This gave NATO the pretext to engage in the Yugoslav conflicts, but it did not do so until 1995. In the intervening years, NATO used primarily diplomatic means of dealing with the situation. The organization at this point was assisting the United Nations, and eventually took at the role of enforcing sanctions against the combatants. During this time, the conflict continued unabated, as the sanctions had only nominal impact. If the objective of NATO had been to stop the conflict, that objective was not met at all during this time. However, there is little evidence that actually stopping the conflict was the objective. The objective of 'managing' the conflict can be interpreted in a number of ways, but from NATO's actions the organization simply did not want the conflict to expand into other parts of Europe. There was a significant ethnic element to the conflict, and of course some of…… [Read More]
In fact on page 86 Pane insists that NATO's counter-terrorism strategy "seems to be oscillating between the M (ar Model) and ECJM (Expanded Criminal Justice Model)." The problem is of the 19 nations in NATO, many members see the ECJM model as the best role for NATO and others (the most recent members) prefer the U.S. approach, a more vigorous pursuit of the insurgents.
Pane concludes by saying that the "…philosophical divide between west Europeans and the Americans within NATO over counter-terrorism strategy will persist and in all probability grow wider as NATO digs deeper in Afghanistan" (p. 86).
Meantime the Atlantic Council published an article in June, 2010, that states in no uncertain terms that "Today's NATO is not the NATO of the Cold ar…nor is it even the NATO of just a decade ago" (Gorka, et al., 2010, p. 1). The article goes into NATO's original mission in…… [Read More]
As it related to the cold war the research indicates that the Marshall Plan and NATO created a strong alliance between the democratic superpowers led by the United States. This alliance was unified in their endeavors to prevent the spread of communism.
THE MASHALL PLAN (1947). United States Department of State http://usinfo.state.gov/usa/infousa/facts/democrac/57.htm
Agnew J. And Entrikin J.N. (2004) the Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. outledge: London.
Bonds J.B. (2002) Bipartisan Strategy: Selling the Marshall Plan. Praeger. Place of Publication: Westport, CT.
Carpenter T.G., Conry B. (2001) NATO Enlargement: Illusions and eality. Cato Institute: Washington, DC.
Cohen L.J., Moens a., Allen G. NATO and European Security: Alliance Politics from the End of the Cold War to the Age of Terrorism. Contributors:. Publisher: Praeger. Place of Publication: Westport, CT. Publication Year: 2003.
Duignan P.J. And Gann L.H. (1997) the Marshall Plan. The Hoover Institution. http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3550632.html
Haftendorn, H.K., (1996) NATO and…… [Read More]
European states generally backed NATO and the U.S. In the fight against terrorism. However, the EU appeared to be skeptical a propos the principal aims of the war and highlighted the fact that they were only willing to assume responsibility for their own actions in Afghanistan, claiming that they were primarily interested in defending the concept of peace through eliminating the terrorist threat. In an attempt to support the Afghanistan intervention, the EU has focused on investing as little finances as possible concomitantly with committing an effective strategy meant to guarantee that its mission would not be impeded.
NATO authorities acknowledged the fact that Russia assistance should not be ignored and that the country played an essential role in the Afghanistan Intervention. Considering Russia's complex military system and that the country was close to the Middle Eastern strategic point, it seems natural that NATO was dedicated to have Putin join…… [Read More]
NATO Continuous Acquisition & Life-Cycle Support (CALS)
The paper commence with a brief background and definition for CALS followed by an introduction. Addressed next is a glance at the Multi-National Program perspective, view of the government, industrialists and business for CALS.
What is NATO CALS, its mission, basic components and polices are briefed in the next section. At the same time, how its goes digital is also highlighted briefly in the paper. From the Defense System (DS) perspective, to close overview of the Staged Process for Through Life Information Management (TLIM) and Life Information Management (LIM), gives a clear vision of how NATO Continuous Acquisition & Life-Cycle Support (CALS) should go about.
Background & Definition
Proposed in 1985, the United States Department of Defense introduced the Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) in order to increase the digital product information use and; obtain and support defense systems.
Thus, CALS can…… [Read More]
NATO Defense Against Terrorism
The objective of this study is to examine NATO's defense against terrorism and specifically to do so through examination of a PowerPoint presentation entitled "Financing of Terrorism -- Suicide Bombing" presented at the Center of Excellence -- Defense Against Terrorism: Ankara International Workshop May 24-25, 2007 and prepared by Nick idley, associate researcher, John Grieve Centre, London Metropolitan University.
NATO'S Counter-Terrorism eport
The NATO publication entitled "Countering Terrorism" relates that fighting terrorism is on the top of NATO's agenda. The 'Strategic Concept' and the 'Lisbon Summit Declaration' clearly state that terrorism is a threat that is real and formidable in terms of the Alliance's safety and security and the safety and security of the NATO Alliance members. NATO reports that terrorism by nature is "multifaceted" and because of this NATO acknowledges that this is a challenge that the international community had to address in cooperation.
The…… [Read More]
The European security and defence policy (ESDP) aims to allow the Union to develop its civilian and military capacities for crisis management and conflict prevention at international level, thus helping to maintain peace and international security, in accordance with the United Nations Charter." The Petersberg type missions done in association with the WEU were among the first steps taken to increase the voice of Europe on the international scene in the matter of security capabilities. However, they were abandoned or at least left aside due to the increased desire to develop the Union's own military capabilities and to become a relevant partner in insuring world security.
The most important challenge for the European Defence however came once the option of the war in Iraq appeared. In 2003 it was clear that there were different opinions arguing for and against the U.S. led military intervention. In this sense "the Iraq crisis…… [Read More]
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Communist Bloc, the states of Eastern Europe sought to reassert themselves as independent political entities. Milosevic presented many of his activities in a nationalist context. The moves toward "ethnic cleansing" were part of a larger campaign to solidify the new Yugoslavia as an ethnically homogenous Serb Christian state. The artificial order of Communism was going to be replaced by something of natural, domestic origin. The conflict between Christian and Muslim had been going on for centuries. Milosevic was merely attempting to achieve what others before him had not. Added to this particular brand of nativist reasoning was also the notion that Yugoslavia, along with other formerly communist Eastern European nations, should be permitted to govern its own affairs free of outside interference. At the time, in fact, many argued that a NATO intervention on the grounds of bringing a "better," democratic,…… [Read More]
NATO was founded in the post-WWII environment as a means of Western nations defending their interests against the Soviet Union. With the fall of the U.S.S.. and the ending of the Cold War, the role of NATO has changed, and to a point it is still going through those changes. The initial concept of NATO was to combine North America and Western Europe in military alliance, capable of and willing to respond with nuclear force if there were any Soviet attacks on its members. This was in response to the Soviet-backed overthrow of the democratic government in Czechoslovakia. By 1952, Mediterranean countries like Greece and Turkey were in NATO, which served as an extension of all nations with Western democratic values.
The first major operation after the end of the Cold War came in the Balkans in the 1990s. NATO at this time sought to preserve the security of its…… [Read More]
ussia NATO relations
ussia was among the main opponents of NATO countries and despite this there is a history of collaboration between NATO and ussia which dates way back in 1991.This was when ussia became part of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. The ussian Federation in 1994 took part in a project titled partnership for peace and in 1997; the founding act of the NATO-ussian council was signed in France. It was to cover issues regarding security, mutual relations and security between NATO and ussia. There was the establishment of a diplomatic mission from ussia to NATO in 1998.
The relations between ussia and NATO continued developing as a result of the establishment of NATO-ussia council in 2002. ussia is however not a member of NATO and is not interested in joining its ranks (Bohm, 2010).However, the ussian ministry of defense carries out joint exercises together with NATO, as well…… [Read More]
S. led forces.
Also, another drawback for the plan set in place was precisely the cosmopolite nature of the forces. Indeed, the actions taken in Afghanistan enjoyed a wider international support by comparison to the war in Iraq. Nonetheless, the specificities of each group taking part in the international effort took their toll on the fluency of the activities. The lack of coordination can be considered as being a natural result of the limited amount of time had for the establishment of the contingencies taking part in the operations and for the ambiguous nature of the mandate they were given. From this point-of-view, the results even if they were important for the population, were less than expected.
NATO got involved in the wider project for reconstruction of Afghanistan also through the Senior Civilian Representative, "the political leadership of the Alliance in Kabul officially and publicly (and) provides a direct channel…… [Read More]
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949 as part of the post-war effort among the nations of the West to work together to establish the peace. Throughout the Cold War, NATO was more of a symbol than an actual military alliance. It was not until the Cold War ended that the first joint military NATO operations were conducted. The first was in 1990 and the second in 1991—Anchor Guard and Ace Guard were NATO’s response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. The Gulf War that followed, based on Bush’s trumpeting of the same kind of unsubstantiated claims that his son would make with U.S.’s second Middle Eastern intervention, was the first demonstration of NATO’s force[footnoteRef:2]—i.e., NATO as a wing of the U.S. military and a kind of political and international justification and show of support for what Bush wanted to do to Saddam Hussein. Bush used NATO…… [Read More]
S.-USS confrontation ended, the future of the alliance would lie in its role to strike a balance between the new poles of power that would emerge in the coming decades.
Due to the lack of vision concerning the future evolution of the international system, there was little agreement on how to actually proceed in reestablishing and redefining the role and scope of NATO. This is why some scholars considered that the immediate years following the end of the Cold War were marked by a high degree of uncertainty arguing that the aims set forth in 1991 were vague and without a clear determination in time and space (Foster and Williams, 2001). The leaders of the Alliance needed, according to the realist and neorealist vision a new common threat or common goal that would keep the Cold War unity unchanged. In this sense, Europeans considered the cooperation with the U.S. To…… [Read More]
NATO and its functions. The writer argues that NATO should open to the entire world and allow any nation to participate that wants to. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
With the world heating up over the American-Iraq conflict many nations are calling for the involvement of NATO. NATO which is the North American Alliance Treaty Organization, provides treaty mediation and rule setting for its members (Ames, 2003) The privileges and the duties of the member nations are weighted by population, economic clout and other factors and the members of the organization can come to NATO for mediation anytime they are unhappy with another nation's treatment or actions that threaten or do involve military action.. NATO has been reported to be highly successful in it venture and its purpose (Ames, 2003). It provides support as well as an outlet for grievances which may well help prevent future…… [Read More]
strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…… [Read More]
In addition, there is a strong press that is actively involved in bringing political struggles to the attention of Albanians. The press appears to be very competitive throughout the country and in Tirana in particular (Nordinger, 2005). The freedom and presence of the press is a good sign of a bourgeoning democracy.
hen elections do occur in Albania, observers have reported large turnouts of nearly 50% (Nordinger, 2005). The voting process is similar to that in Iraq in which voter's thumbs are marked to verify that they have voted. Once the voter fills out a ballot it is folded and place info a box. Although some of the elections have been observed as fair, observers have received complaints during elections that they registered to vote but they were not allowed to do so because their names were not on the rolls (Nordinger, 2005).
However the author reports that is many…… [Read More]
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]
How should allied operations in Afghanistan be pursued?
In order for the operation in Afghanistan to be effective, there are several ways that can be opted for. The allied forces should be trained aptly for the terrain that is in Afghanistan, the training should as well cover the entire insurgents possible pockets. This however may prove difficult since the insurgents have their protected areas that they would not allow the allied forces to intrude into.
The allied forces should as well try as much as required to penetrate the Taliban and know each plan they make, never to underestimate the Taliban however trivial or temporary their plan may be. It should be noted that the Islamic policy that the Taliban have is way more long-term focused that immediate action and stopping. The allied troops should have a long-range plan of dealing with the Taliban. A plan which will possibly stretch…… [Read More]
For instance, Moens and his colleagues advise, "It bears recalling that NATO for Canada and other allies, has always made sense as a vehicle for providing at least some access into the shaping of the U.S. national interest. NATO has been good not only because it kept the Russians out and the Germans down, but because it got the Americans mixed up in the security affairs of other, reasonably like-minded, states" (13).
Discuss President George . Bush's doctrine of preemptive war?
Include in your discussion, its basic assumptions. The term "preemptive war" is used to describe a nation's use of military force to attack a belligerent before it can attack the attacker. The basic assumptions of this doctrine follow those of the "Just ar" tradition wherein a nation is permitted to protect itself from threats that are posed by other countries in its own self-interests (ester 2004:20).
B.…… [Read More]
In fact 92% of the world's supply of opium comes from Afghanistan. The Taliban have tapped into this rich resource and it provides them with sufficient cash to pay their soldiers more than the Afghanistan government pays its own troops (Schmidt, 2010, p. 63).
hile he Taliban do not "mastermind" the opium trade, Schmidt explains, they do benefit financially from integrating their radical politics into the marketing of opium. In 1999 Afghanistan poppy farmers -- and those that convert the poppies to opium -- produced forty-five tons of opium, about fifteen times what had been produced in any of the previous 15 years. The Taliban use the millions of dollars from the sale of opium to buy new and better weapons, to sponsor new Madrassas (schools that teach radical Islamic politics to young men) in Pakistan, and to "barter for cars and all manner of consumer goods, including houses" (Schmidt,…… [Read More]
[…] With the U.S. now mired in a Mesopotamian morass because of what is described as a 'unilateralist' foreign policy, the UN's multilateralist approach is gaining unearned prestige and unwarranted credibility" (Grigg, 2006). While the UN might not have masterminded the war, they certainly participated in the events that led up to the invasion, so they did play an important role in arguments for the invasion, and now they are benefiting, which does not seem right, somehow.
Many members of NATO, including France, Germany, and Belgium opposed the war, and they protested sending any NATO troops into Iraq for any cause. Another writer notes, in July during a trip to Washington, obertson told U.S. lawmakers that NATO would not go beyond providing logistical support for the Polish-led force in Iraq" (Dettmer, 2003). The Polish forces were peacekeepers sent in to assist British and American forces. While NATO seems to have…… [Read More]
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]
ABC Aviation has managed to capture the attention of international organizations and NATO members due to the high quality of their helicopters. However, to be able to complete the signed contract, the organization must first resolve their internal disputes and must implement a strong organizational culture which embraces and promotes cultural diversity.
Aghazadeh, S. (2004). Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53, 521-531.
Ayoko, O.B. (2007). Communication openness, conflict events and reactions to conflict in culturally diverse workgroups. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 14, 105-124.
Chuang, Y.T., Church, ., & Zikic, J. (2004). Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, 10, 26-34. etrieved February 28, 2008, from Emerald database.
Elmuti, D. (2001). Preliminary analysis of the relationship between cultural diversity and technology in corporate America. Equal Opportunities International, 20, 1-16.…… [Read More]
Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).
The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…… [Read More]
Lessons From Vietnam
The concept of cross-cultural capability is a relatively new area of study in the academic world, even though we have known for years that a number of issues might have been better resolved with a greater understanding and sensitive towards other cultures. The term itself applies to human behavior in a number of dimensions -- psychologically, sociologically, certainly political, and cultural. This phenomenon of cultural misunderstanding was quite apparent in the post-World War II conflicts, particularly that of the regional conflicts in Vietnam post-1950 (Killick, 1999).
Many of the diplomatic and cultural issues surrounding the Vietnam Conflict were a result of a Cold War mentality. The Cold War, not really a war, but more a preparation for conflict, was the tensions between the U.S.S.. And Allies (Warsaw Pact) and the U.S. And Allies (NATO). One side held that America was economically and militarily aggressive after World War…… [Read More]
The focus of the U.N. later this year in their global summit in Copenhagen will focus on the role of women in emerging economies and the contribution their businesses make. To illustrate how strongly the UN sees their mission about helping underprivileged nations, UN undersecretary -general for humanitarian affairs, Jan Egeland called developed nations "stingy" when it came to their contributions to 3rd world nations' welfare (Sharma, 2005). The bottom line is that these organizations are all focused more on the humanitarian missions they cooperate on and less on selfish strategies for gain.
Graham Bird & Dane owlands. (2007). The IMF and the Mobilisation of Foreign Aid. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(5), 856-870.
Capling, a., & Higgott, . (2009). Introduction: The Future of the Multilateral Trade System-What ole for the World Trade Organization? Global Governance, 15(3), 313-325.
Shalendra Sharma. (2005). The…… [Read More]
In fact, many people believe it was the final factor that led to disintegration of Soviet/U.S. relations, and directly led to the failure of the Moscow Conference of foreign ministers in March 1947. The conference had been convened in an attempt for the two powers to come to an agreement about situations in Europe, including whether or not to unify the German state, but with its failure, relations between the two countries became even more strained.
The Marshall Plan followed the Truman Doctrine in 1947, and was an attempt to boost the European economy after the war. Historian Whitcomb writes, "The Marshall Plan was conceived as a 'counter-offensive' to Moscow's moves in Eastern Europe and as a reaction to Stalin's decision, registered at the Moscow Conference, to rebuff all gestures of compromise looking toward settlement of the problems dividing Europe" (Whitcomb 84). It was an attempt to rebuild Europe instead…… [Read More]
Every act happens at some time and in some place, and in like manner every act that we do either does or may affect both ourselves and others."
till others try to rebuff these objections, clarifying self-regarding acts and other-regarding acts.
J.C. Rees is at the helm of the counter-movement of interpretations, arguing that there is a distinguishable difference between actions that affect others and those that affect others' interests; he purports that it is the protection of other's interests to which Mill meant for liberty's limitation. Rees constructs a relativistic, conservative interpretation of liberty, in which the emphasis is placed on distinguishing interests from 'arbitrary wishes, fleeting fancies, and capricious demands." In his protection of the "permanent interests of man as a progressive being," Mill demands that the limitations of liberty extend to the interference of the protection of another citizen's own right to liberty.
The freedom of choice…… [Read More]
To achieve these various purposes, NATO embarked on a series of interlocking efforts during the 1990s that were intended to provide some aspect of an overall concept of security. A series of initiatives resulted in NATO accepting new members with the possibility of still further additions in the future, crafted the Partnership for Peace and created the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council; entered into a Founding Act with ussia and a Charter with Ukraine; revised its command arrangements; and, simultaneously, became increasingly aware that developing a new relationship with the Western European Union was clearly in its best interests (Hunter, 2003).
In this regard, Dannreuther (2004) maintains that the EU's engagement with its immediate periphery represents a highly important, and potentially the most important, post-Cold War geopolitical challenge for its foreign and security policy; the nature of these obstacles can be considered to have three major dimensions, as follows:
There has been…… [Read More]
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]
The European military policy is based on the activities taking place within military of United States i.e. merger-mania of U.S. defense firms.
But there are three other factors pushing the Europeans for taking concrete measures for pursuing the ESDI. The measures are must to overcome the delays and constraints the Union experiences. The first of the blockade is with reference to the defense spending of European countries. The new NATO Secretary-General estimated that, 'total military spending of European countries is around 60% of the U.S. total, and yields only 10% of the capabilities'. Secondly, European firms are becoming increasingly angry that the U.S. while procuring new weapons and equipment refuses to "buy European military products." Thirdly, European governments are not satisfied with U.S. restrictions 'on the transfer of technology even though the Europeans are investing money in the development of new U.S. built weapons such as the Joint Strike Fighter'…… [Read More]
Participation in the Libyan Conflict
Libya is one of the Arab countries that experienced an uprising against autocratic leaders as citizens and residents went to the street to demand change. The autocratic leadership of Muammar Gaddafi responded to the growing dissent by vowing to deal with citizens from house to house. This created a crisis that involved the battle between citizens and the government, which was keen to maintain its leadership in the country. In response to the government's threats, an international coalition led by NATO embarked on an initiative to protect Libyan civilians from Gaddafi's violent threats. As NATO was mandated with the responsibility of overseeing military conflicts in the Libyan conflict, the participation of other countries in this conflict required critical evaluation. Actually, the situation is an example of a conflict that requires situational leadership approach to determine a country's participation and effectiveness.
Determining Participation in the Libyan…… [Read More]
The international community, while supporting greater autonomy, opposed the Kosovar Albanians' demand for independence" (History file: Yugoslavia and the Balkans, 2003, BBC News).
Yet Milosevic reacted with disproportionate levels of aggression. Structural realism makes no allowance for the level of violence with which Serbia carried out its expansionist program, engaging in efforts of ethnic cleansing. Serbia's efforts make even less rationalistic sense, given the international community's previous hostile reaction to Serbia's brutal, genocidal actions in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. "Serb attacks increased after NATO began its bombing campaign, and summary and arbitrary killing spread throughout Kosovo.... Among the worst incidents...were reports of the deliberate killing of children, and of elderly and disabled people being shot or burned alive....children decapitated in front of their parents" (Horrors of Kosovo revealed, 1999, BBC).
The conflict in Kosovo was only stemmed when the United Nations intervened, NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia in March 1999, the…… [Read More]
The result was a put-off United States. ealizing this furthered the need for an outside alliance, talks of NATO resumed. At this point, Canada saw NATO as more than just a defense strategy in the face of Communism. Canada fought and won a battle in discussions to require all members of NATO to cooperate economically. Additionally, the NATO alliance assured that Canada would have a say in combined foreign policy and security. Even further, Canada would be able to deal with the United States on more of a multilateral level, which would help ease the disparity between the nations (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996). ather than simply following America's lead in foreign affairs, Canada was determined to make decisions in the best interest of the Canadian people.
By 1949, the threat of Communism was in full swing. The Soviet Union had tested its first nuclear weapon, and the world took notice. Now…… [Read More]
On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:
The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…… [Read More]
International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends
Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends
This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.
A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…… [Read More]
The Crimean crisis of 2014 is an ongoing international crisis, related to the larger issues surrounding Ukraine and ussia. Crimea is a strategically-important peninsula at the southern end of Ukraine. Politically, prior to its annexation by ussia, Crimea was an Autonomous epublic within Ukraine. Its population is a mix of Ukrainian, ussian and Crimean Tatar, and ussian is the predominant language. The city of Sevastopol is an administratively separate municipality, its naval yards on long-term lease to ussia, which has used the city as home to its Black Sea fleet for a couple of centuries. Crimea became part of Ukraine as part of a transfer during the Soviet era. In 2014, armed and masked men, believed to be ussian and operating with military-level effectiveness, seized control of public installations in Crimea (Sengupta, 2014). ussia then oversaw an internationally-invalidated referendum and voted in the Duma to annex Crimea. ussia then…… [Read More]
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…… [Read More]
The case involving Milosevic was has different sub-plots, as he would claim that the actions he took were to prevent the country from being overrun by terrorists. Yet, at the same time, as some of these atrocities were being committed, NATO would attack Serbia in an effort to halt these violations. In this aspect, one could argue that the actions taken by NATO were in violation of international law. As they were not supported by a UN mandate, instead the actions were NATO countries working in concert with one another to go after Serbia. This is despite the fact that Serbia did not attack any of NATO allied nations.
When you look at the situations from the realist perspective, they would argue that the application of different international standards is an attempt to circumvent the power of the nation state over its people. Where, the ICC is unilaterally determining what…… [Read More]
Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.
Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.
Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…… [Read More]
The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:
- easily approachable
- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information
- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe
- the power for the user to remain…… [Read More]
Turkey Security Threats
Turkey faces several economic, social and political threats in both the near (5-year) and long (10-20-year) term. Its geopolitical situation in the Middle East makes it particularly sensitive not to only local contexts but to global contexts as well. Bordering Georgia to the north, Armenia and Iran to the east, and Syria and Iraq to the south, it has been neighbor to some of the most controversial courses of action in recent history. It is only natural that its own security should be affected by that of its neighbors as well as by superpower interests in the region. This paper will analyze the security threats as they apply to Turkey in both the near-term and the long-term.
The latest and nearest term security threat is the rise of IS, the Islamic State, whose self-appointed caliphate has declared a religious war against Shia Muslims in the Iraq and…… [Read More]
It was plainly obstruction of justice, and Al Haig knew it immediately.
It must also be noted, however, that, as the president tried to cover his tracks, Al Haig was given orders by Nixon to help him do it. In that capacity, for instance, Haig helped arrange the wiretaps of government officials and reporters (Gearan).
He played a key role in attempting to persuade Nixon to resign. Most believe it was Haig who first suggested to Gerald Ford that he pardon Nixon for his crimes while in office. It was this advice and Ford's acceptance of it that is believed to have cost Ford the presidency in 1976.
In "Nixon: An Oral history of His Presidency," (Strober & Strober, 2003), Haig says this:
"It is totally untrue that I raised the question of pardon with Ford...a series of options was given to him, including pardons...There were five options written by…… [Read More]
In the 1999 report of William Cohen to the U.S. President and U.S. Congress reveals that the strategic vision sets out what the United States has on its agenda to accomplish in relation to technological and logistical strategies. Included in these strategies are modernization of intelligence processes as well as security, information operations, information assurance, and critical infrastructure protection. In a 2004 Department of Defense Submission - Joint Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Inquiry into Australian-United States Defense Relations' report, it is stated that the alliance, now ongoing for approximately fifty-three years between the United States and Australia "has never been closer." (2004) it is stated that the ANZUS Treaty provides "shape, depth and weight to the Australia-U.S. alliance and remains today the foundation of a relationship that is one of our greatest national assets." (Cohen, 2004) the continued commitment of the United States to the Asia…… [Read More]
Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.
Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.
Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.
Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.
Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.
Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.
Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.
Talbot, Karen.…… [Read More]
The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…… [Read More]
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…… [Read More]
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…… [Read More]
military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.
America is more than just the leading superpower in the world; it is also widely regarded as the 'world's policeman' on account of its numerous interventions in solving global problems. Every now and again, it has been expected to mediate and negotiate when problems arise in any corner of the globe. When the U.S. is hesitant or doesn't act in accordance with general expectations, a cloud of helplessness engulfs the world. Two global scenarios wherein the U.S. resorted to a surprising course of action, while concurrently attempting to steer clear of usual military tactics are the ongoing civil war in Syria and the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Other countries' reaction in case of the latter event and the continuance of USA's position in the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) merely validate that it…… [Read More]
Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.
President ush -- Speeches and…… [Read More]
At the moment, the situation in this region is rather dim and the actions undertaken by the Russian Federation will clearly impact the employment rates.
Another element related to the economic aspect is the current embargo imposed by the Russian Federation. Indeed, it is the sovereign right of every state to take any peaceful measures it considers fit in order to restore a status ante. However, the action undertaken at this level must be proportional to the threat incurred or the damage caused. This case being, it is rather difficult to ascertain the implication of either Chechen terrorists or Georgian intelligence officers. Therefore, for the upcoming summit it is important that this point-of-view is made because the embargo set in place by the Russian Federation has massive repercussions on the well being of both nations. This aspect must clearly be pointed out as the measures undertaken affect innocent people throughout…… [Read More]
And though there are many who will view the Clinton administration's
disruption of ethnic tensions in Kosovo as one of the first examples of the
Marshall Plan template in a post-Cold ar atmosphere, Buchanan (2002)
speaks of the 1999 invasion by noting that "for the first time, NATO, a
defensive alliance, took offensive action against a country putting down an
insurrection inside its own territory." (Buchanan, 29) This description of
the struggle in Kosovo as an 'insurrection,' is one that of course fails to
acknowledge the multitude of Yugoslavia's state level crimes against the
ethnic-Albanians which, in spite of their majority population in Kosovo,
had been reduced to an ethnic-minority with few state rights. The abuses
which had created hundreds of thousands of refugees would have, under
Buchanan's purview, continued unabated as, likely, ethnically driven
responses to aggression on either side would certainly have produced some
level of genocide. Thus,…… [Read More]
As for Kosovo, its legal status is not the only problem that it has to face. The country's economic situation is still significantly bad and important investments are needed in order to improve the situation on the ground. Despite Serbia no longer being a threat, Kosovo is not necessarily a place where the investors are likely to put their money soon until the political and institutional situation improves.
1. David inder. 1 November 1987. "In Yugoslavia, Rising Ethnic Strife rings Fears of Worse Civil Conflict," the New York Times. Late City Final Edition
2. Rogel, Carole. (September 2003). Kosovo: Where it All egan. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1
3. Larry Minear, Ted van aarda, Marc Sommers (2000). "NATO and Humanitarian Action in the Kosovo Crisis. rown University.
4. U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR), April 2000, Reversal of Fortune: Yugoslavia's Refugees Crisis Since the…… [Read More]
Moreover, ending the cold war enabled the formation of international alliances that help and support members, and also fight together against common enemies.
Cold War, MSN Encarta, Encyclopedia Article, Microsoft Corporation, 2006
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569374_1/Cold_War.html, last accessed on February 27, 2007
Walter Lippmann, the Cold War: A Study in U.S. Foreign Policy, Harper & rothers, 1947
Cold War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 24, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
Proxy War, Wikipedia, the Free Online Encyclopedia, February 21, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_war,last accessed on February 27, 2007
At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991, History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999, https://www.cia.gov/csi/books/19335/art-1.html#rtoc7,last accessed on February 27, 2007
Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17-18
Christopher Reeves, Western Europe during the Cold War and eyond, Jagiellonian University of Krakow, Center for European Studies
http://www.ces.uj.edu.pl/reeves/beyond.htm, last…… [Read More]
Of course, the timeline for the defensive line of attack or its initiation during the armed assault is also a determinant of whether the line of attack can be called defensive or a new attack. A good example of this could have been 9/11 where the U.S. government could have reacted with an armed line of self-defensive attacks if they feared that the first attack on the World trade centre would be followed by a series of similar attacks elsewhere. In other words, the anticipatory self-defence is perhaps most useful when there is clear cut evidence of a series of attacks. The downside, of course, is that if the state launches a defensive attack and is not able to present concrete evidence for it then that state would have to face serious repercussions from the international law and hamper its overall image in the international community. The important thing to…… [Read More]
eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order
This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.
As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.
IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…… [Read More]
military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.
America is not merely a superpower -- the nation is also commonly known as the 'Policeman of the World', owing to its many interventions in resolving global issues. Time and again, the world has expected USA to intercede and play the role of mediator when issues crop up around the world. The world feels helpless when the nation hesitates or does not keep up to people's expectation while intervening. Two international incidents in which America opted for an unexpected course while simultaneously striving to keep from regular military action are the Libyan evolution and Syrian Civil War. Other nations' reaction in the former case and the retention of America's position in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) serve to confirm the fact that USA is, indeed, the 'policeman' of the world.
Part 2…… [Read More]
(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)
Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."
 Contrary…… [Read More]
Gradually, over the eight years since it was first instated, as Kosovo's Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) were established "UNMIK has moved back from an executive role to one of monitoring and support to local institutions. UNMIK, in its present form, is now into its final chapter before status resolution" ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009). Customs, banking regulation, and general governmental functions are some of the other responsibilities assumed by local authorities since the establishment of UN control. However, the UNMIK Department of Justice (DOJ) continues to prosecute serious crimes, "including cases of corruption, terrorism, war crimes and March 2004 riot cases" and other cases that are the fall-out of the type of longstanding ethnic rivalries that precipitated UN intervention and the creation of UNMIK in the first place ("hat is UNMIK," UN, 2009).
Although the UN has declared UNMIK as success, in recent years, Kosovo state authorities have begun…… [Read More]
" (Miles, 2006)
According to Norway's Department of Defense document entitled: "International Military Operations, Crisis Management - Multinational Operations" when a country is a participant in an "multinational crisis management" initiative entailed is "the ability, at short notice and in concert with allies and others, to contribute a military capability in some form for the purpose of bringing under control a given situation in which poses a threat either to international security or to other vital interests, or which is likely to have other unacceptable adverse consequences. Such crisis management may involve all kinds of security challenges, may in principle arise anywhere in the world, and may be led either by an established organization or alliance such as the UN, NATO or the EU, or conducted under the auspices of an ad hoc coalition of one kind or another." (Norway Department of Defense, 2003)
The work of Timothy D. Sisk…… [Read More]