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All participants will be clinically diagnosed with an addiction problem to alcohol and/or another controlled substance. Those that are addicted to prescription medicine alone will be excluded from the study as they are suspected to represent a different underlying order. Subjects will be chosen for addiction to alcohol, meth, crack, opiates and other controlled substances, other than prescription drugs. Participants may have single or multiple substances of addiction.
In order to eliminate as many potential confounding variables as possible the subjects will be males between the ages of 25-40. They will be from a number of socioeconomic backgrounds and will not be eliminated for race or other cultural attributes. However, these attributes will be considered in the final analysis to eliminate potential sources of sample bias. Participation in this study will be voluntary and all participants will be asked to sign a consent form. Participants meeting the criteria will be…
Bowden-Jones, O., Iqbal, M., Tyrer, P., Sieverwright, N., Cooper, S., Judd, a., & Weaver, T.
2004). Prevalence of personality disorder in alcohol and drug services and associated comorbidity. Society for the Study of Addiction. 99: 1106-1314.
Bucholz, K., Hesselbrock, V., Heath, a., Kramer, J., & S***t, M. (2000). A latent class analysis of antisocial personality disorder symptom data from a multi-centre family study of alcoholism. Addiction. 95 (4): 553-567.
Craig, R., Verinis, J., & Wexler, S. (1985). Personality Characteristics of Drug Addicts and Alcoholics on the Millon Clinical Multiazial Inventory. Journal of Personality
The qualities tested by the Myes-Biggs ae also those that often cause clashes between employees, such extovesion vs. intovesion, thinking vs. feeling, judging vs. peceiving, and the tendency to expeiencing the wold though sensing vs. intuition. Taking the test helps someone who is quiet and feels fulfilled woking behind a compute undestand why he o she might see the wold diffeently than someone who is a 'people peson.'
It should be stessed that while pesonality types may be elatively constant thoughout an individual's life, all types must still espond to vaious extenal stessos at times: an intovet will still likely shout 'fie' and sping to action when needed in an emegency, despite a pefeence fo being etiing and eflective. An extovet can lock the doo to study a long and detailed epot on which he o she must make a pesentation. But the question is pefeence: an indicato of "you…
reference: an indicator of "your true preference may be the level of stress or enjoyment in a situation. Where your preferences coincide with the demands of the situation, you may find it quite enjoyable. An extrovert may find it frustrating or stressful if required to work in an introvert style, but enjoyable or energizing if required to work in an extrovert style, and vice versa for an introvert" (Working out, 2010, Team Technology, p.2). At time, managers of teams may need to press members out of their comfort zones to accomplish certain goals and objectives and at other times playing to different team members' strengths may be optimal. Regardless, team member's self-awareness and awareness that not everyone is 'like them' in terms of the way they see the world can optimize team productivity by minimizing conflict and maximizing the use of team member's different skills.
Working out your Myers-Briggs type. (2010). Team Technology. Retrieved February 19, 2010 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/tt/t-articl/myers-briggs-1.htm
The objective of this paper is to present a reflection on my personality type that will suit my career plan. After taking a survey test at 16 Personality website, the results reveal that I am "THE EXECUTIVE" (ESTJ-A) showing that I am extraverted (54%) than introverted (46%). More assertive (57%) than turbulent (43%). Having the ability to judging (77%) than prospecting (33%). Moreover, I am more observer (84%) than intuitive (16%). I also have more ability to thinking (62%) than 38% (feeling).
My Job Type
An ability to choose a right job depends on the personality type, thus, the result shows that I have the quality of becoming a successful executive manager in my career choice. Executives are top management in an organization using their skills to embrace values of dedication, using a clear guidance and advice to lead their subordinates through the difficult paths. Typically, less than 11% of…
They make good leaders, because they can make impartial decisions, and will not back down after they have made a decision. They are more concerned with external forces, and so, they are attracted to products, goods, and services, rather than the internal motivations for these items. In other words, they are consumers and they like material goods.
ESTJ's like to bring things to closure quickly and effectively, and they may even overlook some information or input if it seems as if it might impede closure in some way. They engage in primary thinking, which helps create their desire for regimen and discipline. They like being in charge and directing others, as well. They are down to earth, and do not like to be phony. They make friends easily, and usually have many friends in their lives.
Some famous ESTJ's include Harry S. Truman, Lyndon B. Johnson, George W. Bush, Carrie…
Meanwhile, the Personality Page indicates that I have a "...deeply driven desire to promote security and peaceful living," and that may be a bit of an exaggeration of my lifestyle, but I do cherish a peaceful atmosphere at home, school, when I work, and with my friends. So I am living a balanced life, the best I can, to try to listen (as always), hear what is being said and watch what is being done, and continue to improve my own attitudes and energy outputs.
Is this world (school, work, home) a place where, according to Kroeger and Thuesen everything is manipulated; information is manipulated to make it sound like the person in charge wants it to sound; excuses are manipulated in order for the person to justify what actions he is seen doing. In the political world, it's called "spin" - saying what the politician wants the voter to…
Human Metrics. Jung Typology Test. Retrieved 27 Oct. 2006 at http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp .
Kroeger, Otto, & Thuesen, Janet. (2002). Type Talk at Work. New York: Random House.
Personality Page (2005). Portrait of an ISTJ: The Duty Fulfiller. Retrieved 28 Oct. 2006 at http://www.personalitypage.com/ISTJ.html .
Team Technology. (2006). What makes an ISTJ tick? Retrieved 28 Oct. 2006 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/mb-types/istj.htm .
Marcus's Myers-Briggs score indicates that he is an ENTP personality type, meaning that he is more inclined toward extraversion, iNtuition, thinking, and perception. Marcus's positive qualities include being innovative, versatile, and entrepreneurial, but he needs major improvement in his listening skills, writing, and verbal communications. Marcus's skill set includes Excel spreadsheets, mathematics, research, and global awareness.
Marcus will be able to assist the group optimally by collaborating directly with Kevin in the areas of strategic and operational planning. His greatest challenge will be in improving his listening skills in the process of helping Kevin develop his one-on-one communication skills. Purely for his own development and long-term benefit, Marcus should also take the opportunity to practice documenting his contributions in writing, although it is not advisable for the group to rely on him alone in this regard. Mandy should probably provide her writing talents to assist Marcus as well…
The careers best suited to an ISTJ personality type are those that are methodological and systematic, in a quiet, orderly work environment. From the list of suggested careers, I selected three that best reflected my personality as well as my interests and values. These were not necessarily the careers in the green sector, but they do have a bright outlook. The three that stood out include being an actuary, a forensic science technician, or an insurance underwriter. Of these three, actuaries have higher starting salaries and larger earnings potentials.
Actuaries need a strong background in statistics, because their job is to analyze statistical data related to public health, mortality rates, accident rates, and any other variable that might be related to insurance or public policy. Goals include risk forecasting, or projections of liability costs. However, being an actuary is more than crunching numbers. Actuaries are responsible for making clear judgments…
They often need less sleep and are less affected by external conditions than their counterparts.
Conversely, Type B personalities are relatively laid back when compared with their Type A and even their Type counterparts. Type B personalities are relaxed, uncompetitive and take life 'as it comes.' They are able to wait relatively uncomplainingly, in comparison to Type As. When compared with Type A personalities, they have significantly lower rates of heart disease and other stress-related disorders (McLeod 2011). They are natural optimists and rather than viewing others as hostile and the world as a 'rat race' they see their fellow human beings in a positive light and expect the best.
Q3. Describe self-esteem and explain what role it plays in promoting and resolving stress.
Stress in life is inevitable. It is important to have the necessary psychological tools to deal with stress. Self-esteem is often said to be the best…
Cherry, K. (2014). What is CBT? About.com. Retrieved from:
McLeod, S.A. (2011). Type A Personality. Retrieved from:
Personality is the way that we engage with the world. It is a pattern of responses to how we engage with the world on a behavioral and emotional level. Every person has a different personality and this personality helps to frame that person's interactions with the world. When I took the test, I was INTJ, and that has implications for how I would behave in different situations.
It is important in organizations to understand what personality is, what types of personalities there are, and how these different personalities interact. Organizations are groups of people, and the characteristics of the people in these groups are a determinant of organizational success. We hear about things like "personality conflict" because at times, two different types of response patterns can be incongruent with each other. unning an organization requires an understanding of the different personality patterns and organizing the human resources of the organization…
Human Metrics. (2013). Humanmetrics Jung typology test. Human Metrics.com. Retrieved October 15, 2013 from http://www.humanmetrics.com/CGI-WIN/JTYPES1.HTM
Personality and MBA Studies
There are various personalities that are displayed by different people in the society. That is what makes up a diverse society. The personality that I am considered to be is the innovative, individualistic, versatile and entrepreneurial personality. At times this is referred to as Jungian 16-Type Personality specifically the ENTP character. This is because I am resourceful, creative, and quick in the intellectual field. I also like to engage in debates and am excited over new ideas and always assertive as well as outspoken. I like having people around me and I have that ability to grasp concepts and apply logic to get amicable solutions (BSM Consulting Inc., 2011).
Apart from my character traits, there are those values that I hold dearly to and would like to see myself applying in life and getting from life as well. Values, according to National Defense University (2011) are…
BSM Consulting Inc., (2011). High-Level Description of the Sixteen Personality Types.
Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://www.personalitypage.com/high-level.html
Maggie Fox, (2010). U.S. scores dead last again in healthcare study. Health and Science Editor;
Reuters. Retrieved July 4, 2011 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/06/23/us-usa-healthcare-last-idUSTRE65M0SU20100623
Although interpersonal and group level communications reside at a lower level than organizational communication, they are major forms of communication in organizations and are prominently addressed in the organizational communication literature. Recently, as organizations became more communication-based, greater attention was directed at improving the interpersonal communication skills of all organizational members. Historically, informal communication was primarily seen as a potential block to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case is modern times, as on-going, dynamic, and informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work
It is also widely accepted that top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors and that immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. In regard to issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. The Communication Accommodation Theory supports this rationale. In terms of supervisor-employee communication, one researcher argues the difficulty of trusting…
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.
Blumberg, A. (1970). A system for analyzing supervisor-teacher interaction. In A.
Simon & G. Boyer (Eds.), Mirrors for behavior, 3, 29-45.
Davis, T. & Landa, M. (1999). The trust deficit. Management Accounting, 71(10), 12-
The Jungian personality inventories are to some degree 'Westernized' one could argue, in the sense that they were originally developed by the psychoanalyst Carl Jung, around Western archetypes of personality. The MMPI also makes use of such tests in its more extensive survey, but more flexible use of the Jung system has yielded less dogmatic career recommendation and personality type instruments. After answering a series of questions, the tester receives a certain personality 'typing,' based upon whether he or she is primarily extroverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, judging or perceiving. The tester can use this typology as a guide, not a diagnosis set in stone, on his or her path to achieve clearer self-understanding.
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. etrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
Jungian psychological typology. (2009). Personality tests. Retrieved October 20, 2009 at http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/
Personality and Personalistic Leadership: An Assessment of Team Management for the 21st Century usiness Team Environment
Contemporary studies on emerging new principles on the nature of the culture of the business environment and team management within organizations led to the development of what is termed as "personalistic leadership." This new term and concept refers to the prevailing use of personal relations and strategies that aim to build stronger social bonds between leader and members, as well as among members of an organization. Personalistic leadership arises from the development of diversity among members of an organization; it is in this change in the business environment that made personal and social relationships important within business organizations (uhler, 2004). In this kind of leadership, it is also vital that leaders/managers must be able to adapt strategies and methods which reflect the flexibility or adaptability of the leader to changes within the business environment…
Antonakis, J. (2003). Why "emotional intelligence" does not predict leadership effectiveness: a comment on Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11, no. 4. pp. 355-361.
Buhler, P. February 2004. Managing in the new millenium. Supervision, vol. 65, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 12121885.
Douglas, M. (2003). Servant-leadership: an emerging supervisory model. Supervision, vol. 64, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 9036904.
Dulewicz, V. And M. Higgs. 2003. Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis. pp. 193-210.
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
Personality Type Explained
According to the Jung Typology Test I am an INFP—but really just barely. I am only 3% introvert, 9% intuitive, 3% feeling and 9% perceiving. I am right in the middle on most questions. However, the career choices that fall under the INFP category are actually all choices that I have considered in the past, so the test does seem to work. The recommended career choices for the INFP are: “Social workers, psychologists, life coaches, addiction rehab counselors, mental and community care staff, children education, teaching, and also creative script writing” (INFP Career Choices, 2018).
The INFP Learning Style also describes me to a “t”—a enjoy learning but usually only when it relates in some way to human behavior. I can study manuals and information that is purely mechanical—such as how to change oil in a car—but I do find it to be tedious and more like…
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
Despite having diverted to the employment sector for ten years to make ends meet, I am still determined to be what I had intended to be in the initial times and the high level if determination points to my inward motivation. I am also independent in that I make sound decisions on my own, I decided to let go of my "career" initially to pursue employment and now I have decided to further my career. If it were not for enthusiasm, I could have already let go of my dream to be a nurse which I still hold on to dearly. Self-confidence is played out in the fact that I never allowed the unpleasant interaction between sexuality and gambling waste my life ahead. The job of being at a casino, especially for that long, requires someone who is extremely outgoing and sociable.
Bearing the fact that I wanted to have…
Discus, (2013). Personality Types. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://www.axiomsoftware.com/disc/personality-types.php
Sociology Guide, (2011). The Meaning of Personality. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://www.sociologyguide.com/personality/meaning-of-personality.php
In addition, the information that I find on their site seems to be very vague, especially about what kind of 'success' they have had in being accurate regarding people's personalities. While this is not just a quick, online quiz, it has much more of the feel of that type of 'test' than the Myers-riggs assessment does. If I were to take a personality test, I think I would avoid the Keirsey test, simply because it does not seem to be that legitimate of an instrument for truly determining a person's personality and temperament, and what he or she should then do with his or her life based on personality.
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-riggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & orders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional…
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & Borders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1): 94.
Myers-Briggs Personality Test. n.d. Retrieved at http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/reliability-and-validity.asp
B Personalities at work:
Can't we all just get along?
Imagine this scenario. It's a critical time during a particular business deal. The entire management 'team' of one company reconvenes for lunch in an isolated conference room to discuss what has just transpired with the representatives from the other company over the course of the morning. One individual slams the door angrily behind him. ith many an explicative, he sits down, complaining about the behavior and unfair tactics of the other negotiators. Another individual attempts to calm the raging man down. He waves off the succoring individual with an angry shrug, refusing to be calm and continuing to shout.
This scenario is one way to illustrate the differences between the classic Type A and Type B personalities. Persons with the classic Type A personality, originally defined and classified by Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman in 1959, are said to possess…
Noakes, Timothy. (1986). The Lore of Running. Champaign, IL: Oxford University Press.
Kroeger, Otto, and Janet M. Thuesen. (2002). TypeTalk at Work-How the 16 Personalities Determine Your Success On The Job. New York: Dell Publishing, Inc.
Zuckerman, Edward L. The Clinician's Thesaurus Three: The Guide Book for Wording Psychological Reports and Other Evaluations. Third Edition, Revised. Accessed on March 22, 2004 at http://www.soulself-help.on.ca/AB.html.
I also plan to join a book club to be around people who have a passion for books and reading and see if I can identify with them and their passions for this area.
Long-term I plan to write more and focus on keeping a journal so I can see how my communications skills are improving. In addition, joining Toastmasters' and also taking public speaking courses will help me to better grasp verbal and linguistic connections to presenting in class. In short, I need to define a thorough self-improvement program in the area of verbal and linguistic skills. Most critically I need to figure out how to be passionate about getting stronger about verbal and linguistic communication skills so I can excel in serving and leading my students. There needs to be a long-term plan in place and I need to create it based on my unique needs, balanced with…
Brian J. Hoffman, Brian C. Frost. (2006). Multiple intelligences of transformational leaders: an empirical examination. International Journal of Manpower: Leadership in organizations, 27(1), 37-51. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1073422031).
Susan Elaine Murphy, Ellen a Ensher. (2008). A qualitative analysis of charismatic leadership in creative teams: The case of television directors. Leadership Quarterly, 19(3), 335. Retrieved July 2, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1490793221).
Leslie Rae (2002, December). Multiple Intelligences: A Trainer's Resource of 35 Activities. Training Journal,39. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 256241961).
Jennifer J. Salopek (2004, September). Social Intelligence. T + D, 58(9), 17-19. Retrieved July 3, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 694876261).
People at the Gym
There are many different types of people that one can find at the gymnasium today. Although people are unique and have their own individual qualities, there are some similarities between the sorts of people one finds at the gym that one can find at pretty much any such workout facility. At most gymnasiums there are personal trainers and weight lifter professionals. There are also usually athletic girl types who maintain their personal fitness. Other types include the sorts that are affectionately referred to as the screamer, as well as the lost guy.
The personal trainer type of gym participant is usually easy to find. These people are frequently talking to other people and coaching them through various regiments and workouts. Thus, personal trainers are usually good communicators who can get their ideas across with simple, clear language in order to better help people. It is essential…
personalities who have, by their actions, become notable individuals this writer must first explain why a different direction has been opted for in this assignment. In doing so the written response will be somewhat lengthier than the initial assignment requested. With the advent of mega technology and virtual reality bombarding the computerized twenty first century, information is at the fingertips of anyone owning a computer and having Internet access. The Internet user can instantly find answers to questions that before would take hours and hours of diligent investigation and research. Today, simply sitting in front of a computer screen, entering a few search words though Google, massive amounts of information are immediately available. Whether the user is inquiring about Federal eserve policies, reviews on literature classics, or new car prices someone else has likely all ready made a presentation that can be viewed. Unfortunately extensive computerized information retrieval has, however,…
Cooley, Charles Horton, (1902). Human Nature and the Social
Order. New York: Scribner's.
C.G. Jung, Psyche and Symbol: A Selection from the Writings of C.G. Jung, edited by Violet S. de Laszio (1958). Garden
Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories
What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain…
American Psychological Association (2015). Personality. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/topics/personality/
Cherry, K. (n.d.). The Big Five personality dimensions. About Education. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/bigfive.htm
"General Strengths and Limitations of Trait Perspectives," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/trait-perspectives-on-personality-79/general-strengths-and-limitations-of-trait-perspectives-312-12847/
McAdams, D.P. & Pals, J.L. (2006). A new Big Five. American Psychologist 61(3): 204-217.
leadership coach begins each public presentation making it very clear that having a leadership position and being a leader are not the same thing. Leadership and management are quite different even though often used synonymously. A "position" is something one is hired into, or appointed -- whether that results in leadership is dependent on the qualities of the individual. Some leaders rise from relative obscurity, and lead from below; some managers never learn to lead (Ventura, 2008).
Almost all the literature reviewed, though, seem to see the leader as being one who can see a situation and assume the right style of leadership for that occasion (e.g. Harry Truman taking over after Franklin Roosevelt's death). Certainly, once there is a leadership role assumed, the dynamics of interpersonal relationships change -- as they should. It is impossible for a leader to be completely fair and unbiased if that leader openly socializes…
John Glenn. (2012, Feburary 19). Retrieved from TimesLeader Online.com: http://www.timesleaderonline.com/page/content.detail/id/536833/John-Glenn.html?nav=5005
Brown, L., & Posner, B. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Development, May (5), 274-80.
Brown, T., Browne, M., Giampetro-Meyer, A., & Kubansek, N. (1998). Do We Really Want More Leaders in Business? Journal of Business Ethics, 17(15), 1727-36.
Carlyle, T., & Tenneyson, G. (Eds.). (2000). A Carlyle Reader. New York: Copley Publications.
Personality Development in Immigrant Children
Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.
The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.
This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…
Almy, M. (1976). Review of 'Memory and intelligence; Understanding causality;' and' The origin of the idea of chance in children'. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 46(1), 174-177. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb01239.x
Baxter, G.D., & Rarick, C.A. (1987). Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 243. Retrieved http://search.proquest.com/docview/198088703?accountid=25340
Bandura, Albert (2001, February). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 1 -- 26.
Berry, J.W., Phinney, J.S., Sam, D.L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303-332. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
Personal interviews -- especially what the respondent actually says in them -- can be extremely useful to humanist practitioners. They also share a reliance on objective tests -- where the respondent attempts, in a guided way, to assess their own behavior and/or personality, with the two remaining branches of personality assessment.
Trait-based and social-learning psychology have vastly different approaches to assessing personality, but there are also some commonalities insofar as how they assess personality. Trait-based theorists believe that people exhibit specific behavioral traits, and that these can be analyzed to determine personality. Tests like the Big Five indicator are trait-based assessors. Social-learning theorists, on the other hand, believe that certain cognitive patterns are set early on, and that behavior (and personality) is determined by these unique cognitive processes working with the sum experience as well as the current environment and interactions. For this reason, social-learning theorists do not see behavior…
Like most people, I have experienced ups and downs, highs and lows. The major upheavals in my life have revealed some of the core personality traits that have been with me since childhood. I believe that crisis and stress challenge us, and also bring to light our true selves. However, I also believe strongly in the power of each person to change. I used to have anger management problems and other emotional issues, just like most people. Mainly these problems were related to my not having in place a set of established coping mechanisms in my life. Part of this is related to the culture and upbringing, and part also to personality traits. Yet after I was divorced from a husband of 22 years, it was a shock. I did not feel like myself because my emotions were getting the best of me. Knowing this, I…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L. & Hetherington, E. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting. American Psychologist 55(2): 218-232.
Jussim, L. (2012). Social Perception and Social Reality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lalande, Kathleen M.; Bonanno, George A. (2011). Retrospective memory bias for the frequency of potentially traumatic events: A prospective study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol 3(2), Jun 2011, 165-170.
Lewkowitz, D.J. (2011). The biological implausibility of the nature-nurture dichotomy and what it means for the study of infancy. Infancy 16(4): 331-367.
Personality and Behavior: Changing for the Better
Hundreds of thousands of years of instinctive programming influence the behavior of modern humans in ways they do not fully understand, and in many cases, people may not even be aware of these influences on their behavior. This is not to say, of course, that modern humans are incapable of thoughtful and purposeful action, but it is to say that such unconscious influences on behavior can cause problems if they are not recognized and dealt with in a meaningful fashion. To gain additional insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning personality and behavior, followed by a discussion concerning how behavior can be influenced by personality in ways that can cause individual problems such as risky behaviors that lead to substance abuse or unprotected premarital sex. Finally, an examination concerning how the interactionism view…
Aizen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Maidenhead, England: Open University
Carver, C.S. & Sheier, M. (2004). Perspectives on personality, 6th ed.
Livesley, W.J. (2001). Handbook of personality disorders: Theory, research, and treatment.
Eve wondeed why people behave the way they do and why people act in one way while othes act in a diffeent way? Well we all know that people ae diffeent when it comes to thei physical and psychological aspects. In human pesonality the cental dimension is the tait of extavesion and that of intovesion. Vitually all the compehensive models of pesonality must include these two concepts extavesion and intovesion is typically temed as a single continuum. This insinuates that fo one to be on the high of one they necessaily have to be low on the othe. Theefoe one cannot have extemes of both at a go. Thee is also a diffeent pespective that suggests that each individual has both an extovet and intovet side with on dominating ove the othe. Regadless of the thee is always a fluctuation in peoples behavio at all times and even exteme…
Bennington, J.(2013).The science of what makes an introvert and an Extrovert. Retrieved October 19, 2013 from io9.com/the-science-behind-extroversion-and-introversion-1282059791
Personality and Individual Differences
Max is an individual who has long been interested in acting. He gained this interest when he took part in a school play at age 12. After Max completed his secondary schooling, he wanted greatly to enroll in a local arts college, but his parents protested. They communicated to him that they desired him to gain a "real career," or in other words, follow in their footsteps and become an engineer. Max relented and kept his interest in theatrical arts strictly as a hobby. Through the years, Max studied hard. He rarely complained, and eventually he graduated with an engineering degree. Max now got along with his parents and the three maintained a stable relationship. However, Max sometimes felt empty and wondered if a different life may be awaiting him. Two years into Max's first engineering job, Max learned that his close friend had been diagnosed…
(Humans are often called 'social animals'). However, the test construct acknowledged the fact that no one is perfectly social or asocial but a mix of both characteristics. Extroversion and introversion are not necessarily either/or qualities, which has been one of the critiques of the Myers-Brigg assessment. In future forms of this extroversion inventory, creating a typology of different types of introversion and extroversion would be useful. For example, some people are very extroverted with friends, but are more socially reserved in a work context. Others are very introverted in the sense that they like to be alone, but can still 'get by' in social environments and perform like extroverts. It is also possible to be very confident speaking in public to large groups of people, but to feel more uncomfortable one-on-one, in personal social contexts.
Additionally, positive forms of sociability -- such as compassion -- and negative forms -- such…
DISC assessment. (2010). DISC homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.churchangeldisc.com/definitionofdisc.html
Measuring the big five personality factors. (2010). Department of Psychology. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#where
Myers, Isabel Briggs & Peter B. Myers (1995). Gifts differing. Mountain View, CA: Davies-
person is born, the family, neighbor and the culture is the prime aspect through which they interact before they can enter into the outside world. The development of the personality of an individual is the synthesis of traditions, values, thoughts, feelings, and various other factors that is based on the cultural aspects. In this regard, the dissertation is about the ways in which personality and culture have a relationship to each other. The thesis paper has also discussed how culture leaves a profound impact on the development of the personality.
How are Culture and Personality Related?
hat is Culture?
hat is Personality?
Is there a relationship between Culture and Personality?
How is Culture and Personality Related?
Since the world has come to existence, people have divided themselves into smaller groups that have been named as civilizations and societies. These diverse civilizations with different norms, customs, traditions…
Bock, P.K. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology. 2nd Edition. USA: Waveland Press, 1999. Print.
LeVine, R.A. Culture and personality: contemporary readings. USA: Transaction Publishers, 1974. Print.
LeVine, R.A. Psychological Anthropology: A Reader on Self in Culture. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.
Triandis, H.C. & Suh, E.M. "Cultural influences on personality." Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 133 -- 160. Print. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135200
This means that for both parent-acquaintance and self-other consensus, it was observed that increased length of acquaintance leads to high stereotype accuracy.
This study on the relationship between length of acquaintance and stereotype accuracy highlighted the importance of length of acquaintance in relationships in order to best assess an individual's personality. Through this study, it was found out that, among other factors, length of acquaintance is indeed a determinant that could determine a person's accurate assessment of an individual's personality. The study conducted demonstrated how length of acquaintanceship is a function of stereotype accuracy.
Part 4- the Role of Mood Regulation
In this study conducted by Eid and Lischetzke, the authors delved into the components that act as mediators of individuals with extrovert personalities. In assessing these mediators, the authors determined pleasant-unpleasant trait mood and mood regulators such as mood repair and mood maintenance as its main factors. Through regression…
It is used to determine how dependable a candidate is, as well as how organized that individual is. A sample interview question that would competently assess the one's conscientiousness and emotional stability is: can you provide an outline a five-year plan for your professional and financial goals, which would include your acceptance to this position? The way that people choose to organize what it is that they are trying to achieve, and how they would go about doing so, would indicate their conscientiousness.
A good question to gauge a candidate's agreeableness is: how do you perceive the values of autonomy compare to those of teamwork? This is a trick question, because trust and collaboration is essential to both of these concepts, which candidates should reveal with their answers.
A good question to assess a candidate's level of neuroticism, which can encompass self-conscious, anxious behavior at one end and a sophisticated…
Theoretical Perspective of the Approach
The approach's personality models are grounded on biological models. The models are based on empirical human and animal findings concerning the associations between neurological system functions and personality dimensions. Traits that are measured are reward-dependence, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking etc. The hypothesis is that they are grounded on genetic and neurochemical influences. For instance, sensation-seeking and explorative tendencies like drug usage make use of dopaminergic pathways, and such a characteristic corresponds to novelty-seeking behavior in Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TQP). People who are high on the novelty-seeking spectrum tend to be impulsive and take a lot of risks. Serotonin is linked to harm and punishment avoidance. Lower serotonin levels result in a "neurotic" personality. eward dependence is linked to noradrenaline. People that lean more towards harm avoidance tend to be more affectionate and sentimental. Those on the other end of the scale tend to be pragmatic and…
Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: H. Holt and. Company. Biological Approaches.(n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2015, from http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/psych101/personality/section5.rhtml
Cattell, R. B. (1965). The scientific analysis of personality. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The scientific study of personality.
Eysenck, H. J. (1966). Personality and experimental psychology. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society.
Topic: How different personalities work together to achieve organizational goals.
Article: Bakker, A.B. (2015). Towards a multilevel approach of employee well-being. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 24(6): 839-843.
Annotation: Employee wellbeing is strongly associated with collaboration in the workplace and the collective commitment to reaching organizational goals, according to prior literature. Bakker (2015) builds on prior literature in the areas of personality diversity and organizational objectives. This article first outlines various theories of organizational psychology including job demands-resources theory, which shows how top-level management decisions can mitigate the detrimental effects of personality diversity on organizational commitment. At the same time, employee commitment can positively enhance team cohesion and the ability for teams to achieve their own and the organization’s main goals. Job crafting, the bottom-up, employee-driven behaviors, are linked with reduced stress, reduced rates of burnout, and greater work engagement, according to the author. The implications…
There are even significant differences between extroverts and introverts that are emotionally stable. Those who are emotionally stable, but introverted are often found to be: passive, careful, thoughtful, peaceful, controlled, reliable, even-tempered, and calm. While their extroverted, emotionally stable peers are often found to be: sociable, outgoing, talkative, responsive, easygoing, lively, carefree, and in positions of leadership (Hockenberry & Hockenberry, 2004, p. 418).
These individuals are typically upbeat, optimistic and sociable, and experience more positive emotions each day than introverted peers. Canli et al., in 2001, conducted a study of 14 healthy female volunteers. During their study the participants were shown both positive and negative images.
Those who scored higher on the extraversion scale experienced more reactivity to positive images, while those women with higher levels of neuroticism had more reactivity to the negative images. These findings supported the theory that the differences in personality traits produce different reactions in…
Hockenberry, D. & Hockenberry, S. (2004). Discovering psychology. New York: Worth Publishing.
Libkuman, J., Wines, W., Dickel, M., & Doty, K. (Oct 1998). Individual differences in arousal and accessibility to information in memory. The Journal of General Psychology, 125(4). Retrieved July 26, 2005, from InfoTrac database.
Woodward, S., McManis, M., Kagan, J., Deldin, P., Snidman, N., Lewis, M., & Kahn, V. (1 Jul 2001). Infant temperament and the brainstem auditory evoked response in later childhood. Developmental Psychology, 37(4). Retrieved July 26, 2005, from PsycArticles database.
Introvert vs. Extrovert Personalities
The Pros and Cons of Personality Tests, and Whether they can Detect a Stuttering Character
The issue of whether to implement personality tests is a contentious topic with fervent advocates on both sides. On the one hand, personality tests do provide some basic outline of a person's character and personality; on the other hand, it is difficult to determine exactly how accurate the test is or whether it is even applicable in the practice of a person's life. At the present moment, there continues to exist significant backlash against personality tests, although this tendency is perhaps unfair given the possible virtues of implementing such procedures. It is most likely that personality tests are appropriate in certain contexts; however, even in these situations it is important to avoid placing excessive emphasis of the findings gleaned from a personality test. Another significant question raised by the extant literature on personality tests…
Arthur, Winifred, et al. (2009). Unproctored internet-based tests of cognitive ability and personality: Magnitude of cheating and response distortion. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2, 39-45.
Eggers, K., et al. (2010). Temperament dimensions in stuttering and typically developing children. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35(4), 355-372.
Fisher, C.D., & Boyle, G.J. (1997). Personality and employee selection: Credibility regained. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 35(2), 26-40.
Salkind, N.J. (2012). Tests and Measurement for People Who (Think They) Hate Tests and Measurement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Carl Jung Personality/Iceberg Theory
Introduction to Carl Jung
Carl Jung grew up during the late nineteenth century in Switzerland in a Protestant Victorian culture. It was this culture that had such an impact on the values held by American individuals during that timeframe. Jung's father was a pastor and Jung, following medical school completion in the early part of the 1900s became a psychiatrist as well as a disciple of Sigmund Freud. (, paraphrased)
Summary of Jung's Personality/Iceberg Theory
The work of Sally Palmer Thomason (1992) states that the human psyche "could be compared to a giant iceberg -- the conscious mind is like the small exposed tip that is seen above the waterline; the far greater part, the unconscious mind, lies unseen, hidden beneath the surface." (Thomason, 1992) The work of Briggs Myer and Myers entitled "Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type" states that Jung wrote the theory of type…
Boeree, C. George (2006) Personality Theories. Retrieved from: http://www.social-psychology.de/do/pt_jung.pdf
Briggs Myers, I. And Myers, PB (1995) (Gifts Differing Understanding Personality Type). Nicholas Brealey Publishing 1995. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=yb_Vwmf1G6QC&dq=carl+jung+personality+test&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Thomason, Sally (1992) The living spirit of the crone: turning aging inside out. Theology and the Sciences. Fortress Press 2006. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=b3lOtWoob9EC&dq=Carl+Jung+Personality+Iceberg+Theory&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Avoidant Personality Disorder
WK 5 DISC - AB
WK 5 DISC -- AB GO BY AND IMPOTANT ESOUCES
Personality disorder: Avoidant personality disorder
According to the DSM, an avoidant personality (Axis II) is characterized by extreme anxiety and an aversion to engaging in social activities due to an overly sensitized fear of rejection. The avoidant nature of this type's personality means he or she has trouble functioning normally both in work and personal contexts. For example, an avoidant personality "avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection" (Avoidant personality disorder, 2013, Mental Health). An avoidant personality may work at an occupation significantly beneath his or her level of intelligence and education, simply to avoid dealing with people.
On a personal level, the avoidant personality is extremely hyper-sensitive. This personality type avoids new situations, for fear of being rejected and minimizes social content…
Avoidant personality disorder. (2013). Mental Health. Retrieved:
Rettew, D. (2006).Avoidant personality disorder. Psychiatric Times, XXIII (8).
Freud's Tripartite Theory of Personality in Human esource Management
What is the Freud's Tripartite Theory of Personality?
Developed by Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, the tripartite theory holds that personality development is driven by two basic factors: love and aggression, both of which have profound effects on an individual's thought processes and actions. Freud believed that love, which he referred to as eros, represents peoples' instinct to survive while aggression, thanatos, is a destructive and violent force that often leads to death. According to Scudder (2013), the tripartite personality theory states that there are three independent yet interrelated parts of the human psyche. These are the conscious, the subconscious, and the preconscious. The Freudian psychoanalysis then suggests that a combination of three determinants shapes an adult's personality: the id, ego, and the superego.
The id, also called the It, is what contains the eros and thanatos, the…
Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. (10th Ed). Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Limited
Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World. (5th Ed.) Minnesota: Embrace Publications and Consulting, LLC.
Scudder, T. J (2013) Personality Types In Relationship Awareness Theory: The Validation of Freud's Libidinal Types and Explication of Porter's Motivational Typology. ProQuest LLC. Retrieved 15 April 2015 from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/1476209039/3FCA7DF3E232498FPQ/1?accountid=39364
Picture retrieved 15 April 2015 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Sigmund-Freud.html
However, as has been stated, teams are not put together solely on the basis of interpersonal compatibility but for the optimal configuration of skill sets. It happens that individuals do not get along; a manager can help alleviate tensions with good communications skills. In the case of self-managed teams, however, the role of peacemaker or taskmaster is much less clearly defined. Individuals may or may not take it upon themselves to deal with a problem employee. Some individuals may choose to ignore the problem to the best of their ability, in some cases doing more work or working outside their scope of expertise in order to compensate. Other individuals may become confrontational, causing tension on the team and making its work efforts less effective. Langfred (2007) noted that teams may "unintentionally restructure themselves inefficiently in response to conflict." His longitudinal study examined the effects of task conflict, where self-managed team…
Arnold, J. (2005). The congruence problem in John Holland's theory of vocational decisions.
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 77, 95-113.
Chapman, a. (2009). Donald Kirkpatrick's learning evaluation theory -- a training and learning measurement, evaluation and assessments model. Businessballs.com. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/kirkpatricklearningevaluationmodel.htm
Cook, R.A., Goff, J.L. (2002). Coming of age with self-managed teams: Dealing with a problem employee. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(3) 485. Retrieved from the proQuest database.
The author of this report has been asked to do a review and summary of a personal assessment that was completed. The assessment has three major sections, those including learning style, stress handling and a general assessment of relating to humans. Indeed, the ways in which people develop reactions and behaviors around these things shapes their personality, their experiences and how they move about through life. While there is no single "right way" to answer these questions, the author of this response feels that there are some methods and ways of approaching things that are better than others.
When it comes to learning style, there are two major choices. One choice is to watch and listen and the other is to get involve and participate. As with most things, neither answer could or should be used in all situations. There are times where a concept is new and…
Hotel Websites: Analysis
Business Travelers, Upstairs Guests
Within the hotel industry, upstairs guests are defined as travelers that crave intimacy and "who spend less time in public areas and prefer private spaces such as bedrooms over more social spaces such as lobbies and lounges" ("Frequent travelers," 2000). The Grand Washington Hyatt is an excellent example of a hotel that caters to such a demographic. It advertises itself as place where a traveler can "relax, play and stay connected" and enjoy "Hyatt Grand Beds®, 42" HDTV, and luxury marble bathrooms with Portico spa products" within the privacy of their own suites ("ooms," 2015). The emphasis is on enjoying the traveler's own personal accommodations versus interacting with other guests. The website promotes amenities likely to be attractive to business travelers looking for solitude as they review important matters: "stay productive at our oversized work stations with a Henry Miller chair, Wi-Fi access…
Ace Hotel in New York. (2015) .Official Website. Retrieved from:
Archer Hotel. (2015). Official Website. Retrieved from: http://archerhotel.com/new-york
Archer Hotel NY. (2015). Booking.com. Retrieved from:
Theories of Personality
This paper analyses the process of personality development in detail. It discusses how various genetic, environmental, cognitive, unconscious and socioculture factors affect the process of personality development in different individuals.
Theory of Personality
Personality can be defined as the sum total of all the characteristics that make an individual unique and different from other individuals. In order to analyze one's personality you do not necessarily need a psychologist to speculate and observe it. In our day-to-day dealings we refer to a large number of personality traits that various individuals possess. Different authors and playwrights usually use key figures and role models in their novels and plays to attract people. The word 'personality' is frequently used in day-to-day conversations nowadays. All of us develop our own theories of personality, each and every time we answer the question ' how is he or she like?'. There are five…
Houston, D. Islamic Azad University, (2005). Personality. Retrieved from Islamic Azad University website: http://dralizadeh.iauq.ac.ir/imagesMasterPage/Files/dralizadeh/file/chapter14.pdf
Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., & Jokela, M. (2010). Nature and nurture in personality. The Journal Of Lifelong Learning In Psychiatry, 8(2), 180-184. Retrieved from http://psychiatryonline.org/data/Journals/FOCUS/1842/foc00210000180.pdf
Pearson Education, (2002). Personality theories. Retrieved from Pearson Education website: http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1530/1567154/278-316_CH08_61939.pdf
Personality: social learning, humanistic, and socio-cultural perspectives. (2010). Unpublished manuscript, Psychology, Weber State University, Retrieved from http://faculty.weber.edu/eamsel/Classes/Introduction 1010/Lectures/8. Personality/Lectures/Lecture 26-27 Personality - Social Learning others.pdf
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative eview," Judge, Bono, Ilies & Gerhardt (2002) focus on the trait theory of leadership. In "Applying a Psychobiological Model of Personality to the Study of Leadership," O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study the relationship between personality and emergent leadership. In "When the omance is Over: Follower Perspectives of Aversive Leadership," Bligh, et al. (2007) explore what the researchers call the "dark side" of leadership. Whereas the Judge et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) research centers on personality traits and leadership in a straightforward way, focusing on the leader, Bligh et al. (2007) instead take into account follower perspectives on aversive leadership. Although Judge, et al. (2002) and O'Connor & Jackson (2010) are interested in trait theory, O'Connor & Jackson (2010) study alternatives to the Big Five model as well as the Big Five model itself; Judge, et al. (2002) are primarily concerned…
Bligh, M.C., et al. (2007). When the romance is over. Applied Psychology: An International Review 56(4): 528-557.
Bobbio, A., Dierendonck, D.V. & Manganelli, A.M. (2012). Servant leadership in Italy and its relation to organizational variables. Leadership 8(3): 229-243.
Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E., Ilies, R. & Gerhardt, M.W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology 87(4): 765-780.
McClelland, D.C. & Burnham, DH (2003). Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved online: https://hbr.org/2003/01/power-is-the-great-motivator
personality is a branch of psychology that deals with personality and variations among individuals. Personality is an organized and dynamic set of characteristics possessed uniquely by individual, and influenced by emotion, cognitions, motivation, and environment. In other words, the personality is referred as pattern of feelings, thoughts; social adjustments as well as behaviors exhibited by individual that strongly influence one's self-perceptions, expectations, attitudes and values. (Vink, Nawijn, Boomsma, & Willemsen, 2007).
The paper uses the Humanistic theory to explain the concept personality. The humanistic theory argues that people generally possess freewill that determines the way they behave. The reason for chosen humanistic theory to explain personality concept is that the theory focuses on individual subjective experiences and definitive factors that determine human behaviors. The basic idea of humanistic theory is that it focuses on the present rather than the future. The goal of humanistic theory is to assist…
On other hand, the cognitive theory believes that depression is often caused by the self-deprecating thoughts and cognitive approach try to change people negative thinking by assisting them to change the way they view themselves and the world. Social and behavioral learning approach points out that depression can be learnt through an interaction with social world and environment. These include thing people observe, and the depression can be overcome by learning the cause of depression from others. Trait approach suggests that depression is caused from an individual's character. (McCrae, 2001).
Dunlop et al. (2013) suggests different methods of overcoming depression. The authors suggest not all depressions can be treated using a medication. For example, a person suffering from bipolar disorder should consult a psychiatrist for treatment, and a medication such as mood stabilizer should be avoided in a bipolar disorder case. OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder) is a type of depression in which its treatment may be challenging. In this case, antidepressants doses are necessary to overcome the OCD.
On the other hand, a patient suffering from psychotic disorders should consult a
I often run over my words and they start coming out so fast they seem to not be waiting for the thought behind them and I can get lost in my speech. I will often write the direction "pause" into a lecture in order to remind me to do so and slow down. So I am often not sure if it is my delivery that is boring the audience or the content.
Chapter 8: Friendship (250-252)
In times of need and in times or happiness, one is able to share these experiences with a friend. I know when I am feeling especially stressed out or feel that things are not going well I can usually count on my friends to bring me out of it, either directly by encouraging me to press on, or indirectly by taking my mind off the situation at hand. Sometimes there is no way t…
This approach assumes that the psychological apparatus of the mind is dependent upon some type of energy to make it function (Personality pp). This energy is used in psychological work such as planning, thinking, feeling, and remembering (Personality pp). Everything that happens in an individual's mind and everything he or she does have a specific, identifiable cause, which is referred to as psychic determinism (Personality pp). According to Freud, "people are driven, fundamentally, by unconscious, animalistic, instinctual urges, particularly lust and aggression" (Personality pp). The unconscious is understood to be the large part of the mind that is hidden from view, and the internal structure of the mind is divided into three separate motivations, the Id, which is the irrational and emotional part of the mind, the Ego, which is the rational part, and the Superego, the moral part (Personality pp).
The basic assumption of the learning perspective is that…
Boeree, C. George. Personality Theories: Introduction. http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/persintro.html
Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:UxKqbHF4VjwJ:www.bsu.edu/web/00t0holtgrav/317/evolution.ppt+Perspectives+on+Personality&hl=en
Kagan, Jerome. Personality Development.
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0004/ai_2602000429
The author of this report is to answer to two different psychology-related questions. The first question asks the author of this report to speak to how certain career people would tend to fit into the five factor model. The second and final question asks the author of this report to take an online personality assessment and share the results. While making broad generalizations about the first of those two questions would be unwise, there are patterns and trends that would make themselves clear and personality tests like the one taken in the second question would be much more precise.
The five factors of the Five Factor grouping are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. The president of a corporation would absolutely tend to have extraversion and neuroticism as the main foci. To be specific, they would tend to be secure and confident as well as…
MBTI. (2014, September 28). The Myers & Briggs Foundation. The Myers & Briggs Foundation. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://www.myersbriggs.org/
Rathus, S.A. (2013). PSYCH (3rd ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.
Personalized Project Management
The personality portrayed by 'the Coordinator' traits is such that he pays too much attention to details and criticizes almost every step of a project. He likes gathering sufficient information before making ad decision and are highly critical of the information they receive from people and sources. They are people who strive for orderliness and correctness with pursuit for factual data and logical arguments. Even after getting the data or information, these are people who will test and analyze the data before using it to make any decisions. They are known to fear irrational acts and impulsive decisions hence known as systematic managers (ob P., 2015).
Due to these traits, the best project that such a manager can undertake in the business world is the duty of project monitoring and evaluation for the projects that the organization engages itself in. this is a responsibility that needs one…
Gary R.V. & Elizabeth K.D., (2012). Results First: Using Evidence-Based Models in State Policy making. Review, 35 (3), 550-563.
Rob P., (2015). The Coordinator-Green/Blue. http://www.robpurfieldinsights.com/eight-types/the-coordinator-greenblue/
Employee satisfaction might be one of the most difficult measures in management to quantify. There are so many ways to judge this factor, from self-evaluation to independent evaluation to more concrete numbers like productivity, which has been linked to job satisfaction.
There is no industry-wide standard for assessing employee satisfaction, and yet it is one of the most important factors in a successful work environment. This paper will explore the influence of an individual's personality and character traits on their job satisfaction; instead of seeing job satisfaction as a result of outside influences, I hypothesize that an employee's individual personality and attitude are important factors in his or her job satisfaction. That is to say, an employee who is otherwise unhappy and gloomy will most likely not be happy in his or her workplace either, and conversely, an employee with a positive outlook and an upbeat personality will be satisfied…
Morrison, Reese, "How In-House Managers Can Profit from Diverse Satisfaction Surveys," Of Counsel, 21:3, 2002.
Bernthal, Paul. "Measurement Gets Strategic," T& D, published by American Society for Training and Development, May 2005.
"Management Communication: Unlocking Higher Employee Performance," Communication World, March-April 2005, pp. 18-22.
Attitude rating scale
For each question, circle one that best matches your perspective:
The state wide educational assessment will improve the levels of education.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment and the goals are well understood by all the teachers within the state.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment meets the dynamic contemporary needs of the students.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment should be made more regular than it is.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know the weakness of the students.
Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
The state wide educational assessment enables the teachers to know their own weaknesses.
i. Definitely agree
ii. Agree iii. Disagree iv. Definitely disagree
Grutter J. & Hammer A.L., (2012). Strong Interest Inventory Profile and Interpretive Report. Retrieved November 4,2014 from https://www.cpp.com/Pdfs/smp284104.pdf
Thorndike, R.M. & Thorndike-Christ, T.M. (2009). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
There are several theoretical approaches that are utilized in explaining personality based on the different traits relating to an individual. These theoretical approaches are divided into two major categories i.e. the five domains and complex models domains. The five domains (psychodynamic, humanistic, behavioral, trait and type, and learning) are approaches that focus on how individual traits are developed and how behavior is formulated. On the other hand, the complex models domains basically focus on how traits could impact an individual's personality. These two categories can be utilized in developing a personality profile of an individual based on interactions with him/her and the information on he/she posts on social media.
TinaShazzy's Personality Profile
The chosen theoretical approach that I will utilize in developing TinaShazzy's personality is the behavioral domain, which suggests that an individual's behavior is a reflection of his/her personality trait since personality is behavior (Phelps, 2015). Additionally,…
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
Personality traits make up the characteristics of the individual. Schmutte and yff (1997) define personality traits as describing, "individual propensities toward stable patterns of behavior and thought, that often are neither inherently good nor inherently bad." Psychologists generally assess five factors of the personality, known as the Big Five personality factors. These five factors include neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There are multiple scales designed to measure such factors. This paper will examine four major instruments used to measure personality, specifically, the Big Five personality traits; the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the Five Factor Personality Inventory developed by Somer, Korkmaz & Tatar in 2002 (Tok, 2011), and the Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue & Kentle, 1991).
Discussion of Topic
When deciding on an instrument to measure personality, a researcher must take into account the scale's validity, reliability and preferred methodology. For this reason,…
Costa, P.T., Jr., & McCrae, R.P. (1992). The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Goldberg, L.R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.
Salami, S. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and Personality, 39(6), 785-794.
Schmutte P, Ryff C. (1997). Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Journal Of Personality & Social Psycholody, 73(3), 549-559.
Personality: Behavior, Thoughts, Motives, and Emotions That Characterize a Person
Personality: a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual.
Psychologists use a variety of tests to determine and study a vast number of personality traits among groups of people. They've found that although everyone exhibits five to ten central traits that determine how we react to different people and various situations, not all traits carry the same weight in their importance in someone's life. (Where you might fear speaking in front of a crowd, for example, I may find it invigorating and fun.) We all have secondary traits, too (food preferences, for example, or how we feel about a style of dress), but these aren't as stable as the central traits. Although secondary traits can change as we mature and grow, central traits generally stick with us our entire lives. The central…
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/persintro.html
Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20170787
Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: https://randallnf.wordpress.com/2014/08/21/cross-cultural-personality-research/
Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/assessment_theories/#.VjZkw1TnUV4
Personality and Motivation
Most scholarship defines personality as some sort of combination of the emotional, behavioral and attitude patterns for an individual. Different theorists ascribe differing ways the personality is acquired, but there are a few agreed upon ways that help us define a person's personality. For instance, there tend to be five major traits that help define human personality: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness. Over time, different ways of focusing on these attributes help make up ways of describing a person (Lucas and Baird, 2004, pp. 473-85).
One way to measure personality types evolved from the work of psychologist Carl Jung. Using psychological preferences of how people perceive their universe and make decisions, Briggs and Myers developed a way to consider types of personalities based on personality preferences that focus on the manner of human values, experiences, needs and motivations. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a…
Lucas, R. And Barid, B. (2004). Extraversion and Emotional Reactivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 86 (1): 473-85.
Quenk, N. (2009). Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Assessments. New York: Wiley.