruction and Fiedler's Contingency Theory
In light of the unfolding instability, violence and difficulty that characterized the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States military must reexamine its approach to the strategic invasion, occupation, reconstruction and power-handover that have evolved into a war-making template for the nation. Accordingly, the research conducted hereafter considers the need for a change in leadership orientation, using Fiedler's Contingency Theory as the lens for the literature review thereafter. The Findings drawn from the review of literature are presented in this account and, generally, provided confirmation of the pertinence of Fiedler's contingency theory to modern military strategy as well as the pertinence of Fiedler's Least-Preferred Coworker checklist to defining ideal military leadership. The reported findings connecting Fiedler's ideas with strategic and empirical documentation on applied military policy contribute to a number of policy recommendations. In particular, these policy recommendations revolve around two…
Conner, Maj. W.D. (2005). Understanding First in the Contemporary Operational
Environment. School of Advanced Military Studies; For Leavenworth Kansas.
Ellyson, L.M.; Gibson, J.H.; Nichols, M. & Doerr, A. (2012). A Study of Fiedler's
Contingency Theory Among Military Leaders. Allied Academies International
Military Management and the Agency Problem
Agency theory can be helpful for understanding any organizational conflict or behavior, and applies equally as well to the private and public sector. Applied to the military organization, agency theory "offers insight into how military strategies relate to political objectives," an important consideration (Petrina, 2005, p. v). When it is applied to the corporate world, agency theory also offers insight into how executive decisions are made and how executives can become corrupt when they possess significant power and separation from agents or shareholders. There are differences in corporate versus military governance and organizational culture, but those differences to do not cloud over the essential applicability of agency theory to both the private and public sector.
A traditional view of agency theory as it applies to military organizations is that "civilians set oversight measures to monitor the behavior of the military and the military responds…
military topic; exclude civil war. (I chose Special Forces) • All Research Papers 8 1/2 x
white paper, margins 1" x 1." • The Research Papers a minimum 4 pages typed information exceed 6 pages
There is much controversy concerning the U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) and the missions that they perform on a daily basis because the mass-media tends to distort people's understanding about the military organization. Some might be inclined to consider that the Special Forces take most of the good men in the army and put them in a community that typically performs actions that most military groups would be capable of doing. Moreover, many believe that these people basically take advantage of the government's determination to keep the Special Forces in operation. However, most people fail to understand the training that these people go through on a daily basis, the fact that they have the ability…
Hamilton, John, "Special Forces," (ABDO, 10.01.2007)
North, Robert, "American Heroes: In Special Operations," (B&H Publishing Group, 01.11.2010)
Olson, Eric T., "U.S. Special Operations: Context and Capabilities in Irregular Warfare," Retrieved November 16, 2012, from the National Defense University Website: http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/images/jfq-56/8.pdf
Pushies, Fred J., "United States Army Special Forces," (Zenith Imprint, 01.10.2001)
The Structure of the British Army Compared to a Civilian Business Organization
Military life, especially during combat situations, is difficult for the individual who has always been a civilian to imagine. The structure of the organization is rigid, strict control is maintained of all personnel, the management style is historically largely authoritarian, and conditions can be harsh. However, there are always people who volunteer for this service for many reasons. The individual lacks responsibility and wishes to gain it, there is a scarcity of sustainable employment, the promise of adventure awaits the soldier. Other reasons exist, every soldier or sailor has one, but whatever the reason when a person joins the military they soon understand the organization. There is no mystery regarding large goals or minor objectives. The British Army has a unique history and purpose that can be useful to companies that want to survive and remain successful…
Andrzejewski, S., 1954. Military organization and society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
British Army., 2010. British army: An introduction. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from http://www.army.mod.uk/documents/general/2010_ARMY_Brochure_9.0_ (2).pdf
Caniglia, R.R., 2001. Leadership: U.S. And British approaches to force protection. Military Review, 81(4), pp. 72-81
Cassidy, R.M., 2005. The British army and counterinsurgency: The salience of military culture. Military Review, 85(3), pp. 53-64.
The organizational change theory which best fits the organizational development and change of military organization is the "Teleological Change Theory." The top management and the leadership of the military realized the need for constant changes and realized the necessity of change in the organizational structures. The individual managers, the Generals in this case, have been instrumental in bringing about this change. Internal decision making and structures are more affected by the organizational change. In a teleological change, leader is right at the centre of the change, process, people and management. Leader is the one who aligns the goals, rewards, processes, expectations, roles and duties. Strategy formulation and implementation is based on the experiences from the ongoing processes. (Marshak, 2005)
It is important to take into account various factors while evaluating the organizational change in military. The size of the military and complexity of operations make it extremely hard to implement…
Murrell K.L. (1999). New Century Organization Development. Organizational Development Journal. Volume 17: No.4.
Marshak, R.J. (2005). Reinventing organizational development: New approaches to change in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
Military Dualism in Culture
According to the argument presented by Scarborough, there is a persistent and pervasive divide between the cultures of the United States military and civilian, American culture as a whole, viewed in its entirety. Scarborough argues as if the United States military is a separate entity that stands apart from the fabric of ordinary, daily life as a special institution. Given the extremity of Scarborough's stance, and the author's perhaps own biased view from the vantage of the then-recent (at the time of the author's writing) Navy scandal, the attitude that the United States military is so unique it transforms within its framework members of ordinary American culture may be allowed to some degree. But ultimately, Scarborough's central thesis is problematic, given the leaps of logic deployed in the essay, particularly Scarborough's use of hasty generalization. The United States military is a profession and has a professional…
Works Cited and Consulted
Scarborough, Rowan. (17 March 1999)"Army to try video cameras for mixed-barracks safety." The Washington Times.
Scarborough, Rowan. (, 1 July 2004) "Zarqawi Targets Female 'Soldiers.'" The Washington Times.
The organization also seems to be rather adept at evaluating employee performance regularly and fairly. The organizational leaders have, on the whole, established culture of trust, in which employees feel free to speak their minds and express their ideas without apprehension.
CHA is not perfect, however. There are definitely some weaknesses in the organization as well. For example, some of the organization's leaders are not as skilled as they could be at handling conflict and negotiation. There is sometimes a lack of effective communication from the top down which results in problems that resonate throughout the company. When this happens, the conflict that ensues is not always handled as diplomatically as it could be. The "blame game" seems to be a popular pastime in the organization, which ultimately just serves to reduce morale.
My suggestion for overcoming this weakness is to send managers to training sessions on effective communication. In…
Bell, M.P. (2007) Diversity in organizations, Thomson Southwestern
Civilian Human Resource Agency (CHRA). (2010) "About Us." Retrieved from http://www.cpol.army.mil/employment/benefits_compensation.htm
Dessler, G. (2005) Human resource management. Prentice-Hall, 10th ed
Gilley, a., McMillan, H.S., and Gilley, J.W. (2009). Organizational change and characteristics of leadership effectiveness. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 16, 38-47
Law Enforcement Agencies
I agree with the para-military style of organization of most law enforcement agencies. There are a number of facets of this type of organization that makes it beneficial to a governmental agency such as the police. The military has clear lines of designation between its various employees, with a chain of command that denotes authority and respect. As such, there is no ambiguity in the type of orders that must be followed -- the very structure of the organization supports ranking officers and those below them, who are compelled to adhere to the commands of the former. The type of danger that is paramount to situations that involve the military necessitate this type of unequivocal chain of command, which enables seamless action in times of danger. The types of dangers faced by the police department are no less hazardous, and therefore benefit from a similar chain of…
How the Military Changes
Organizational change is a complex process in most cases, with those at the top of the hierarchy having the authority and power to institute changes while those in the trenches generally lack both the power and the authority but often having the expertise needed to guide needed shifts. In well-functioning organizations, change travels both up and down the hierarchy, with the final authorization for any shift in policy coming from the top echelon. However, in the most hierarchical organizations, all changes must be conceptualized and initiated from the top. Such is the case in the military.
Because of the strictures of its hierarchy, the military is famously resistant to changes. However, the military has also been able to accommodate significant changes over the course of the last half century, from racial integration to a far greater inclusion of women in the armed services to…
Nielson, S. (2010). An Army Transformed: The U.S. Army's Post-Vietnam Recovery and the Dynamics of Change in Military Organizations. Retrieved from http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=1020.
Pierce, J.G. (2010). Is the Organizational Culture of the U.S. Army Congruent with the Professional Development of Its Senior Level Officer Corps? Retrieved from http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=1015.
Authored by Dr. James G. Pierce.
Steihm, J.H. (1996). It's Our Military, Too! Women and the U.S. Military. Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.
This book is central to studies on gender discrimination and institutionalized sexism in the merican military. Given that the Commander in Chief is an elected official, and that more than half of all voters are women, it makes sense that women should have a greater say in the organizational culture of the military. However, the organizational culture of the military is stubbornly misogynistic and shows no real signs of change in spite of great inroads being made by female combatants. lthough this book was published in 1996, the themes that run through each of the essays continue to be relevant. The book addresses gender discrimination from nearly every aspect of its manifestation in the military: from differential medical care benefits to sexual harassment. Steihm (1996) shows how women can confront institutionalized sexism, overcome…
Although the author does not focus exclusively on women in the military, Katz (2005) does spend a great deal of time on the gender discrimination manifesting in the military environment. The military organization offers ample opportunities for discrimination because it is a "old boys club," and unapologetically so. Changing the organizational culture of the military is no small job, but it must happen little by little with the help of legal counsel.
5. Korb, L. & Arons, J. (2012). Women in military deserve better care. Politico. Retrieved online: http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0912/81604.html#ixzz2DFonDhQL
This article discusses the lack of access to health care services for women in the military. The statistics included in the article are alarming. "According to the Pentagon's own data, 52 military women are raped every day, and we estimate that more than 300 women are likely to become pregnant from rape in the military each year," (Korb & Arons, 2012, p. 1). Without access to abortions, many women are forced to carry an unwanted child to term.
The colonists' most revered military institution was the militia, a model inherited from their forebears in England. The philosophical underpinnings of the militia model are easy to understand: "fear of a standing army," (Millet and Maslowski 1). A standing army can turn against its people, staging what now would be called military coups one after the other. During and especially after Independence, the validity, effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of the militia model was called into question. This is why the United States Constitution eventually included the provisions for federalized systems of national security. Naturally, the existence of a standing army to "provide for the common defense" would be required. Independence required an organized military strategy against a powerful Empire; to protect the new nation, it was certain that the military would be necessary to preserve all that hard work. The Constitution therefore enabled the creation and maintenance of standing…
Boot, Max. "The New American Way of War." Foreign Affairs. 2003.
Jay, John. "The Federalist 2." Independent Journal. Oct 31, 1787.
Madison, James. "Federalist 41." Independent Journal. Jan 19, 1788.
Millet, Allen R. And Maslowski, Peter. For the Common Defense. Free Press, 1994.
Fearfulness of non-state actors remains salient, but what is particularly interesting is the way ussia and China are singled out as nations with whom the United States is not currently engaged in war with but which nevertheless present peculiar threats. The Department of Defense's National Defense Strategy notes that China's blossoming wealth has also enabled the proliferation of its military, which threatens peace in the Straits of Taiwan and potentially beyond. ussia presents its own realm of problems, especially in light of the failure of democracy to take root there.
The supremacy of the United States as a global military power is an underlying message in these strategy papers, which are written as much to motivate and inspire as to guide policy. isk management is addressed within a characteristically confident framework, reflecting the overall ambition of America's military strategies. Commitments to far-reaching objectives in Iraq and Afghanistan are toughed upon,…
Department of Defense (2010). Quadrennial defense review report.
Department of Defense (2008). National defense strategy.
"The National Military Strategy of the United States of America." (2011).
"National Security Strategy." (2010).
Off-Duty Education, as mentioned above, includes broader, more academic subjects. oldiers can for example be exposed to courses on political science, which is of great importance in today's environment. Arts such as languages in countries where soldiers are expected to travel can also form an important part of such a curriculum. Other relevant subjects could include electronic engineering and other technical skills.
Because of the changing social and political environment, many have held that Professional and Off-Duty Military Education should be integrated and streamlined, and that the current education system is no longer adequate to need the future needs of the Defense Force.
Carafano, James Jay & Kochems, Alane. Rethinking Professional Military Education. The Heritage Foundation, July 28, 2005. http://www.heritage.org/Research/Nationalecurity/em976.cfm
Klinger, Janeen. Academics and Professional Military Education. Academic Exchange Quarterly, ummer 2004. http://rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/mo2567l4.htm
Carafano, James Jay & Kochems, Alane. Rethinking Professional Military Education. The Heritage Foundation, July 28, 2005. http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/em976.cfm
Klinger, Janeen. Academics and Professional Military Education. Academic Exchange Quarterly, Summer 2004. http://rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/mo2567l4.htm
In arguing against reinstating the military draft in the United States, several things come immediately to mind. First among those, for anyone who has learned anything at all about the Vietnam ar, is that the draft can be devastating to society, causing upheaval at home as well as the return of bright, strong young men in body bags. David Halberstam, a journalist of considerable experience, wrote a book, The Best and the Brightest, about the sacrifice of these young Americans for precious little, if any, gain to this country or any other.
Moreover, that war lasted for years, ending in horrific scenes of people running through the streets of Saigon trying to leave any way they could. In the end, there was a Communist takeover despite the loss of all those young Americans.
In an article called "Thinking About the Draft," illiam Galston wrote:
In the wake of…
Galston, William A. 2004. Thinking about the Draft. Public Interest, Wntr, 6ff. http://www.questia.com/ .
Swomley, John. 2004. The Return of the Draft? The Humanist, July/August, 14ff.
Likewise, according to Anderson (2004), "War, if good for anything, is great for business. It means more than just the production of weapons and equipment -- sometimes faulty and overpriced. It promises billions in government revenues for increasingly privatized military training, recruiting, laundry and even KP services" (p. 155). These privatized military services all provided courtesy of the friendly folks at Kellogg, Brown & oot - and all at a hefty profit, of course. To be fair, though, the vice president is not the only one involved in this unholy conspiracy to bilk the American taxpayer while bleeding the armed forces dry. In this regard, Achcar (2004) emphasizes that the president is also implicated by virtue of his close ties with the oil and gas industry and the enormous political contributions they have provided to support his administration's prosecution of the war in Iraq. "Besides his own personal and family…
Achcar, G. (2004, February). U.S. imperial strategy in the Middle East. Monthly Review, 55(9), 23.
Anderson, R. (2004). Home front: The government's war on soldiers. Atlanta: Clarity Press.
Cobe, C. (2004, July 4). Fence post. Daily Herald, 17.
Goodman, a., & Goodman, D. (2004). The exception to the rulers: Exposing America's war profiteers, the media that love them and the crackdown on our rights. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
[footnoteRef:24] in the Archaic Period, Ancient Greece's initial maritime power was critical but also "sporadic."[footnoteRef:25] During the Classical Period, Athens in particular "pursued a policy of naval imperialism"[footnoteRef:26] and this Period saw the development of "siege warfare" in which the Greeks -- particularly the Athenians -- developed the skills to wage war on the open sea.[footnoteRef:27] in the Hellenistic Period, the scope of warfare was enlarged considerably, as whole areas of land were now in dispute. Consequently, there was an "ancient naval arms race"[footnoteRef:28] in which various kings extending beyond Greece fought for control of mainland Greece, islands of the Aegean, western Turkey and southern Syria.[footnoteRef:29] [21: EH.Net and C. Michael Hogan. "Economy of Ancient Greece." www.eoearth.org Web site. May 1, 2010. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Economy_of_Ancient_Greece (accessed January 17, 2013).] [22: Chester G. Starr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989, 7.] [23: Ibid.,…
Are Military Commissions Legal?
It was on November 13th 2001 when then President George Bush issued a military order establishing military commissions to try captured terrorists. Critics immediately claimed that these military commissions were unconstitutional and that the president lacked the authority to create them. Contrary to popular belief, military commissions have existed in the United States for most of it's history and used to try foreign nationals for war crimes. And in the case of al Qaeda operatives captured on the battlefield, the legal rules and protections that have evolved are similar to those found in civilian courts. However, the Bush administration lacked Congressional authority to set up these commissions, they violated the Military Code of Justice, and the differences between the rights and protections provided for in civilian courts and these military commissions are too great to overcome the question of legality.
President Bush's lawyers point…
Bravin, Jess (28 Dec. 2001). Draft of Tribunal Rules Would Require Public
Trials, Death-Penalty Unanimity. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB1009494756552367280.html
Hagle, Timothy. Trying Terrorists: Military Commissions and the American
Legal System. University of Iowa. Retrieved from http://www.uiowa.edu/~030116/158/articles/milcomm4b.pdf
" Clearly, strengthening America's military is a unilateral objective that requires a focused military agenda.
The remaining six features that Kugler identifies from the National Security Strategy are inherently multilateral. Championing aspirations for human dignity, the first feature, is vague but likely refers to issues related to gender, class, and social struggles worldwide. esolving such struggles requires multilateral efforts. The second and third features, strengthening alliances to prevent and defeat global terrorism and working with others to defuse regional conflicts are explicitly cooperative in tone. Preventing enemies from threatening peace may require both multilateral and unilateral action, depending on the situation. Igniting a new era of global economic growth and expanding the circle of development both clearly require the cooperation of foreign markets, regional trade organizations, and the international private sector as well.
Kugler, ichard L. "A Distinctly American Internationalism for a…
Kugler, Richard L. "A Distinctly American Internationalism for a Globalized World."
Organizational Theory #1
Create a code of ethics for an organization of your choice. For each point in the code of ethics, describe an ethical dilemma that would be resolved using the code of ethics.
All employees will conduct business honestly and ethically. We will constantly improve the quality of our services, products and operations and create a reputation for honesty, fairness, respect, responsibility, integrity, trust and sound business judgment. (Provides a clearly stated, over-arching business philosophy for honesty and fair dealings that every employee can follow).
No illegal or unethical conduct on the part of company employees or affiliates is in the company's best interest. All are expected to adhere to high standards of personal integrity -- not allowing their personal interests to conflict with the interests of the company, its clients or affiliates. We will not compromise our principles for short-term advantage. (Encourages all employees to seek the…
Beauchamp, L., & O'Connor, A. (2012). America's most admired companies: A descriptive analysis of CEO corporate social responsibility statements. Public Relations Review, 38(3), 494-497. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2012.03.006
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
The definition for "subversives" is a bit vague, but Fagen explains that in Argentina and elsewhere in Latin American dictatorships the victims of violent repression tended to be union leaders, liberal political leaders, artistic people in cultural circles, student protest leaders and media personalities (p. 41). The whole point of these horrendous repressive policies was to inspire fear, confusion and "distrust" among the general population. For those who believe the United States' military always stands on the side of democratic movements it may come as something of a shock that the U.S. funded and trained many military outfits during the time of dictators in Latin America.
"An entire generation of Latin American military officers and police were armed, trained, and 'professionalized'" by American police and military leaders (Fagen, 1992, p. 43). Fagen says the repression in Argentina was, in part, designed to "Purge ideological infection"; Argentine present General Jorge Rafael…
Fagen, Patricia Weiss. "Repression and State Security." Fear at the Edge: State Terror and Resistance in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
Hunter, Wendy. "Continuity or Change? Civil-Military Relations in Democratic Argentina,
Chile, and Peru." Political Science Quarterly 112.3 (1997): 453-475.
Remmer, Karen L. Military Rule in Latin America. University of Texas: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
That is why I became Treasurer of the ives Club, out of gratefulness for this extended family. I know many people of my generation struggle to find 'who they are' but the structure of the military offers a potent and compelling answer to that question. To serve means always to be at home amongst people who understand exactly what you are going through: "Home is the place where, when you have to go there, they have to take you in" (Frost 118-119).
Being in the military does not mean, contrary to conventional wisdom, that one must obey an unthinking policy of 'my country right or wrong.' The men and women in the military must obey because soldiers cannot afford to question every order and live, however, this does not make them unthinking automatons -- far from it. In fact, soldiers think more about the great questions of life and death,…
Frost, R. (2009). The death of the hired man. In G. Perkins, & B. Perkins (Eds.), The
American Tradition in Literature (12 ed., Vol. 2, pp. 888-891). New York City:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Iyer, P. (2000). The empire. In The global soul: Jet lag, shopping malls, and the search for home. (pp. 234-265). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency esuscitation
This is an article that reviews military use of tranexamic acid in cases of resuscitation in the instance of a trauma emergency.
Scular disturbance with concomitant bleeding is one of the main death causes in military and civilian trauma. Experience from Afghanistan and Iraq wars has caused developments in resuscitation of hemorrhage victims, with the use of optimum blood component ratio identification (Morrison, et.al, 2012). The new approaches involved balanced and early delivery of packed BCs (red blood cells), FFP (fresh frozen plasma), cryoprecipitate and platelets to restore clotting factor 6 and circulating volume. Notwithstanding these developments, the usefulness of a treatment to reduce hemorrhagic shock related mortality is yet to be established.
As a result of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, there has been a need to find advances towards revitalization for hemorrhagic shock. Optimal blood ratio components…
Morrison, J., Dubose, J., Rasmussen, T., & Midwinter, M. (2012). Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency Resuscitation (MATTERs) Study. Achieves of Surgery, 147(2). Retrieved, from http://18.104.22.168:8088/2161431/Article_2.pdf
ithout the integrity to understand the importance of proper maintenance, a soldier may well be risking the health and safety environment for himself and others, not to mention risking the success of a task or mission (Army 2-33).
A leader of integrity is well aware of the Army Values and how important they are in defining character traits that aid in the development of discipline and the ability to maintain that discipline (Army 1-50). These values breed integrity which in turn results in the type of discipline necessary for a soldier to recognize the right course of action and to continue that course, no matter the difficulty encountered (Army 1-50). For leaders, these qualities are even more important because soldiers follow their leaders' examples, thus a leader must demonstrate the values and integrity that encourage his soldiers to excel in every task they attempt and within every aspect of their…
The Army Noncommissioned Officer Guide. Field Manual No. 7-22.7.
Headquarters Department of the Army. Washington, DC. December 23, 2002; pp. 1-60, 2-6, 2-7, 2-8, 2-14, 2-15, 2-23, 2-31- 2-33, 5-2, 5-6.
Living the Army Values. http://www.goarmy.com/life/living_the_army_values.jsp?fl=false
In terms of the organizational development style to be used throughout the change process, this should best be the pathfinder style. Despite the complexity of this approach, fact remains that it combines the benefits of other styles, while reducing their limitations. The pathfinder style virtually focuses on both high levels of organizational effectiveness, as well as high levels of member satisfaction (Harvey and Brown, 2001). This means that the approach will focus on improving senior-junior communications, for the satisfaction of the employees, as well as the increase in the performances of the overall entity.
Given that the process of change cannot be structured onto a strict plan, but that the plan has to be tailored to the unique features of the Mobile Mine Assembly Group, the levels of formalization at this stage are reduced. Nevertheless, throughout the actual implementation, or the time in which the change strategy comes into direct…
Ewing, P., 2009, U.S. Navy Readiness Flaws Exposed, Defense News, http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=4058309 last accessed on December 2, 2009
Harvey, D.F., Brown, D.R., 2009, An Experiential Approach to Organization Development, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall
Kieschnick, F., 2008, Mine Warfare "Shifts Colors" to Southern California, Pentagon Brief, http://pentagonbrief.wordpress.com/2008/12 / last accessed on December 3, 2009
McNamara, P., 2008, Organizational Performance Management, http://managementhelp.org/org_perf/org_perf.htm last accessed on December 3, 2009
As more organizations begin to realize there are new and innovative ways to involve everyone in the process, then more organizations will see the benefits of changing the way people report to one another, and how they solve problems. Removing the layers of management and hierarchy create more open communication, and remove the fear many staff feel when discussing new ideas and innovations. Having many people "in charge" in an organization may work for some people, but for most it stifles their creativity and need for challenge and growth. I reject the type of management that cannot learn from everyone on staff, and look forward to a time when organizations have the capacity to learn from within, as well as from the outside. I think that will be a new and better day for American business.
ABC Aviation has managed to capture the attention of international organizations and NATO members due to the high quality of their helicopters. However, to be able to complete the signed contract, the organization must first resolve their internal disputes and must implement a strong organizational culture which embraces and promotes cultural diversity.
Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.
Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.
Chuang, Y.T., Church, ., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. etrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16.…
Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.
Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.
Chuang, Y.T., Church, R., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Professionalism on the part of employees is also facilitated by management's demanding high standards of employees, in line with the stress of the necessity of improving world health care and helping students. Yet management is always committed to recognizing impressive employee performances with generous bonuses, providing a comprehensive benefits package for all workers, and showing respect for employee health and welfare, as well as customer health and welfare. Also, the tuition assistance program shows how the company respects the importance of education for workers as well as for customers
Globalization spawned the founding of this organization. Globalization continues to impact its structure and mission. As health care bureaucracies around the world grow more complex, and the policies regarding foreign nationals studying in the U.S. change in response to international political events, the ECFMG must remain flexible and abreast of world affairs.
The theory sees human organizational behaviors and conceptions culturally bound, rather than natural, unlike advocates of systems theory. Systems theory has been more influenced by sociology and linguistics than the natural sciences.
Analyzing symbolic interpretations may be more useful in organizations serving diverse populations: if a public health organization wants to alleviate the prevalence of diabetes in an area, it is not enough to more effectively disseminate information through the existing channels of communication (as systems theory might suggest) or even change the environment to create healthy options for consumption. Rather the people being served may require counseling to change what they consider good foods, a healthy diet, and a positive body image, if their culture tends to reinforce unhealthy practices. An ideological overhaul is necessary to change some behaviors, like the decreased social acceptability of smoking, for example. Organizations are social as well as formal, and cultural in nature…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (1997). Organization theory: Modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives.
Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.
In other words, the emphasis is on effective leadership and increased revenue for the company as a whole, which ultimately benefit individual managers as well.
Like cross-functional teams, self-managed teams also need specific models to ensure success, not least because of the collective leadership these teams display. The potential for conflict and misunderstanding could result in ineffective group work. To mitigate this, Silverman and Propst (n.d.) proposes a specific model according to which such teams can function optimally. There are various roles inherent in the model that is suggested. These roles include: 1) upholding organizational and personal values and principles; 2) accomplishing the work assigned to the team; 3) organizing the work environment; 4) managing work processes; 5) participating in organization-wide systems; 6) participating in organization-wide strategies; and 7) managing team processes.
The model therefore indicates that some leadership and management are essential in helping the team to achieve its…
Armstrong, R.V. (2005). Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from: http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1004
Merritt, E.A. And Reynolds, D.E. (n.d.) The Effect of Self-Managing Teams on Manager Commitment and Organizational Tenure in Private Clubs. Retrieved from:
Myshko, D. (2006, Sep.) Cross-Functional Teams: Models of Success. PharmaVoice. Retrieved from: http://www.skila.com/Downloads/Cross%20Functional%20Teams.pdf
Pragmatic Marketing (2011). Enabling Cross-Functional Teams: A Leadership Role for Product Managers. Retrieved from: http://www.pragmaticmarketing.com/publications/topics/09/enabling-cross-functional-teams-a-leadership-role-for-product-managers
Organizational Behavior: Past Present. Discuss statements. • The Human elations Movement. Discuss Hawthorne Experiment implications a legacy workplace; compare contrast McGregor's Theory X Theory Y assumptions employees, personal experiences Theory X & Y managers, prefer.
Organizational behavior: Past and present
Discuss the Hawthorne Experiment and its implications as a legacy in the workplace
The Hawthorne Experiment suggests that when subjects are aware that they are being observed, they behave better than they do under regular circumstances. The implications of this experiment in the workplace are fairly obvious: workers are often regularly watched by managers, as a way of improving employee productivity and enhancing compliance. When workers cannot be watched through the use of human agency, then mechanized means are used to engage in surveillance. Time clocks, 'blocking' controls upon unsupervised employee web-surfing, sitting workers in open environments where they can be easily monitored and other efforts to make employee behaviors…
Kreitner & Kinicki. (2007). Chapter 14 outline. Fundamentals of organizational behavior.
Mead, A. (1996). Deming distilled. TQM. Retrieved April 28, 2011 at http://www.well.com/user/vamead/demingdist.html
Schmidt, Klaus. (1998). Applying the Four Principles of Total Quality Management to the classroom. Tech Directions, 58 (1):16-18.
These organizations tend to embrace change, but because of a quick flow of persons in and out of the organization, the organizational change plan may not be as thoroughly instated, because employees are impatient to see results and may leave before the benefits of change are realized. A club culture, where the most important requirement for employees in the culture is to fit into the group, when employees start at the bottom and stay with the organization like military and some law firms is likely to be as resistant to change as an academy culture, and may have the added drawback that even higher-ups of the organization lack the confidence in the concept of change to provide effective leadership over the course of a change plan. Finally, a fortress culture where employees have timely, specialized skills like large car companies or volatile financial institutions, are more likely to embrace change…
McNamara, Carter. (1999) "Organizational Culture." Management help. Retrieved Jul 11, 2006 at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm
While this is an important first step, the overall bureaucracy of the hospital could pose problem over the long-term. To mitigate this situation, the hospital could implement a program of randomly monitoring the various departments that score poorly on different surveys. Where, the administration is seeking out ways to quickly identify when the overall levels of care will decrease. This is important, because as a part of the Department of Defense, it easy for the staff to fall into an attitude of complacence. Once this occurs, is when the obvious weaknesses in the various departments become more severe and could require years, to effectively correct the various problems. As a result, the surveys are good first start, but must have an effective mechanism of identifying the problem early. When you have random spot checks of those departments that are scoring poorly on the survey, you are making the organization more…
About Fort Jackson. (n.d.). Retrieved June 15, 2010 from U.S. Army website: http://www.jackson.army.mil/Area/aboutFtJ.htm
Barido, G. (2008). The Effects of Customer Service Initiative. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from Storming Media website: http://www.stormingmedia.us/42/4263/A426394.html
Bonn, K. (2005). Social and Family Matters. Army Officers Guide, (pg. 423). Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole.
Gaal, J. (1995). Improving Access to Primary Care. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from U.S. Army Baylor University Graduate Program in Health Care website: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA313797&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
With each organization looking for the most efficient ways of getting work done, there has a risen a necessity to try out several modes of operation that would enable the intended results in an organization to be realized. This was one of the driving forces that prompted Best Buy to change their mode of operation to the ROWE model.
The other very significant reason behind the ROWE model is the employee burnout that is experienced by the majority of the people who are stuck to their desks from morning straight to evening with very short breaks in the name of working from the office. This results into loss of balance between the work-life aspects.
It is also significant to note that the employees looked at the clock system as one full of dogma with the bosses requiring them to be physically present at all the working…
Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation
Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the use of aircraft on scheduled and chartered flights to carry passengers and cargo, but the subject also covers the use of aircraft for pleasure, business, and medical services. ecause of the international character of civil aviation, governments play a major role in its conduct and regulation, through both national legislation and international agreements. This governmental influence was a major factor in commercial airline operation until the early 1980s, when the U.S. domestic market was deregulated. The result was a massive increase in competition, which led in turn to a reorganization of the airlines into larger groupings. It seems likely that this process will continue in the international market, which will lead to an increase in air travel, and increased pressure on…
(1963)Aeroflot, Flight International, Vol. 84, No. 2856, December 5,
Harrison (2000)Mastering the sky: a history of aviation from ancient times to the present.
Shulman, S (2003).Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane
Taylor, J & Munson, K (1973)History of aviation
[footnoteRef:32] This lack of forces for other Pacific struggles generally weakened the Japanese war effort, as the Japanese were forced to fight those battles with insufficient men, weapons, ammunition and other related materiel. [27: Eric Hammel. Guadalcanal: Decision at Sea: The Naval attle of Guadalcanal, November 13-15, 1942. Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Military History, 1999, p. 346.] [28: Colin G. Jameson. "attle of Guadalcanal: 11-15 November, 1942." www.history.navy.mil Web site. 1944. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/battleguadalcanal1942.htm (accessed March 18, 2013), p. 78.] [29: Robert Leckie. Challenge for the Pacific: Guadalcanal: The Turning Point of the War (Paperback). New York, NY: antam ooks, 2010, pp. 127-128.] [30: Mark Stille. USN Cruiser vs. IJN Cruiser: Guadalcanal 1942. New York, NY: Osprey Publishing, 2009, pp. 19-20.] [31: Leckie, p. 306.] [32: Ibid.]
The Allied victory at the Naval attle of Guadalcanal through the leadership of Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, the Southwest Pacific Theater commander, was also a…
Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.
Frank, Richard B. Guadalcanal: The Definitive Account of the Landmark Battle. New York, NY: Penguin Books USA, Inc., 1992.
Hammel, Eric. Carrier Clash: The Invasion of Guadalcanal and the Battle of the Eastern Solomons: August, 1942. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, an imprint of MBI Publishing Company, 2004.
-- . Guadalcanal: Decision at Sea: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, November 13-15, 1942. Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Military History, 1999.
This calls for both physical and mental strength (Army egulation 600-100, 2007).
Comparing my organization's code of ethics with my own, I conclude that on literal grounds it is similar in many ways. The ethical code of the U.S. Army calls for being dutiful, honest, fulfillment of obligations and tolerance towards others. However, I feel that in many ways these ethics are not practically put into practice the way they should have been. One example is that within an army, there is little democracy that prevails. A junior member of the regiment has a little chance of expressing his/her opinion to the senior. Also in some cases promotional chances are not allowed on equality basis. This is not only demotivating but also frustrating for many soldiers. It has two serious impacts on the employees. One, it effect the efficiency of the soldiers which can be a serious issue in an…
Army Regulation 600-100. (2007). Army Leadership. Washington: Department of Army.
Sims, R. (2003). Ethics and corporate social responsibility. USA: Praeger Publishers.
Johnson, K. (1997). Ethics and counterrevolution: American involvement in internal wars. USA: University Press of America.
Robinson, P. Lee, N. & Carrick, D. (2008). Ethics education in the military. USA: Ashgate Publishing Company.
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.
Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Organizational Model of Ft. end County Sheriff's Office
The Sheriff's Office in Fort end County, Texas, is operated under the same model as many Sheriff's departments throughout the country, and, particularly, like many sheriff's offices in the state of Texas. The position of Sheriff is an elected position, so that the Sheriff is elected by the public and serves for a specific-term. The current elected official is Milton Wright. However, the elected sheriff does not play the day-to-day role that he might in another county. This is largely due to the immense size of Fort end County, which is not only already one of the largest counties in the nation, but is also growing rapidly. In 2010, the county's population was 585,375, about half of them white, 21.5% black, 17% Asian, and 23.7% Hispanic, 23.3% foreign-born, with a median income of $80,548 but with 7.5% below the poverty level poverty…
Description: have to describe an organizational model of any police agency outside of New York State. Students will describe the nature and function of each subunit and the personnel resources dedicated to it. Students will also describe the demographics and geographic of the area served. sources and information must be cited.
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In my job as a Health Readiness Coordinator, I am required to exercise a high level of skill in communication, leadership, organization, as well as basic statistical analysis. In specific, I have found the following principles of group and organizational dynamics, leadership styles, and basic statistics to be invaluable.
One of the first ways in which a Health Readiness Coordinator begins his or her relationship with a client is by helping them to make relevant decisions. Of course, the best way to begin this process is by utilizing a "break down" method that separates the decision into defined components. Specifically, these include defining the problem, collecting the relevant data on all possible choices, evaluating present alternatives, and finally, making an informed decision (Amos, 2004). Additionally, I have also found it useful to add a final reflection step in which I evaluate the success of the decision,…
Amos Web. (2004). Decision Making Process. Web page. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from, http://www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/gls.pl?fcd=dsp&key=decision+making+process
ASC. The Animated Software Company. (2004). Internet Glossary of Statistical Terms: Population. Web site. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from, http://www.animatedsoftware.com/statglos/sgpopula.htm
Blair, Gerard. (1997). Leadership Styles. Web Page. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from, http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/MENG/ME96/
Bresnahan. The Bresnahan Group. (2004). Talk is Cheap. Listening is Priceless. Web site. Retrieved on August 16, 2004, from, http://www.bresnahangroup.com/articles/talkcheap.htm
Attendance will be required for all group members to optimize the effect of the sessions. Group members will be allowed to leave the group as long as the intention to leave is provided in writing. No reasons will be required.
Because of the nature of the group, a mutual confidentiality agreement will be signed by all group members, including leaders, at the first meeting of the group. There will generally not be homework, apart from the requirement to apply what has been learned to the work and home environment. Group members may report on results if they feel they want to.
There is no need for a formalized institution to determine the ground rules and structure of the meetings. This will be a collaborative process between me and the group members.
IX. Group essions
Group dynamics generally consist of four stages: forming, storming, norming, and performing (Group Dynamics, Unit 10).…
Adams, B.D. And Webb, R.D.G. Trust in Small Military Teams. Retrieved from http://www.dodccrp.org/events/7th_ICCRTS/Tracks/pdf/006.PDF
Armstrong, R. (2005) Requirements of a Self-Managed Team Leader. Leader Values. Retrieved from http://www.leader-values.com/Content/detail.asp?ContentDetailID=1004
Borchers, T. (1999). Small Group Communication. Retrieved from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/groups/leader.html
Castano, E. Leidner B, and Slawuta, P. (2008, Jun). Social identification processes, group dynamics and the behaviour of combatants. International Review of the Red Cross, Vol 90, No. 870. Retrieved from http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/review-870-p259/$File/irrc-870_Castano.pdf
Military Draw-Down from Afghanistan
hen terrorists attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, there was very little hesitation on the part of then President George . Bush -- and the United States Congress -- to mount a retaliatory military campaign in Afghanistan, the place where bin Laden was training terrorists to kill Americans. The Taliban militants were control of Afghanistan at that time and they had provided training camps for bin Laden and al Qaeda to plan their terrorist activities against the United States. Bush gave the Taliban time to either hand over bin Laden (which they were not about to do) or prepare for a bombardment by U.S. military. The American public was fully behind the 2001 military engagement in Afghanistan, but few citizens at that time imagined that more than ten years later American soldiers would still be in Afghanistan, fighting the resurgent Taliban militants.
Aymeen Jawad, al-Tamimi. 2012. Rethinking U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan. Middle East
Quarterly 19 (Winter) 1-15.
Jones, Jeffrey M. 2011. Americans More Positive on Afghanistan After Bin Laden Death.
Gallup Poll. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com .
Military Theory: Jomini on Napoleon
The objective of this study is to use the Campaign of 1813 culminating in the battle of Leipzig and to identify and analyze both the critical points and decisive points that Antoine-Henri Jomini in his 'Principles of War' would have listed in relation to proper time and sufficient force and identify how many would be applied both positively and negatively to Napoleon's maneuvering and engaging.
The focus of Napoleon in the Campaign of 1813 was to launch such a mass attack on the enemy that they would be overcome and decimated. However, as this study will demonstrate, Napoleon missed chances to do just that and his poor planning and improper timing resulted in the losses of many thousands of lives that did not have to be lost. According to Jomini, the art of war is comprised by six specific parts including: (1) statesmanship…
Allen, BM (1998) The Effects of Infectious Disease on Napoleon's Russian Campaign. Air Command and Staff College, Air University. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA398046
Jomini on Strategic Lines and Points, Decisive Points of the Theater of War, and Objective Points of Operations. [Excerpted from Antoine-Henri Jomini, The Art of War G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill, trs. (Philadelphia: Lippicott, 1892), pp. 85-92]. Retrieved from: http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/JominiSP.html
Keefe, JM (1995) Napoleon's Marshals in 1813. School of Advanced Military Studies. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. First Term AY 94-95. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA293453
Nomura, RC (2012) Issues in strategic thought: from Clausewitz to al-Qaida. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL I. JOMINI VS. CLAUSEWITZ December 2012. Retrieved from: http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/bitstream/handle/10945/27881/12Dec_Nomura_Ryan.pdf?sequence=1
In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army.
On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)."
Overall it is…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.
Body Mass Index. http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/20/struggling_for_recruits_army_relaxes_its_rules/?page=1
Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.
Integrating women into the military, like with African-American men, would also contribute to more cohesive fighting units again serving to promote a united, strong U.S. military organization.
Anti-female bias in the military
The struggle for equality in the military for women parallels that of African-American men in many other ways. As a direct result of the need for additional "manpower," women's push for better treatment in the military, and a desire for a larger, stronger military, in 1948, the Women's Armed Services Integration Act was enacted. This act made it possible for women to become permanent members in the military.
Once again, as with African-American men, that act alone was not enough to ensure integration thus leading to a multitude of policies designed to accomplish that end. Almost immediately following this act, in 1949, it was changed to eliminate women with dependent children. This was not changed until the 1970's.…
Borlik, A. (1998, June). DOD Marks 50th Year of Military Women's Integration
Retrieved January 12, 2012, from U.S. Department of Defense website:
Blumenson, M. (1972). Eisenhower
Females in Military
Should females in military be allowed to lead combat units?
Gender discrimination is a wide exercised practice that is witnessed in the military organization as well. Women in the current times are equally challenging and capable of being a significant part of combat units. However, this subject matter has come under numerous arguments and disagreements with controversial results. In this regard, this study aims and intends to carry out a profound study that can determine whether females in military should be allowed to lead in combat unit or not. The study is a synthesis of both primary and secondary research that can aid the researcher to conclude with meaningful information.
Table of Contents
Participants of the Study
Data Collection Techniques
Since time immemorial, the element of discrimination and biasness, especially based on gender have existed in many…
Kotzur, G.P. (1997). Let Us Tell It: How It Was, How It Is and How It Will Be in the Future. USA: Turner Publishing Company.
Kumar, R. 2008. Research Methodology. 2nd Edition -- Reprinted. Great Britain: APH Publishing
Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS Survival Manual. 4th Edition. China: McGraw-Hill International.
Vartanian, T.P. (2010). Secondary Data Analysis. USA: Oxford University Press
private military companies Iraq illustrate a trend warfare? -No, Historical reasons great empires employed a large number mercenaries.-What reasons, -Type firms, divided types- type spear
Private military companies
Today's society is more challenging and dynamic than it has ever been. And this trend is manifested within the military sector as well. Here, the employees in the division have to be better motivated in order to risk their lives and this motivation has to be complex, and include both financial and non-financial incentives. While the major non-financial incentive would be the sense of fighting to protect one's country, the financial incentive has to be substantial and significantly larger than that of any other category of employees.
The modern day army then integrates technologic developments to improve the nature and outcome of its operations. It as such strives to answer the more and more complex demands of the contemporaneous society and, in…
Adebajo, A., Sriram, C.L., 2000, Messiahs or mercenaries? The future of international private military services, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 7, No. 4
Avant, D., 2006, Private military companies and the future of war, Foreign Policy Research Institute, http://www.fpri.org/enotes/200604.military.avant.privatemilitarycompanies.html last accessed on May 27, 2011
Beutel, M.D., 2005, Private military companies: their emergence, importance and a call for global regulation, Northwich University, http://princess.digitalfreaks.org/thesis/beutelmdthesis.pdf last accessed on May 27, 2011
Carafano, J.J., 2008, Private sector, public wars: contractors in combat-- Afghanistan, Iraq, and future conflicts, Greenwood Publishing, ISBN 0275994783
The Organization as a Living System
There are many different metaphorical models that have been used to describe organizations, from ships to machines to human brains. Another perspective views organizations as equivalent to living organisms or really to any complex living system, where reactions happen both on an immediate and reactionary basis and as a matter of planning and decision making. This perspective can be especially useful when viewing organizations during volatile times and in a host of other conditions; though this metaphor is not necessarily better or more complete than other symbolic ways of viewing organizations, it certainly has benefits in certain applications and situations. Viewing the organization as a living organism can help one to determine how the organization makes its decisions, where the powerful and weak points of the system are, and even predict its behavior as an entity that above all wants to survive…
Fedorov, G.S. (2001) The Military Unit as Part of the Armed Forces' Economic System . Military Thought . July. Retrieved 12 February 2011, from http://dlib.eastview.com/browse/doc/400163
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Gender Integration in the Military: Should Women be allowed in Military Combat?
From ancient times, women have participated in fighting their countries' enemies sometimes as foot soldiers, queens, and sometimes having to disguise themselves as men. However, many societies have always felt disinclined to admit women in front line military combat. In the U.S. For instance, women make up more than 15% of the military, but the debate on whether women should be further integrated into military services rages on. Lorry Fenner, a former senior intelligence officer and Vice Wing Commander for over 4000 men and women, and Marie De Young, a former captain in the U.S. Army reserves (2001), put the debate into perspective. They state that the debate has always centered on women's access to combat positions, their physical and emotional fitness, and the societal implications of their participation in military combat. They further explain that vehement arguments…
Denn, W. (2014). Women in combat roles would strengthen the military. The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 June 2015 from http://www.washingtonpost.com /opinions/women-in-combat-roles-would-strengthen-the-military/2014/04/03/f0aeb140-bb50-11e3-9a05-c739f29ccb08_story.html
Devilbiss, M.C. (1990). Women and Military Service: A History, Analysis, and Overview of Key Issues. Alabama: Air University Press.
Downin, R. (2003). Why Christian Women Should Not Join the Military: A Plea From a Woman Veteran. Beautiful Womanhood. Retrieved 19 June 2015 from http://www.ladiesagainstfeminism.com/artman/publish/Hot_Button_Issues_21/Why_Christian_Women_Should_not_Join_the_Military_A_410100410.shtml
Collins, S.M. (2015). Christian Faith and Military Service. Retrieved 18 June 2015 from http://www.godward.org/archives/Special%20Articles/christian_faith_and_military_ser.htm
Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample
Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.
Carbon emissions and overall sustainability
anking and promotion characteristics with the military.
Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion
The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military
Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions
Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.
Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.
In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in…
1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1
2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf .
3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference
Factors that affect an organization's capacity and willingness to change need to be examined and exploited. Organizational culture, which is a set of shared values and assumptions that are followed by the members of an organization, plays an important role in affecting the attitude of an organization to change. If an organizational history has been unwelcome to change in the past, it is highly unlikely that an organization will be willing to accept change in the future. Sometimes, core competency can assist in the process of change (Porter, 1980).
Lastly, at the individual level, the process of change is completed when it is implemented within a company. The task of the general manager then becomes of envisioning the future of the change and of facilitating cooperation among the workforce. He is also responsible for implementing change at various levels of production, development and distribution. In particular, what needs to be…
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Supply chain management and logistics
Project Management Plan
the topic is a comparative study of logistic operation in the Military Vs commercial organization
Project Approval equirements
Many experts believe that there is not much of a parallel when it comes to the logistic operations in the Military and commercial organization. This proposal will show rather or not U.S. military logistics have no parallel in the commercial world -- from its scope and size to the lethal position of the term "mission-critical" throughout the course of wars. In this world, the soldier is the client waiting for products like bullets, food, water, medication and fuel for tanks and other war vehicles.
The purpose of the proposal is to gain a better understanding of the comparisons and differences among the two, with an end-state of affecting whether…
Chrlstgau, R. (2008, March 5). "Military PersoniK. I '.VilJ Not Parti- cipate In Any Activity Havin to do With (reatlnp. a Union for unlisted Men,." Retrieved from Ksouire: ***
Global Focus. (2015, February 13). Managing Supply Chains: What the Military Can Teach Business (and Vice Versa). Retrieved from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/managing-supply-chains-what-the-military-can-teach-business-and-vice-versa/
Quinn, J. L. (2014, May 5). THE ADVANTAGES AND D ISADVANTAGES OF UNIONIZATION WITHIN THE ARMED FORCES . Retrieved from ***
Improvement of Supply Chain Management Tools and Processes for Ultimate Strategic Achievement of Success in Military and Civil usiness
Today, both public and private sector organisations of all sizes and types are faced with the same need to optimize their supply chain management processes to the maximum extent possible in order to achieve and sustain high levels of performance and productivity. ecause supply chain management systems are frequently highly complex, it is vitally important to understand how these systems operate and what factors contribute to their successful management. Moreover, innovations in information technologies have changed the manner in which companies manage their supply chains, but these innovations have introduced yet additional management challenges. In this environment, identifying opportunities to optimize the supply chain management process represents a timely and important enterprise. To this end, this study reviews the relevant literature to provide an overview of supply chain management and the…
Bibliography." The Journal of New Business Ideas & Trends. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 63-66.
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Rosenbaum, B (2001, November/December), "The Technology-Enabled Supply Chain Network." Industrial Management, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 6-9.
Sabbaghi, A & Vardyanathan, G (2008, August), "Effectiveness and Efficiency of RFID Technology in Supply Chain Management: Strategic Values and Challenges." Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 71-74.
Smith, T (March 2003), "New Ideas for Streamlining the Supply Chain Game: Supply Chain Management Is Something Companies Are Becoming Increasingly Focused on, as the Task of Juggling Profits and Customer Satisfaction Becomes More Complex. Business Asia, Vol. 11, No. 2, p. 22.
female combat unit in world history. As the developer of the game Night Witches points out, everyone from the commanders to the pilots were women. With women in positions of leadership and front lines physical combat as well as ancillary support such as technicians and mechanics, the ussian 588 team has become a model for other female combat teams. Yet none have followed. In the United States, however, women were confined to roles deemed appropriate according to prevailing gender norms: roles that were assistive or supportive in nature rather than executive and proactive. The women in British units could and did serve in combat in World War Two. Yet in the United States, women continue to be barred from combat positions even today. Although women are not overtly prevented from serving in positions of power and leadership in the military, gender roles and norms do retain a hierarchal and patriarchal…
"Beware the Night Witches! - Russia's Deadly Female Pilots," (2014). World of War Planes. Retrieved online: http://worldofwarplanes.com/news/nightwitch-history/
Campbell, D. (1993). Women in combat. The Journal of Military History 57(2): 301-323.
"Night Witches," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/bullypulpitgames/night-witches/description
According to online polls, whether and how women should serve in combat is one of the top social issues of 2017 (“The Most Popular Social Issues of 2017”). One of the reasons why this social issue is currently trending is that as of January 1, 2016, the military began phasing in a new policy that opens ground combat positions for women. Over 200,000 new combat positions have been open since January 2016, but “relatively few women have been trained or deployed for these jobs yet,” revealing important structural, human resources, and leadership impediments to gender equality in the military (Patterson 1).
Historically, women have not served in the military other than in medical and support roles (Barry). Women have, however, served in combat roles globally within the past several generations. In fact, the list of countries in which women serve in official military combat roles now is astonishingly long…