NATO Essays

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Security Explain the Endurance of

Words: 3199 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65161297

S.-USS confrontation ended, the future of the alliance would lie in its role to strike a balance between the new poles of power that would emerge in the coming decades.

Due to the lack of vision concerning the future evolution of the international system, there was little agreement on how to actually proceed in reestablishing and redefining the role and scope of NATO. This is why some scholars considered that the immediate years following the end of the Cold War were marked by a high degree of uncertainty arguing that the aims set forth in 1991 were vague and without a clear determination in time and space (Foster and Williams, 2001). The leaders of the Alliance needed, according to the realist and neorealist vision a new common threat or common goal that would keep the Cold War unity unchanged. In this sense, Europeans considered the cooperation with the U.S. To…… [Read More]

References

Borawski, J. 1995. Partnership for Peace and beyond. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 71, No. 2. pp. 233-246

Boulden, J. NATO and the United Nations during UNPROFOR. N.d.

Calvocoressi, P. 1987. World politics since 1945. Longman, New York.

Cornish, P. 2004. NATO: the practice and politics of transformation. International Affairs 80.
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Global Domestic Security Threat Impact

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73547791



Global concerns: Russia, missile shields and cyberterrorism

Thus domestic concerns such as internal instability and even energy scarcity have global repercussions that affect NATO nations. That is why, despite the end of the Cold ar, tensions between NATO member and non-member nations remain bubbling so close to the surface. It has not been forgotten by the Russian leadership that NATO was founded to address the security concerns raised by the now-defunct institutions of the Soviet Union and the arsaw Pact. Fears of 'Star ars' shield defense systems were reignited in March when Secretary General Rasmussen, warning of the "looming threat of weapons of mass destruction," made a case for a missile shield system for all NATO alliance states against "unconventional weapons and the missiles that [they] could carry…Should Iran produce intermediate- and intercontinental-range missiles…the whole of the European continent, as well as all of Russia would be in range," he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brunnstrom, David. "Missile Defense Needed Against Growing Threat, NATO Chief Says."

Reuters. March 26, 2009. May 14, 2010.

http://www.globalsecuritynewswire.org/gsn/nw_20100326_9638.php

Fedynsky, Peter. "NATO to Transfer Security Tasks to Afghan Government." Global Security.
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Desirable Women

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25003953

NATO and its functions. The writer argues that NATO should open to the entire world and allow any nation to participate that wants to. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

With the world heating up over the American-Iraq conflict many nations are calling for the involvement of NATO. NATO which is the North American Alliance Treaty Organization, provides treaty mediation and rule setting for its members (Ames, 2003) The privileges and the duties of the member nations are weighted by population, economic clout and other factors and the members of the organization can come to NATO for mediation anytime they are unhappy with another nation's treatment or actions that threaten or do involve military action.. NATO has been reported to be highly successful in it venture and its purpose (Ames, 2003). It provides support as well as an outlet for grievances which may well help prevent future…… [Read More]

References

Knox, Noelle (2002). Bush urges NATO to share 'burden' in Iraq conflict., USA Today, pp 12A.

A aAmes, Paul (2003). U.S. Formally Asks for Limited NATO Help., AP Online,.

NATO: History of NATO: Information about NATO (Accessed 2-10-2003)

http://cgi.tripod.com/adm/popunder/insite.html?
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Kosovo War

Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27675563

strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…… [Read More]

References

Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web: http://sg.travel.yahoo.com/guide/europe/yugoslavia / history.html

Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12

Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)

Need reference for W.U.
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Albania Over the Years the

Words: 2895 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52050360



In addition, there is a strong press that is actively involved in bringing political struggles to the attention of Albanians. The press appears to be very competitive throughout the country and in Tirana in particular (Nordinger, 2005). The freedom and presence of the press is a good sign of a bourgeoning democracy.

hen elections do occur in Albania, observers have reported large turnouts of nearly 50% (Nordinger, 2005). The voting process is similar to that in Iraq in which voter's thumbs are marked to verify that they have voted. Once the voter fills out a ballot it is folded and place info a box. Although some of the elections have been observed as fair, observers have received complaints during elections that they registered to vote but they were not allowed to do so because their names were not on the rolls (Nordinger, 2005).

However the author reports that is many…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro. 2006. Who Cares about Corruption?. Journal of International Business Studies 37, no. 6: 807+.

EU-Albania relations. Official Website of the European Union. http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/albania/eu_albania_relations_en.htm

Haslam, Nick. 2007. Albania Awakes: Isolated for Decades by Its Paranoid Communist Leader, Then Ravaged Civil Unrest and Economic Collapse, This Forgotten Corner of Europe Is Making a Remarkable Recovery. Geographical, March, 76+.

Klan, Alfred Peza. July 30, 2001 Corruption in Albania: Up from the Bottom (independent weekly magazine), Tirana, Albania,.  http://www.worldpress.org/1001cover5.htm
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Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs

Words: 13409 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80916514

interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]

'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

Available from . [24 Aug 2013].

Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
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Strategy-Afghanistan War Contemporary Strategy Treacherous

Words: 1991 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59263267



How should allied operations in Afghanistan be pursued?

In order for the operation in Afghanistan to be effective, there are several ways that can be opted for. The allied forces should be trained aptly for the terrain that is in Afghanistan, the training should as well cover the entire insurgents possible pockets. This however may prove difficult since the insurgents have their protected areas that they would not allow the allied forces to intrude into.

The allied forces should as well try as much as required to penetrate the Taliban and know each plan they make, never to underestimate the Taliban however trivial or temporary their plan may be. It should be noted that the Islamic policy that the Taliban have is way more long-term focused that immediate action and stopping. The allied troops should have a long-range plan of dealing with the Taliban. A plan which will possibly stretch…… [Read More]

References

Gopal & Anand (2009 December 1).Karzai Aides, Tribal Leaders Say Surge is Wrong Strategy.

The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from online.wsj.com/article/SB125960550353170023.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLENexttoWhatsNewsTop.

Robert G, (2009). Rethink Afghanistan. Retrieved April 1, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/23/movies/23gree.html.

Robert, (2008, August, 26). Taliban was "Underestimated." Retrieved April 2, 2010 from www.jihadwatch.org/2008/08/taliban-was-underestimated.html
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Albania and Croatia Are the

Words: 1351 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81917789

For instance, Moens and his colleagues advise, "It bears recalling that NATO for Canada and other allies, has always made sense as a vehicle for providing at least some access into the shaping of the U.S. national interest. NATO has been good not only because it kept the Russians out and the Germans down, but because it got the Americans mixed up in the security affairs of other, reasonably like-minded, states" (13).

2.

Discuss President George . Bush's doctrine of preemptive war?

A.

Include in your discussion, its basic assumptions. The term "preemptive war" is used to describe a nation's use of military force to attack a belligerent before it can attack the attacker. The basic assumptions of this doctrine follow those of the "Just ar" tradition wherein a nation is permitted to protect itself from threats that are posed by other countries in its own self-interests (ester 2004:20).

B.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lake, David A. 2000. "The Self-Restrained Superpower." Harvard International Review 22(3):

48.

Mcmanus, John F. 2002, December 2. "Irreconcilable Differences." The New American 18(24):

31-33.
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Afghanistan the Current Situation in

Words: 2115 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27991146

In fact 92% of the world's supply of opium comes from Afghanistan. The Taliban have tapped into this rich resource and it provides them with sufficient cash to pay their soldiers more than the Afghanistan government pays its own troops (Schmidt, 2010, p. 63).

hile he Taliban do not "mastermind" the opium trade, Schmidt explains, they do benefit financially from integrating their radical politics into the marketing of opium. In 1999 Afghanistan poppy farmers -- and those that convert the poppies to opium -- produced forty-five tons of opium, about fifteen times what had been produced in any of the previous 15 years. The Taliban use the millions of dollars from the sale of opium to buy new and better weapons, to sponsor new Madrassas (schools that teach radical Islamic politics to young men) in Pakistan, and to "barter for cars and all manner of consumer goods, including houses" (Schmidt,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arfsten, Darryl P., Moralez, Joe F., Chester, Linnes L., Mohamad, Pir, and Weber, Timothy H.

"Drug Use Among the Afghanistan National Police: A National Assessment." Military

Medicine, 177, no. 1, 85-90.

Bowman, Tom. "U.S. Prepares to Redefine Mission in Afghanistan." National Public Radio.
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U S in Iraq Bush Administration

Words: 2284 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35546119

[…] With the U.S. now mired in a Mesopotamian morass because of what is described as a 'unilateralist' foreign policy, the UN's multilateralist approach is gaining unearned prestige and unwarranted credibility" (Grigg, 2006). While the UN might not have masterminded the war, they certainly participated in the events that led up to the invasion, so they did play an important role in arguments for the invasion, and now they are benefiting, which does not seem right, somehow.

Many members of NATO, including France, Germany, and Belgium opposed the war, and they protested sending any NATO troops into Iraq for any cause. Another writer notes, in July during a trip to Washington, obertson told U.S. lawmakers that NATO would not go beyond providing logistical support for the Polish-led force in Iraq" (Dettmer, 2003). The Polish forces were peacekeepers sent in to assist British and American forces. While NATO seems to have…… [Read More]

References

Dettmer, J. (2003). NATO suffering from identity crisis. Retrieved 7 May 2010 from the FindArticles.com Web site: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_2003_Sept_16/ai_107543546/.

Editors. (2004). The invasion of Iraq. Retrieved 7 May 2010 from the Frontline Web site:

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/invasion/etc./synopsis.html.

Grigg, W.N. (2006, January 9). Bring 'em home! The New American, 22, 12+.
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Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next

Words: 5067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10464176

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack

Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New

York:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).

Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
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Organizational Behavior Organizational Behaviour the

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26989835



4. Conclusions

ABC Aviation has managed to capture the attention of international organizations and NATO members due to the high quality of their helicopters. However, to be able to complete the signed contract, the organization must first resolve their internal disputes and must implement a strong organizational culture which embraces and promotes cultural diversity.

eference List

Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.

Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.

Chuang, Y.T., Church, ., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. etrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.

Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16.…… [Read More]

Reference List

Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.

Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.

Chuang, Y.T., Church, R., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.

Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
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Seeds of the Cold War

Words: 1368 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70341826

Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).

The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brodie, Bernard. War and Politics. New York: Macmillan Co., 1973.

Comstock, Douglas A. "NASA's Legacy of Technology Transfer and Prospects for Future Benefits." AIAA Space Conference & Exposition. Long Beach, CA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007. 1-9.

Cox, M. "The Cold War as a system." Critique (1986): 17-82.

Lieber, Keir A. "The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy." Foreign Affairs (2006): 42-67.
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Lessons From Vietnam the Concept of Cross-Cultural

Words: 1210 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74973510

Lessons From Vietnam

The concept of cross-cultural capability is a relatively new area of study in the academic world, even though we have known for years that a number of issues might have been better resolved with a greater understanding and sensitive towards other cultures. The term itself applies to human behavior in a number of dimensions -- psychologically, sociologically, certainly political, and cultural. This phenomenon of cultural misunderstanding was quite apparent in the post-World War II conflicts, particularly that of the regional conflicts in Vietnam post-1950 (Killick, 1999).

Many of the diplomatic and cultural issues surrounding the Vietnam Conflict were a result of a Cold War mentality. The Cold War, not really a war, but more a preparation for conflict, was the tensions between the U.S.S.. And Allies (Warsaw Pact) and the U.S. And Allies (NATO). One side held that America was economically and militarily aggressive after World War…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

The Vietnam War. (2006). The History Channel. Retrieved from:  http://www.history.com  / topics/vietnam-war

Belmonte, L. (2010). Selling the American Way -- U.S. Propaganda and the Cold War. Pittsburg, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Damms, Richard, (2001), The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953-1961, New York: Longman.

Davidson, P. (1991), Vietnam At War: The History, 1946-1975. New York: Norton.
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Globalization International Organizations the Commonly

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31545760

The focus of the U.N. later this year in their global summit in Copenhagen will focus on the role of women in emerging economies and the contribution their businesses make. To illustrate how strongly the UN sees their mission about helping underprivileged nations, UN undersecretary -general for humanitarian affairs, Jan Egeland called developed nations "stingy" when it came to their contributions to 3rd world nations' welfare (Sharma, 2005). The bottom line is that these organizations are all focused more on the humanitarian missions they cooperate on and less on selfish strategies for gain.

eferences

Graham Bird & Dane owlands. (2007). The IMF and the Mobilisation of Foreign Aid. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(5), 856-870.

Capling, a., & Higgott, . (2009). Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System-What ole for the World Trade Organization? Global Governance, 15(3), 313-325.

Shalendra Sharma. (2005). The…… [Read More]

References

Graham Bird & Dane Rowlands. (2007). The IMF and the Mobilisation of Foreign Aid. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(5), 856-870.

Capling, a., & Higgott, R. (2009). Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System-What Role for the World Trade Organization? Global Governance, 15(3), 313-325.

Shalendra Sharma. (2005). The Encouraging Truth About Foreign Aid. Challenge, 48(4), 11-25.
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Cold War After the End

Words: 1009 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3329396

In fact, many people believe it was the final factor that led to disintegration of Soviet/U.S. relations, and directly led to the failure of the Moscow Conference of foreign ministers in March 1947. The conference had been convened in an attempt for the two powers to come to an agreement about situations in Europe, including whether or not to unify the German state, but with its failure, relations between the two countries became even more strained.

The Marshall Plan followed the Truman Doctrine in 1947, and was an attempt to boost the European economy after the war. Historian Whitcomb writes, "The Marshall Plan was conceived as a 'counter-offensive' to Moscow's moves in Eastern Europe and as a reaction to Stalin's decision, registered at the Moscow Conference, to rebuff all gestures of compromise looking toward settlement of the problems dividing Europe" (Whitcomb 84). It was an attempt to rebuild Europe instead…… [Read More]

References

Powaski, Ronald E. The Cold War: The United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Whitcomb, Roger S. The Cold War in Retrospect: The Formative Years. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
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Mill Place Any Limits on

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69477803



Every act happens at some time and in some place, and in like manner every act that we do either does or may affect both ourselves and others."

till others try to rebuff these objections, clarifying self-regarding acts and other-regarding acts.

J.C. Rees is at the helm of the counter-movement of interpretations, arguing that there is a distinguishable difference between actions that affect others and those that affect others' interests; he purports that it is the protection of other's interests to which Mill meant for liberty's limitation. Rees constructs a relativistic, conservative interpretation of liberty, in which the emphasis is placed on distinguishing interests from 'arbitrary wishes, fleeting fancies, and capricious demands." In his protection of the "permanent interests of man as a progressive being," Mill demands that the limitations of liberty extend to the interference of the protection of another citizen's own right to liberty.

The freedom of choice…… [Read More]

Stephens, Fitzjames. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. R.J. White, Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967. p. 28.

Rees, John C. "A Re-reading of Mill on Liberty." Political Studies. Vol. 8. (1960), also Ibid, "Was Mill for Liberty?" Political Studies. Vol. 14. (1966) and "The Thesis of the 'Two Mills.'" Political Studies. Vol. 25. (1977)

Rees in Radcliff, Peter. Limits of Liberty. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1966. p, 101.
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European Union's Common Foreign and

Words: 3705 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74502704



To achieve these various purposes, NATO embarked on a series of interlocking efforts during the 1990s that were intended to provide some aspect of an overall concept of security. A series of initiatives resulted in NATO accepting new members with the possibility of still further additions in the future, crafted the Partnership for Peace and created the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council; entered into a Founding Act with ussia and a Charter with Ukraine; revised its command arrangements; and, simultaneously, became increasingly aware that developing a new relationship with the Western European Union was clearly in its best interests (Hunter, 2003).

In this regard, Dannreuther (2004) maintains that the EU's engagement with its immediate periphery represents a highly important, and potentially the most important, post-Cold War geopolitical challenge for its foreign and security policy; the nature of these obstacles can be considered to have three major dimensions, as follows:

There has been…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, L.J., Moens, a., & Sens, a.G. (2003). NATO and European security: Alliance politics from the end of the Cold War to the age of terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Dannreuther, R. (2004). European Union foreign and security policy: Towards a neighbourhood strategy. New York: Routledge.

Dunn, DH, & Zaborowski, M. (2003). Poland: A new power in transatlantic security. London: Frank Cass.

A rtner, H., Hyde-Price, a., & Reiter, E. (2001). Europe's new security challenges. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
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Post War Iraq a Paradox in the Making Legitimacy vs Legality

Words: 14187 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57694954

Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality

The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1

The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990

Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003

Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.

Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
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European Security and Defence Identity

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88353350

The European military policy is based on the activities taking place within military of United States i.e. merger-mania of U.S. defense firms.

But there are three other factors pushing the Europeans for taking concrete measures for pursuing the ESDI. The measures are must to overcome the delays and constraints the Union experiences. The first of the blockade is with reference to the defense spending of European countries. The new NATO Secretary-General estimated that, 'total military spending of European countries is around 60% of the U.S. total, and yields only 10% of the capabilities'. Secondly, European firms are becoming increasingly angry that the U.S. while procuring new weapons and equipment refuses to "buy European military products." Thirdly, European governments are not satisfied with U.S. restrictions 'on the transfer of technology even though the Europeans are investing money in the development of new U.S. built weapons such as the Joint Strike Fighter'…… [Read More]

References

Lawrence Freedman, "The Coming War on Terrorism" in Lawrence Freedman, ed., Super terrorism (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).

Julian Lindley-French, Terms of Engagement. The paradox of American power and the trans-Atlantic dilemma post-11 September (Paris: EU-ISS, 2002)

Gordon Adams, "Fortress America in a changing trans-Atlantic defense market," in Burkard Schmitt, ed., Between Cooperation and Competition: The Trans-Atlantic Defense Market (Paris, WEU-ISS, 2001)

George Parker, "France and UK call for new force at top of EU," Financial Times, 15 May 2002.
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International Organizations L Jones the

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96958910

For example, many within Mexico complain that the agenda of the United States, and secondarily, Canada overshadows any legitimate concerns that Mexico may have. One of the best examples of this was the recent NAFTA meeting in Texas between the three nations -- not only did the United States agenda hold center stage despite legitimate and serious Mexican concerns, but Mexico had literally no choice but to go along with the meeting, knowing full well that it had no alternative (Economist, 2005). Although Mexico is currently taking steps to form other trade agreements with non-NAFTA member nations, this does not lessen the ineffective nature or the imbalance of international organizations like NAFTA.

Finally, and perhaps most famously, the United Nations, supposedly one of the most influential international organizations on earth, has repeatedly been stymied in its efforts to accomplish important international tasks. One of the best examples of this is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

CPJ. Center for Public Justice. "Rebalancing NATO." Web site. 2004. Retrieved on May 2, 2005 http://www.cpjustice.org/stories/storyReader$1170Rebalancing NATO

Economist.com. "Country Briefings: Mexico." The Economist Online. 22 March, 2005. Retrieved from Web site on March 29, 2005 http://www.economist.com/countries/Mexico/profile.cfm?folder=Profile%2DPolitical%20Structure

McMahon, Janet. "Hague Conference Considers Ways to Implement ICJ Ruling on Israel's Wall." Washington Report. 2005. January/February, pages 12-14.

NATO.org. (Staff). "What is NATO?" Web site. 2005. Retrieved on May 2, 2005  http://www.nato.int/#
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Involvement in the Libyan Conflict

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99554402

Participation in the Libyan Conflict

Libya is one of the Arab countries that experienced an uprising against autocratic leaders as citizens and residents went to the street to demand change. The autocratic leadership of Muammar Gaddafi responded to the growing dissent by vowing to deal with citizens from house to house. This created a crisis that involved the battle between citizens and the government, which was keen to maintain its leadership in the country. In response to the government's threats, an international coalition led by NATO embarked on an initiative to protect Libyan civilians from Gaddafi's violent threats. As NATO was mandated with the responsibility of overseeing military conflicts in the Libyan conflict, the participation of other countries in this conflict required critical evaluation. Actually, the situation is an example of a conflict that requires situational leadership approach to determine a country's participation and effectiveness.

Determining Participation in the Libyan…… [Read More]

References

Conteh-Morgan, E. (n.d.). International Intervention: Conflict, Economic Dislocation, and the Hegemonic Role of Dominant Actors. The International Journal of Peace Studies, 6(2). Retrieved from http://www.gmu.edu/programs/icar/ijps/vol6_2/Conteh-Morgan.htm

Robins-Early, N. (2015, March 7). Was the 2011 Libya Intervention a Mistake? Retrieved from The Huffington Post website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/07/libya-intervention-daalder_n_6809756.html
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Kosovo Seen Through the Eyes

Words: 1413 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34836249

The international community, while supporting greater autonomy, opposed the Kosovar Albanians' demand for independence" (History file: Yugoslavia and the Balkans, 2003, BBC News).

Yet Milosevic reacted with disproportionate levels of aggression. Structural realism makes no allowance for the level of violence with which Serbia carried out its expansionist program, engaging in efforts of ethnic cleansing. Serbia's efforts make even less rationalistic sense, given the international community's previous hostile reaction to Serbia's brutal, genocidal actions in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. "Serb attacks increased after NATO began its bombing campaign, and summary and arbitrary killing spread throughout Kosovo.... Among the worst incidents...were reports of the deliberate killing of children, and of elderly and disabled people being shot or burned alive....children decapitated in front of their parents" (Horrors of Kosovo revealed, 1999, BBC).

The conflict in Kosovo was only stemmed when the United Nations intervened, NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia in March 1999, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Constructivism. (2009). IR Theory. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at  http://www.irtheory.com/know.htm 

History, bloody history. (1999, 24 March). BBC News. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/kosovo2/110492.stm 

History file: Yugoslavia and the Balkans. (2003). BBC News. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/map/yugoslavia/ 

Horrors of Kosovo revealed. (1999, December 6).BBC News. Retrieved March 7, 2009 at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/551875.stm
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United States and Canada Has

Words: 3466 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51455286



The result was a put-off United States. ealizing this furthered the need for an outside alliance, talks of NATO resumed. At this point, Canada saw NATO as more than just a defense strategy in the face of Communism. Canada fought and won a battle in discussions to require all members of NATO to cooperate economically. Additionally, the NATO alliance assured that Canada would have a say in combined foreign policy and security. Even further, Canada would be able to deal with the United States on more of a multilateral level, which would help ease the disparity between the nations (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996). ather than simply following America's lead in foreign affairs, Canada was determined to make decisions in the best interest of the Canadian people.

By 1949, the threat of Communism was in full swing. The Soviet Union had tested its first nuclear weapon, and the world took notice. Now…… [Read More]

References

Aronsen, L.R. (1997). American National Security and Economic Relations with Canada, 1945-1954. Westport: Praeger Publishers.

Canada. (2003). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from Encarta Online. Web site: http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563379_7/Canada.html.

Canada and the UN. (2003). Canada and the United Nations. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Web site: http://www.un.int/canada/canadaandun.html.

Canada Department of National Defense. (May 1953). Canadian participation in the Korean War, Part I. Canadian Defense Report No. 62. Montreal: Canada Department of National Defense.
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Cold War Begin After the

Words: 2895 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14271050

On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:

The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…… [Read More]

References

Berkowitz, Bruce D. Richelson, Jeffrey T. The CIA vindicated: the Soviet collapse was predicted. The National Interest, No. 41, Fall 1995

Morewood, Steven Gorbachev and the Collapse of Communism History Review, No. 31, 1998

Fleming, D.F. The Cold War and Its Origins, 1917-1960 Vol. 2 Doubleday, 1961

Militant Vol. 61, no. 24. 23 June 1997
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International Crime Terrorism and Organized Crime Trends

Words: 3182 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30816158

International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends

Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends

This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.

Introduction

A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…… [Read More]

References

Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.

Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.

Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
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Crimea Crisis

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95729884

oadmap

The Crimean crisis of 2014 is an ongoing international crisis, related to the larger issues surrounding Ukraine and ussia. Crimea is a strategically-important peninsula at the southern end of Ukraine. Politically, prior to its annexation by ussia, Crimea was an Autonomous epublic within Ukraine. Its population is a mix of Ukrainian, ussian and Crimean Tatar, and ussian is the predominant language. The city of Sevastopol is an administratively separate municipality, its naval yards on long-term lease to ussia, which has used the city as home to its Black Sea fleet for a couple of centuries. Crimea became part of Ukraine as part of a transfer during the Soviet era. In 2014, armed and masked men, believed to be ussian and operating with military-level effectiveness, seized control of public installations in Crimea (Sengupta, 2014). ussia then oversaw an internationally-invalidated referendum and voted in the Duma to annex Crimea. ussia then…… [Read More]

References

Conant, E. (2014). How history, geography help explain Ukraine's political crisis. National Geographic. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/01/140129-protests-ukraine-russia-geography-history/ 

Eckel, D. (2014). In Crimea, Tatars fear a repeat of a brutal history. Al Jazeera America. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from  http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/4/14/in-crimea-the-tatarsfeararepeatofabrutalhistory.html 

Evans, R. (2014). Moscow signals concern for Russians in Estonia. Reuters. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/19/us-russia-estonia-idUSBREA2I1J620140319

Felton, A. & Gumuchian, M. (2014). UN General Assembly resolution calls Crimean referendum invalid. CNN. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from www.cnn.com/2014/03/27/world/europe/ukraine-crisis/
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The concept of proportionality in war

Words: 3930 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60461985

Proportionality in War

The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Davis. 2011. "PROPORTIONALITY IN MODERN JUST WAR THEORY: A TORT-BASED APPROACH." Journal Of Military Ethics 10, no. 3: 213-229. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).

Case Briefs. 2017. "Public Committee Against Torture V. State Of Israel | Case Briefs." Casebriefs.Com. http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-kadish/exculpation/public-committee-against-torture-v-state-of-israel/.

"DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - LAW OF WAR MANUAL." 2017. US Department Of Defense.  http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/Law-of-War-Manual-June-2015.pdf .

Eberle, Christopher J. 2016. "Rights, Goods, and Proportionate War." Monist 99, no. 1: 70. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed May 5, 2017).
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International Law Assess the Legality

Words: 2295 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44073436



The case involving Milosevic was has different sub-plots, as he would claim that the actions he took were to prevent the country from being overrun by terrorists. Yet, at the same time, as some of these atrocities were being committed, NATO would attack Serbia in an effort to halt these violations. In this aspect, one could argue that the actions taken by NATO were in violation of international law. As they were not supported by a UN mandate, instead the actions were NATO countries working in concert with one another to go after Serbia. This is despite the fact that Serbia did not attack any of NATO allied nations.

When you look at the situations from the realist perspective, they would argue that the application of different international standards is an attempt to circumvent the power of the nation state over its people. Where, the ICC is unilaterally determining what…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Franck, Thomas. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.

Goldsmith, Jack. "The Limits of Idealism." Daedulus. 132, no. 1. (2003): 47 -- 63.

Higgins, Rosalyn. "Policy and Impartiality." 915 -- 931.

Thomas Franck. "What Happens Now?" American Society of International Law. 97, no. 3 (2003): 607 -- 620.
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Political Science Foreign Policy Theory

Words: 2840 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73106188

Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.

Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.

Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…… [Read More]

references for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy, International Organization, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2004, pp.137-174, Published by Cambridge University Press
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Eisenhower Dwight D Eisenhower Transformed

Words: 2098 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71836125

The Soviet threat continued to loom, propelling Eisenhower squarely into a second term. He had endeared himself to the American public as a strong anti-communist president, a decorated war hero who would keep America strong, prosperous, and triumphant.

Eisenhower's fiscal and domestic policies reflected his rather un-epublican belief in social services. Eisenhower expanded the Social Security program, raised the minimum wage, supported low-income housing projects, and created the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Among his most significant domestic legacies was his commissioning of the nationwide highway system. Eisenhower was truly a Car Culture president who helped make American culture into what it is today.

In spite of his support for social programs, Eisenhower failed to become a civil rights leader. He was "at best a tepid supporter of civil rights" who actually opposed school integration (Miller Center of Public Affairs). Eisenhower's stagnation and lack of leadership in this primary…… [Read More]

References

Miller Center of Public Affairs. University of Virginia. Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.millercenter.virginia.edu/index.php/academic/americanpresident/eisenhower

Simkin, J. "Dwight D. Eisenhower." Spartacus Educational. Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAeisenhower.htm#cooliris

Vuono, C.E. & Stone, M.P.W. (1990). Dwight David Eisenhower: The Centennial. Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.army.mil/cmh/brochures/Ike/ike.htm

The White House. "Dwight D. Eisenhower." Retrieved June 30, 2007 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/de34.html
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Cyber Terrorism

Words: 4455 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88428814

Cyber Terrorism

The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:

- easily approachable

- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information

- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe

- the power for the user to remain…… [Read More]

References

Army, U. (2005). Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism. In U. Army, U.S. Army Training Doctrine Command, Handbook No. 1.02

Bridis, T. (2005, May 26). USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from "Silent Horizon" war games wrap up for The CIA:

http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techpolicy/2005-05-26-cia-wargames_x.htm

Coleman, K. (2003, October 10 ). Cyber Terrorism. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from Cyber Terrorism Article: http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=432&trv=1
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What Threatens Turkey Now and in the Future

Words: 2034 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27366124

Turkey Security Threats

Turkey faces several economic, social and political threats in both the near (5-year) and long (10-20-year) term. Its geopolitical situation in the Middle East makes it particularly sensitive not to only local contexts but to global contexts as well. Bordering Georgia to the north, Armenia and Iran to the east, and Syria and Iraq to the south, it has been neighbor to some of the most controversial courses of action in recent history. It is only natural that its own security should be affected by that of its neighbors as well as by superpower interests in the region. This paper will analyze the security threats as they apply to Turkey in both the near-term and the long-term.

The latest and nearest term security threat is the rise of IS, the Islamic State, whose self-appointed caliphate has declared a religious war against Shia Muslims in the Iraq and…… [Read More]

Reference List

Catholic Online. (2014). ISIS begins killing Christians in Mosul. Retrieved from  http://www.catholic.org/news/international/middle_east/story.php?id=56481 

Dawson, R. (2012). Syrian Super Thread. Anti-Neocons. Retrieved from http://www.rys2sense.com/anti-neocons/viewtopic.php?f=11&t=29233&start=7

Escobar, P. (2011). Playing Chess in Eurasia. Asia Times Online. Retrieved from  http://www.afgazad.com/Zabanhaye-Eropaei/122211-Playing-Chess-in-Eurasia.pdf 

Frizell, S. (2014). President Obama Explains Why the U.S. is Bombing ISIS. Time.
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Alexander Haig This Is a

Words: 3333 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34209442

It was plainly obstruction of justice, and Al Haig knew it immediately.

It must also be noted, however, that, as the president tried to cover his tracks, Al Haig was given orders by Nixon to help him do it. In that capacity, for instance, Haig helped arrange the wiretaps of government officials and reporters (Gearan).

He played a key role in attempting to persuade Nixon to resign. Most believe it was Haig who first suggested to Gerald Ford that he pardon Nixon for his crimes while in office. It was this advice and Ford's acceptance of it that is believed to have cost Ford the presidency in 1976.

In "Nixon: An Oral history of His Presidency," (Strober & Strober, 2003), Haig says this:

"It is totally untrue that I raised the question of pardon with Ford...a series of options was given to him, including pardons...There were five options written by…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Answers Corp. "Biography: Alexander M. Haig, Jr. ." 2006. answers.com. 22 February 2010 .

Eyman, S. "Alexander Haig, former secretary of state, dies." 20 February 2010. palmbeachpost.com. 24 February 2010 .

Gearan, a. "Alexander Haig Dead: Former Secretary of State Dies." 10 February 2010. huffingtonpost.com. 23 February 2010 .

Jackson, H. "Alexander Haig." 20 February 2010. guardian.co.uk. 22 February 2010 .
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Combat Supply Support Communications and

Words: 3763 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49506156

In the 1999 report of William Cohen to the U.S. President and U.S. Congress reveals that the strategic vision sets out what the United States has on its agenda to accomplish in relation to technological and logistical strategies. Included in these strategies are modernization of intelligence processes as well as security, information operations, information assurance, and critical infrastructure protection. In a 2004 Department of Defense Submission - Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Inquiry into Australian-United States Defense Relations' report, it is stated that the alliance, now ongoing for approximately fifty-three years between the United States and Australia "has never been closer." (2004) it is stated that the ANZUS Treaty provides "shape, depth and weight to the Australia-U.S. alliance and remains today the foundation of a relationship that is one of our greatest national assets." (Cohen, 2004) the continued commitment of the United States to the Asia…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Transatlantic Interoperability in Defense Industries: How the U.S. And Europe Could Better Cooperate in Coalition Military Operations, September 2002.: http://www.europeaninstitute.org/pdf/IO.pdf

Engler, Alan; Glodowski, Al; and Lee, Rocky (2004) Coalition Operations: Politically Necessary Yet Operationally Challenging. 8 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.jfsc.ndu.edu/current_students/documents_policies/documents/jca_cca_awsp/Coalition_operations_4-5-04.doc

Cohen, William S. (1999) Annual Report to the President and the Congress. Secretary of Defense DOD report 1999. Online available at  http://www.dod.mil/execsec/adr1999/index.html 

Statement of Admiral Dennis C. Blair, U.S. Navy Commander in Chief U.S. Pacific Command Before the House International Relations Committee Subcommittee on East Asia and the Pacific and Subcommittee on Middle East and South Asia on U.S. Pacific Command Posture (2002) 27 February 2002 Online available at http://www.fas.org/asmp/resources/govern/107_hircBlair.htm
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Political Science United States Participation

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71236377



orks Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014679198

Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021483873

Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002379425

Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002428204

Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012238644

Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024612690

Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001290275

Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106744168

Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001203447

Talbot, Karen.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014679198

Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021483873

Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
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U S Interventions in Afghanistan and

Words: 2550 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62701561

The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Analysis: Who are the Taleban?" BBC News. December 20, 2000. November 23, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/144382.stm

Chapter I: Purposes and Principles." Charter of the United Nations: UN.org. November 23, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter1.htm

Hassan, Sulman. "The legality of the United States intervention in Afghanistan."

American Studies Today Online. July 15, 2004. November 23, 2007.  http://www.americansc.org.uk/Online/Forum/Afghanlegality.htm
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War in Afghanistan

Words: 3312 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62121514

ar in Afghanistan

After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com.

This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.

Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13

Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from  http://www.latimes.com
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Historical Relationship and Differences Between Western and Eastern Europe From German Perspective

Words: 2655 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86422213

Germany West East

In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…… [Read More]

References

Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar

Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.

"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.

22 Mar 2012.
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Policemen of the World Thesis

Words: 1940 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90609492

military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.

America is more than just the leading superpower in the world; it is also widely regarded as the 'world's policeman' on account of its numerous interventions in solving global problems. Every now and again, it has been expected to mediate and negotiate when problems arise in any corner of the globe. When the U.S. is hesitant or doesn't act in accordance with general expectations, a cloud of helplessness engulfs the world. Two global scenarios wherein the U.S. resorted to a surprising course of action, while concurrently attempting to steer clear of usual military tactics are the ongoing civil war in Syria and the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Other countries' reaction in case of the latter event and the continuance of USA's position in the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) merely validate that it…… [Read More]

References

Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf

Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf

Gulf War. Retrieved from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf

Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf
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Consecutive Executive George W Obama

Words: 4436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7688432

Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.

Table 1

President ush -- Speeches and…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Behnke, a. (2009). Eternal Peace, Perpetual War? A Critical Investigation into Kant's Conceptualisation of War. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-18.

Bolton, J. (2010). Obama's Next Three Years. Commentary, 129(1), 24-28.

Brose, C. (2009). The Making of George W. Obama. Foreign Policy, (170), 52-55.

Caranti, L. (2006). Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace? Reflections on the Realist Critique of Kant's Project. Journal of Human Rights, 5(3), 341-353. doi:10.1080/14754830600812357.
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Michele Flournoy Position Memo on

Words: 2104 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89407065

At the moment, the situation in this region is rather dim and the actions undertaken by the Russian Federation will clearly impact the employment rates.

Another element related to the economic aspect is the current embargo imposed by the Russian Federation. Indeed, it is the sovereign right of every state to take any peaceful measures it considers fit in order to restore a status ante. However, the action undertaken at this level must be proportional to the threat incurred or the damage caused. This case being, it is rather difficult to ascertain the implication of either Chechen terrorists or Georgian intelligence officers. Therefore, for the upcoming summit it is important that this point-of-view is made because the embargo set in place by the Russian Federation has massive repercussions on the well being of both nations. This aspect must clearly be pointed out as the measures undertaken affect innocent people throughout…… [Read More]

Bibliography

BBC News. "Putin blames U.S. For Georgia role." BBC Online. 28 August 2008. Available at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7586605.stm 

Chomsky, Noam. Ossetia- Russia- Georgia. September 9, 2008. Available at http://www.chomsky.info/articles/200809 -- 2.htm

Hitchens, Christopher. "South Ossetia Isn't Kosovo. Whatever Moscow says, there are at least six significant differences between the two situations." Slate. August 18, 2008. Available at http://www.slate.com/id/2197704/

Pravda.Ru. "Abkhazia, Georgia, Kosovo, South Ossetia and something called international law." Opinion. 29 September 2008. Available at http://english.pravda.ru/opinion/columnists/29-08-2008/106253-ossetiiainternatlaw-0/
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The Challenges and Prospects in

Words: 2209 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85036027


And though there are many who will view the Clinton administration's
disruption of ethnic tensions in Kosovo as one of the first examples of the
Marshall Plan template in a post-Cold ar atmosphere, Buchanan (2002)
speaks of the 1999 invasion by noting that "for the first time, NATO, a
defensive alliance, took offensive action against a country putting down an
insurrection inside its own territory." (Buchanan, 29) This description of
the struggle in Kosovo as an 'insurrection,' is one that of course fails to
acknowledge the multitude of Yugoslavia's state level crimes against the
ethnic-Albanians which, in spite of their majority population in Kosovo,
had been reduced to an ethnic-minority with few state rights. The abuses
which had created hundreds of thousands of refugees would have, under
Buchanan's purview, continued unabated as, likely, ethnically driven
responses to aggression on either side would certainly have produced some
level of genocide. Thus,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bass, G. (2003). Milosevic in the Hague. Foreign Affairs, 82(3), 82-96.

Buchanan, Pat. (2002). A Republic, Not An Empire: Reclaiming America's
Destiny. Regnery Publishing, Inc.

Kunz, D. (1997). The Marshall Plan Reconsidered. Foreign Affairs, 76
(3), 162-170.
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Independence of Kosovo the Problems

Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13325690



As for Kosovo, its legal status is not the only problem that it has to face. The country's economic situation is still significantly bad and important investments are needed in order to improve the situation on the ground. Despite Serbia no longer being a threat, Kosovo is not necessarily a place where the investors are likely to put their money soon until the political and institutional situation improves.

ibliography

1. David inder. 1 November 1987. "In Yugoslavia, Rising Ethnic Strife rings Fears of Worse Civil Conflict," the New York Times. Late City Final Edition

2. Rogel, Carole. (September 2003). Kosovo: Where it All egan. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1

3. Larry Minear, Ted van aarda, Marc Sommers (2000). "NATO and Humanitarian Action in the Kosovo Crisis. rown University.

4. U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR), April 2000, Reversal of Fortune: Yugoslavia's Refugees Crisis Since the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. David Binder. 1 November 1987. "In Yugoslavia, Rising Ethnic Strife Brings Fears of Worse Civil Conflict," the New York Times. Late City Final Edition

2. Rogel, Carole. (September 2003). Kosovo: Where it All Began. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1

3. Larry Minear, Ted van Baarda, Marc Sommers (2000). "NATO and Humanitarian Action in the Kosovo Crisis. Brown University.

4. U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR), April 2000, Reversal of Fortune: Yugoslavia's Refugees Crisis Since the Ethnic Albanian Return to Kosovo
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Cold War on Europe European

Words: 1657 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72728694

Moreover, ending the cold war enabled the formation of international alliances that help and support members, and also fight together against common enemies.

ibliography

Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007

Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & rothers, 1947

Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007

Proxy War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 21, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007

At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991, History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999, https://www.cia.gov/csi/books/19335/art-1.html#rtoc7,last accessed on February 27, 2007

Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17-18

Christopher Reeves, Western Europe during the Cold War and eyond, Jagiellonian University of Krakow, Center for European Studies

http://www.ces.uj.edu.pl/reeves/beyond.htm, last…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007

Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & Brothers, 1947

Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
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Anticipatory Self Defence in International

Words: 10179 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64556099

Of course, the timeline for the defensive line of attack or its initiation during the armed assault is also a determinant of whether the line of attack can be called defensive or a new attack. A good example of this could have been 9/11 where the U.S. government could have reacted with an armed line of self-defensive attacks if they feared that the first attack on the World trade centre would be followed by a series of similar attacks elsewhere. In other words, the anticipatory self-defence is perhaps most useful when there is clear cut evidence of a series of attacks. The downside, of course, is that if the state launches a defensive attack and is not able to present concrete evidence for it then that state would have to face serious repercussions from the international law and hamper its overall image in the international community. The important thing to…… [Read More]

D'Amato, a. (1983). Israel's Air Strike Upon the Iraqi Nuclear Reactor, 77 AM. J. INT'L L. 584.

Rothwell D.R. (2005). Anticipatory self-defence in the age of international terrorism. Law Journal of University of Queensland. 2-3.

Anticipatory self defence in international law
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September 11 and the New Emerging International

Words: 4078 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83500963

eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order

This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.

As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.

IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…… [Read More]

Sources:

Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1

The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002 http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#

Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm

Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan: http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html
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Outline of Policemen of the World Thesis

Words: 1830 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19021626

military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.

America is not merely a superpower -- the nation is also commonly known as the 'Policeman of the World', owing to its many interventions in resolving global issues. Time and again, the world has expected USA to intercede and play the role of mediator when issues crop up around the world. The world feels helpless when the nation hesitates or does not keep up to people's expectation while intervening. Two international incidents in which America opted for an unexpected course while simultaneously striving to keep from regular military action are the Libyan evolution and Syrian Civil War. Other nations' reaction in the former case and the retention of America's position in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) serve to confirm the fact that USA is, indeed, the 'policeman' of the world.

Part 2…… [Read More]

References

Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf

Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf

Gulf War. Retrieved from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf

Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf
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Soviet-Afgan War Conflict Analysis Focus

Words: 5116 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10933340

(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)

Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."

[26] Contrary…… [Read More]

Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .

United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.