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Police Codes of Ethics
Virtually all police departments have some kind of formal "Code of Ethics," or guidelines that tell the members of the police force what is and is not acceptable behavior. The people these officers are sworn to serve and protect expect ethical behavior from those officers, and in fact there are times when public or individual safety depends on the officers' determination to act in ethical and honest ways. Meanwhile, we hear horrific stories about police force abuse, including cases where police officers have been caught selling drugs to the incident in New York some years ago where a suspect in custody was terribly abused while in custody.
Of course, the great majority of police officers go to work every day and are routinely prepared to put their lives on the line for others, conduct their professional with dignity and good judgment, and never once commit an…
City of Detroit. DATE. "Detroit Police Department Web." The Official Web Site of the City of Detroit. Accessed via the Internet 2/22/04. http://www.ci.detroit.mi.us/police/police/html/coethic.htm
Denver. 1999 (April). Law Enforccement Code of Ethics. "Operations Manual for the Police Department of the City and County, Denver, Colorad." Accessed via the Internet 2/22/04. http://www.denvergov.org/police/opmanual/introa.pdf
Grundstein-Amado, Rivka. 2001. "A Strategy for Formulation and Implementation of Codes of Ethics in Public Service Organizations." International Journal of Public Administration, 24:5, pp. 461+.
Hunt, Geoffrey, Ph.D., Professor of Ethics, Ersta University College. 1999. "Twenty Things To Think About!" In How to Write A code of Ethics / Conduct. Accessed via the Internet 2/22/04. http://www.freedomtocare.org/page25.htm
Police Organization Operations
The police department is one of the most significant departments in the supervision, maintenance and implementation of the societal order. It is the one that is entrusted with most of the communal maintenance of peace and order through the court orders, the constitution and the police daily routines of community service.
The policing system in the U.S.A. has changed quite significantly from the time immemorial when the work of controlling crime was left to the police alone. At the initial times there was no touch with the community though the community knew that there was a police department in the U.S.A.
In the course of their work, the police were instructed to randomly change routes whenever the inc-charge felt was appropriate to do so. This was aimed at reducing corruption and curbing the frequency of police involvement in drug ring running and cover-ups.
Ironically this idea of…
Braiden & Chris (1992). "Enriching Traditional Police Roles." Police Management: Issues and Perspectives. Police Executive Research Forum. 1992: p.108: Washington, D.C. Retrieved August 31, 2011 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
Cole G. & Smith E., (2006). The American System of Criminal Justice. Wadsworth Publishing;
11th ed. (January 3, 2006).
Iowa City Police (2011). Police Department Organization. Retrieved August 31, 2011 from http://www.icgov.org/default/?id=1322
Public Strategic Finance
When one sees talk or analysis about strategic finance scenarios and tactics, this talk usually centers on private or publicly trade corporations in the private sector as opposed to agencies and power structures in the public sector. While it is certainly worthwhile to extend that focus, there are a lot of public agencies that have to make use of strategic finance tactics as well. Indeed, public finance strategy is probably more complex given that public agencies are often at the mercy of the amount of tax money that does (or does not) come in and the money that is allocated towards their work by the people holding the purse strings. The author of this report shall focus on police agencies in particular because the financing and execution of their work has been something that much more people are focusing on nowadays given the recent surge in violent…
Brittain, L. (2006). City of Toronto's long-term fiscal plan. Government Finance Review, 22(6),
18-24. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Casey, J. P., & Seay, K. T. (2010). The role of the finance officer in strategic planning.
Government Finance Review, 26(6), 28-36. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Proposal for City Police Department (State of Florida)
The objective of this proposal is to establish a Police Department, Macomb Police Department and employ the number of personnel needed to deliver professional and competent police services to the citizens of this city. A determination has been made that there will be 175 sworn officers and 50 civilian or non-sworn officers. Standards of hiring will be established in this proposal with identification of the choice of state police standards meeting or exceeding those already established. Job descriptions in addition to salaries will be included in the proposal.
The proposed Macomb Police Department states its mission as being 'to serve the public through community-based law enforcement practices while reducing crime, promoting safety and improving quality of life through our core values.
Core values stated by the Macomb Police Department include the following
(1) A commitment to…
Call-Takers in Differential Police Response (2006) TELEMASP Bulletin. Vol. 13 No. 1. Jan/Feb 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.lemitonline.org/telemasp/Pdf/volume%2013/vol13no1.pdf
Davie Police Department Business Plan (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.davie-fl.gov/Pages/DavieFL_Admnstratn/strategicplan/Dept_BusnPlan/W2_Police_Plan.pdf
Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action (2011) Ohio Department of Transportation. Retrieved from: http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/EqualOpportunity/Employment%20LawAffirmative%20Action%20Training/EEO_Affirmative%20Action.pdf
Forst, Brian (2000) The Privatization and Civilianization of Policing. Boundary Changes in Criminal Justice Organizations. Retrieved from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_2/02c2.pdf
The mission statement
The XYZ police department is willing to work with the local community to secure and safeguard common populace, avert crime and help people alike.
Services and their description
Community services division
This unit consists of one captain, three lieutenant watch commanders, one watch operations supervisor, eight watch operations specialists, three telephone response specialists, forty security contract employees, one security specialist and two roster employees (Miller, 2011).
Patrol Bureau is headed by the assistant chief of police who works for the chief of police. This Bureau entails four divisions who cover the entire area under the Bureau's jurisdiction (Miller, 2011).
The Patrol Operations Division has one assistant chief of police, five division commanders, eight executive officers, three watch commanders, two police service assistants and one administrative assistant (Miller, 2011).
Patrol Operations Division is spearheaded by a captain who works under the Patrol Bureau Commander. This captain…
Bayley, DH (1994). Police for the future. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hatry, H.P., Blair, L.H, Fisk, D.M., Greiner, J.M., Hall, J.R. Jr., and Schaenman, P.S. (1992). How effective are your community services? Procedures for measuring their quality (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Urban Institute and International City/County Management Association.
Kelling, G.L. (1992). Measuring what matters: A new way of thinking about crime and public order. The City Journal, Spring, 21-33.
Maguire, E.R. (2002). Multiwave Establishment Surveys of Police Organizations. Justice Research and Policy, 4 (Fall Issue): 39-60.
This is as long as such as move would not in any way compromises the safety as well as promptness of a thorough investigation.The verbal as well as written document shall in this case be restricted to the persons responsible for the receiving, responding and investigating the complaint. All complaints that relate to criminal behavior shall be appropriately referred to the relevant law enforcement agency.
The complaint procedure
1. Protest as well as objection to the Harassment
2. Seeking of advice/consultation as well as assistance froma supervisor, department Head, manager, HR Director as well as Employee Assistant Program representative
3. Filing of a written complaint
4. Receiving as well as investigating the complaints
5. Resolution of the complaint-if a complaint is substantiated, then necessary disciplianary or legal actions to be taken is not sustained then the Human resource director should conduct a review as well as assessment with the complaint…
Washington D.C. Police Department
Washington D.C. Metropolitan Police Department
Washington D.C. is the nation's capital, and thus holds a special responsibility in terms of providing the ultimate image of safety and enforcement of American ideals. The Metropolitan Police Department of Washington D.C. is in charge of keeping that esteemed community safe. Today, the department is in the top ten largest police organizations throughout the country (Metropolitan Police Department 2012). Being "founded in 1861, the MPDC of today is on the forefront of technological crime fighting advances, from highly developed advances in evidence analysis to state-of-the-art-information technology" (Metropolitan Police Department 2012). Its organization is typical of local police agencies, having various departments under the control of the Chief of Police; yet, the Metropolitan Police Department also faces its own unique set of challenges and rewards based on the distinct communities within it.
The organizational structure of the department is typical of…
Metropolitan Police Department. (2012). About the MPDC. District of Colombia. Web. http://mpdc.dc.gov/mpdc/cwp/view , a,1230,Q,537757,mpdcNav_GID,1529,mpdcNav,|,.asp
Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Metropolitan Police Department Organizational Structure. District of Colombia. Web. http://mpdc.dc.gov/mpdc/frames.asp?doc=/mpdc/lib/mpdc/about/org/pdf/MPD_main.pdf&group=1529&open=|
Peak, J.K. (2012). Policing America: Challenges and Best Practices. 7th ed. Prentice Hall.
RAND, (2009). Interview with Captain Josh Ederheimer. Police Recruitment and Retention Clearing House. Web. http://www.rand.org/ise/centers/quality_policing/cops/resources/field_experiences/josh_ederheimer.html
Part II crimes that the Uniform Crime eporting Program identifies include an additional of 16 types of crime that range from minimal assault to disorderly conduct to vandalism. Part III crimes, on the other hand, include all the criminal activities that are beyond the scope of part I and part II criminal offences. These statistics show that there is a consistent pattern with the most and the least common offences maintaining the statuses throughout the period. From the statistics, it is apparent that from 2005 to 2008, part I offences are the most common as compared to part II and part III offences. Similarly, part II crimes are more common than part III offences in the years given. Among the part I offences, theft rates highest, throughout the four-year period while homicide has the least number of cases reported throughout the same period. For part II offences, vandalism is the…
Agarwal, S.K., & Transparency International India. (2008). Towards improving governance. New Delhi: Academic Foundation in association with Transparency International India.
Braga, A.A., and Weisburd, D. (2010). Policing problem places: Crime hot spots and effective prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brandon C. W, and David P.F. (2012).Science, politics, and crime prevention: Toward a new crime policy. Journal of Criminal Justice. 40(2), 128-133. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.01.008
Clarke, R.V. (2009). Situational crime prevention: Theoretical background and current practice. Handbook on crime and deviance. New York: Springer, 259 -- 276
The department also received the nationally sought-after recognition of being accredited through the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA) standards. As the 1990s came to a close, Miami experienced a continuing crime rate decline. In 1997, the crime rate dropped by 5%, and in 1998, the drop was another 11% in major crimes, followed by the same percentage decline in 1999. At the same time, the department received large federal grants to support its efforts, in 1997 receiving $19 million in grants, and in 1998, $45 million in grants (History of the MPD, 2007).
Not all assessments were positive, though. Sugarman (1998) writes that the city is a microcosm of cultural diversity but that it is also "plagued by corruption, racism, poverty and drugs" (para. 1) and that this might show what will soon happen to the ret of America. Travel and Leisure magazine deemed the city "the…
Anderson, C. (2005, November 28). Maimi Police Take New Tack Against Terror. Breatbart.com.
Retrieved June 27, 2007 at http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D8E5RPBO5&show_article=1 .
History of the MPD (2007). The City of Miami Police Department. Retrieved June 27, 2007 at http://www.miami-police.org/MIAMIPD/miamipd/history.asp .
Lewis, N. (1992, August). Florida Bias Suit Settled. Black Enterprise, Volume 23, Issue 1, 20.
The COP will be responsible to attend the Police Commission meetings to keep commission members knowledgeable about any issue related to the Department's operations, and to respond to citizens' complaints or concerns. The COP acts on all matters related to disciplinary subjects and endorse awards for model conduct of the Department's sworn and civilian employees. The COP also makes performances to private citizens' community groups, churches, schools, and the business and industrial community to endorse the goals and assignments of the Police Department and to solicit their input in making the City of Silver Springs a safe place in which to live, visit and conduct business.
Bureau of Field Operations
In the performance of their duties, they will be responsible for the following:
1. Officials will act punctually on letters and requests sent by the public (thru e-mail or other means of communication) within five (5) working days for simple…
The 2012 Florida Statutes. (2006, April 23). Retrieved from Online Sunshine: http://www.leg.state.fl.us/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&Search_String=&URL=Ch0372/SEC27.HTM&Title=-%3E2001-%3ECh0372-%3ESection%2027#0372.27
"Annual Estimates of the population for the Incorporated Places of Florida." (2012, September 23). Retrieved from . U.S. Census Bureau: http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-04-12.xls
"Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007." (2012, September 23). Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau.: http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metro_general/2007/CBSA-EST2007-01.xls
"Florida by Place. Population, Housing, Area, and Density: 2000." (2012, september 12). Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau: http://factfinder2.census.gov/legacy/aff_sunset.html?_bm=y&-geo_id=04000US12&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-PH1&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-format=ST-7
Smallville Police Department
As the new chief of the Smallville Police Department, this job will be a great undertaking. As I take office, it is very important to address many of the problems that this city is facing in order to improve the lives of Smallville residents as well as provide a pleasant and safe environment for the individuals that travel into the city for baseball events, other forms of entertainment or simply those that are travelling through on the interstate. Some specific problems that need to be addressed by the police chief's office include the corruption in the city, the force incidents that are facing our police department as well as the high turnover rate of our police force.
Foremost, an issue that the police department faces is that of force incidents. The track record of department having lost three different civil rights and excessive force lawsuits in the…
Center for Domestic Preparedness, Initials. (2010, June 21). Resident training: performance defensiveness. Retrieved from http://cdp.dhs.gov/resident/pd.html .
"Police Community Relations Council." Citizens Information Center. Anne Arundel County, MD, 2008. Web. 29 Apr 2011. .
Watkins, Boyce. "Philly Police beating Stirs Storms of Protest." San Francisco Bay View. San Francisco Bay View, 14 Sep 2010. Web. 28 Apr 2011. .
Metropolitan Police Departments Can Use Traditional Marketing Techniques to Improve Public Relations
The days when people trusted police officers simply because they were police officers are over. In today's society, the image of law enforcement has been damaged by incidents like the taped Rodney King beating, the Rampart corruption scandal, and other incidents of excessive force, racial profiling and corruption.
Even the courage and heroism shown by New York police officers following the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11 has not been enough to change the general negative image of police forces in metropolitan areas. Nationwide, police officers are adapting a traditional marketing approach to policing in an effort to fight this negative image.
Policing Throughout History
Throughout history, as times have changed, it has often become necessary to alter the policies and practices of policing. Policing strategies that worked in the past often do not work in present times. The…
Eck, John E., and William Spelman. "A Problem-Oriented Approach to Police Service Delivery." Police and Policing: Contemporary Issues, ed. Dennis Jay Kenney. New York: Praeger. 1989.
Goldstein, Herman. "Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach." Crime and Delinquency, 1979.
Huang, W.S. Wilson and Michael S. Vaughn. "Support and Confidence: Public Attitudes Toward the Police." Sage, 1996.
Kansas City Police Department. Response Time Analysis: Volume II, Part I-- Crime Analysis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1989.
SPURSBERRY POLICE DEPARTMENT: Vice Squad Division
The award-winning Spursberry Police Department consists of a team of 45 licensed officers properly trained and prepared to enforce all laws and investigate all crimes. The Spursberry Vice Squad improves service to the community by focusing exclusively on crimes related to prostitution, gambling, and drugs.
The Spursberry Police Department is dedicated to enforcing all local, state, and federal laws and ordinances with the utmost efficiency and integrity. Through our commitment to the community, the Spursberry Police Department will reduce crime rates and quickly and effectively prosecute all offenders through the county and state judiciary system. With an eye on optimal efficiency and effectiveness, the vice squad is highly specialized, divided into specific units targeting certain criminal behaviors. Our specific units function as follows:
Administrative duties of the Sprusberry Police Department Vice Squad include processing all reports and complaints in…
Similiarities of Local State
Police Department Organization Paper
he Differences and Similarities of Local State, and Federal Police Agencies
Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the implementation of our nation's laws has gotten an pivotal proportion of notice. Some people who say, contend that the federal government does not have sufficient resources to enforce certain laws of the land and that state and local law enforcement units should be exploited even more. here were quite a number of proposals introduced over the years that claim that our country should strengthen the role of state and local officials in the enforcement of laws to protect our nation. his proposed amendment has prompted many to examine what role and differentiation and similarities that federal, state and local law enforcement agencies should have in the enforcement of laws in our nation, if any.
he Differences and Similarities of Local State, and Federal…
The majority of all states operate statewide government agencies that provide law enforcement obligations, which include investigations and land patrols. They are usually called State Police, State Patrol or Highway Patrol, and are usually part of the state Department of Public Safety. In the calculation, the Attorney General's office of each state has their own state offices of investigation. In Texas, the Texas Ranger Division satisfies this place though they have their explanation in the era before Texas had even become a state. Numerous departments of State Governments can have their own enforcement division such as what are called the capitol police, Campus Police, State Hospitals, Departments of Correction, Water police, environmental Game Wardens or Conservation Officers (who have the whole police powers and statewide dominion). In Colorado, for example, the Department of Revenue has its own investigative division, as do a lot of the government subsidized universities.
Local Police Agency
Police departments are handled by the separate governments of the jurisdictions who pay them. The Police chief is paid by the local Mayor, city manager, or city council. The Chief of a local police department gives an answer to whoever employed them and can be exposed to a guaranteed level of political power chosen to them by the mayor, city manager, or city council (Stephens, G, 2003). A lot of cities do not have a local Police department or even have an extremely small police department in this situation. The county Sheriff's subdivision would be the department accountable to the subdivision (Linkins, 2007). The local law enforcement role comprises traffic assignment, patrol work, offering broad general assistance, and
Patrol and Policing
Within the police department there are numerous divisions which are responsible for different police functions. Among these divisions are directed patrol and proactive policing. Proactive policing involves police working in groups from outside the police department so as to respond to an issue that is emerging as opposed to responding after a crime has already taken place. This is the theory and practice of the employing of criminals before they actually commit a crime and through this there is prevention of the crime from taking place in the first place. It involves the use of statistics and mapping so as to maximize the patrol efforts that will ensure the community is a safe place. The police are organized in decentralized way such that every police officer has a neighborhood patrol that has its own objectives and goals to deal with. The police officers should therefore feel as…
Cliff notes. (2012). Police Strategies. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Police-Strategies.topicArticleId-10065,articleId-9953.html
Department of Justice. (2012).Policing styles: Reactive vs. proactive policing. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/pi/yj-jj/res-rech/discre/org/styles.html
Sullum, J. (2013).When proactive policing becomes harassment. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://reason.com/archives/2013/03/27/when-proactive-policing-becomes-harassme
Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy
Every police officer is mandated to abide by an ethical code so as to ensure the execution of effective and proper services and provide for the safety of citizens as a whole. It is a mandate for all officers of the law to be fully cognizant of the ethical duties and accountabilities that are linked to their work positions. In addition, each and every police officer must at all times endeavor to match and achieve the highest conceivable standards of professional policing. These values and philosophies are intended to serve as a reminder and guide for police officers in how they implement their duties and responsibilities. In addition, such philosophies and values serve not only as regulatory and guiding passages, but also serve as a way of counseling. Ethics are an important aspect of policing, particularly where differentiation between legal and illegal is vital…
Davis, M. (1991). Do cops really need a code of ethics?. Criminal Justice Ethics, 10(2), 14-28.
DeShon, R. W. (2000). Police Officers Oath Of Office And Code Of Ethics A Question Of Knowledge. Retrieved August, 20, 2011.
Kaptein, M., & Van Reenen, P. (2001). Integrity management of police organizations. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 24(3), 281-300.
Stat. § 347.22 on the grounds that this plain meaning would create an absurd result. Therefore, while the Appellate Court finding that applying the dog-biting statute to police dogs would lead to absurd outcomes, on the grounds that they are statutory authorized to use reasonable force, the Supreme Court found this reasoning unpersuasive for the following two reasons.
First, disregarding the dog-biting statute's plain language would be improper since the clear language, and it's expansive scope permits it to be reconciled with any conflicts that might arise with the "reasonable force" statute. In considering the relevant guideline for statutory construction for reconciling provisions, they found that since the dog-biting statute is a general provision of law and the reasonable force statute is a special provision within the same law, "the special and subsequently enacted provisions of the reasonable force statute prevails.
Second, application of the reasonable force statute is a…
Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) and the Chicano movement 1968-1971 by Edward J. Escobar put into perspective the relationship between the law enforcement agency and the Chicano movement. he article investigates the genesis of the movement in the United States of America in 1940. he author explains that the movement existed to solve the issue that affected Mexican-Americans. he article further reviews conflicts with the LAPD and the issues that led to prominence of the movement. he conflict began with the group's mass action against various acts of discrimination on the members of the Mexican community and it viewed the LAPD as the face of their aggressor. he author states that these conflict that was occasioned by numerous bouts of violence helped Americans develop a new political consciousness and were synonymous with the word Chicanos, which emanated from the concept of Chicanismo (the groups citizenship). he article points at August…
Edward J. Escobar conducted several interviews with some of the surviving members of the Chicano group who lived through the experience during the period of 1970s. This was his most valid source of primary data as this information was given on a first hand basis. The featuring interviews included one with Diego vigil on January 6, 1988 followed by Raul Ruiz on January 8, 1988, on January 15, 1988 with Rosalio Munoz who led the August 29, 1970 historic demonstration and Celia Luna on January 18, 1988. Escobar in his research included secondary sources highlighting events that were relevant to the movement relating to that period. Some of these literatures include; archival articles such as the Los Angeles times of August 30, 1970. He also sort literature form Chicano historian Rodolfo Acuna's Occupied America: a history of Chicanos, Activists books such as Juan Gomez Quinines's Chicanos politics: reality and promise. In addition to American-Mexican Frontier books such as San Miguel's let all of them take heed, Congress publication such as U.S. Commission of Civil Rights Mexican-Americans and Administration of Justice in the South western's report among other literature.
It is evident that the article articulates the events and the occurrences in a sequence that is supported by the research interview as well as the secondary documents.
Revised Sexual Harassment Policy for the Police Department
The purpose of this policy is to establish guidelines and procedures for this Police Department regarding prevention of sexual harassment and processes for filing a complaint and investigations regarding alleged sexual harassment.
This Police Department seeks to create a safe, suitable, and comfortable working environment for all its employees. The Department has a zero-tolerance policy on sexual harassment and prohibits any form of sexual harassment among its workers. Based on the zero-tolerance policy, violation of the policy would result in disciplinary actions including prosecution and termination from employment. Employees are free to make complaints of any sexual harassment incidents without fear of victimization while their confidentiality will be maintained as much as possible. The Department shall not retaliate against its employees for filing such complaints or for cooperation during investigations of sexual harassment complaints.
Guidelines and Considerations
The Police Department…
Bachman, E. (2017, March 23). What is “Quid Pro Quo” Sexual Harassment? Retrieved August 2, 2017, from https://www.glassceilingdiscriminationlawyer.com/quid-pro-quo-sexual-harassment/
Dolovich, S. (2012). Two models of the prison: Accidental humanity & hypermasculinity in the L.A. County Jail. Journal Of Criminal Law & Criminology, 102(4), 965-1117.
Harawa, N. T., Sweat, J., George, S., & Sylla, M. (2010). Sex and Condom Use in a Large Jail Unit for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Male-to-Female Transgenders. Journal Of Health Care For The Poor And Underserved, (3), 1071.
Lonsway, K.A., Paynich, R. & Hall, J.N. (2013, February 15). Sexual Harassment in Law Enforcement: Incidence, Impact, and Perception. Police Quarterly, 16(2), 177-210.
Matricardi, D. (2016). Binary Imprisonment: Transgender Inmates Ensnared within the System and Confined to Assigned Gender +. Mercer Law Review, 67707.
Mann, R. (2006). The Treatment of Transgender Prisoners, Not Just an American Problem - A Comparative Analysis of American, Australian, and Canadian Prison Policies Concerning the Treatment of Transgender Prisoners and a \\'Universal\\' Recommendation To Improve
Treatment. Law & Sexuality: A Review Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Legal Issues, 1591.
McCoy, M.J. (2004, June 15). Orlando, Florida Police Department Policy and Procedure 1608.0. Retrieved August 2, 2017, from http://www.aele.org/law/2009all09/orlando.pdf
Code of Conduct and Ethics Policies for Police
A new culture of ethics and good police conduct needs to be adopted by the Tidewater Police Department. It is outrageous -- and a classic example of bad management and poor oversight -- that four police officers have had civil cases filed against them for misconduct in a year's time. These cases are not just bad public relations for the department; in a time when the media has been showing many apparently unjustified shootings of unarmed citizens by police, these civil suits play into the hands of people who are launching vicious verbal attacks against all law enforcement in the public arena. As the new chief of this department, I will do a thorough investigation and evaluation of all officers and detectives to determine if we need to do re-training, house-cleaning, or a combination of both.
The U.S. Department of Justice on…
Milwaukee County Sheriff. (2010). Law Enforcement Code of Conduct. Retrieved September 21, 2015, from http://county.milwaukee.gov .
U.S. Department of Justice (2011). Creating a Culture of Integrity. Retrieved September 21,
2015, from http://www.justice.gov.
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Ethics Pledge, Executive Order 13490. Retrieved
Los Angeles Police Department is one of the city agencies that reaches across the southland and touches the lives of all citizens. Over the course of the 20th century, the LAPD has often become a symbol of racial and class politics in the city. Do you think this is a useful way of thinking about the LAPD? What events in the history of Los Angeles might you use the LAPD to explain? What other agencies or forces in the city might complement the LAPD or offer and alternative way of thinking about the city?
I think it is useful to discuss the LAPD as a symbol of racial and class politics, but that it should also be discussed in terms of power structures within the city, as the police in Los Angeles have evolved with the city, especially under Bill Parker, who clashed with the mob and men like Mickey…
The impact of Body Worn Cameras on public safety
The police department across the US, and indeed across the globe has, over the decades, been seen as one of the central and most important departments or agencies in the maintenance of law and order internally in the respective nations. They are charged with the sole mandate of ensuring that the wide ranging laws, from laws on petty theft to traffic offence and to more serious crimes like murder and assault, are followed to the letter and tranquility, law and order is maintained. It is due to this enormous and central role of the police in every country that pushes all governments to continually improve the police force in terms of equipping them for their duty. In the USA, the police department in every state has been seen to undergo significant changes in all sectors of their operations as decades go…
Ariel B., Farrar W.A & Sutherland A. (2015). The Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use
of Force and Citizens’ Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Quaint Criminol. Springer Science & Business Media. New York.
Halac Y, (2016). Body Worn Video: Looking Beyong the Device. Security Technology Executive.
Headley A.M, Guerette R.T & Shariati A., (2017). A field experiment of the impact of body-worn cameras (BWCs) on police officer behavior and perceptions. Journal of Criminal Justice 53. Elsvier.
Jennings W.G., Lynch M.D & Fridell L.A,(2015). Evaluating the impact of police officer body-worn cameras (BWCs) on response-to-resistance and serious external complaints: Evidence from the Orlando police department (OPD) experience utilizing a randomized controlled experiment. Journal of Criminal Justice 43.
Young J.T & Ready J.T (2015). The impact of on-officer video cameras on police–citizen
contacts: findings from a controlled experiment in Mesa, AZ. Journal Exp Criminol Springer Sciences and Business Media. Dordrecth
White M.D, Gaub J.E and Natalie T. (2017). Exploring the Potential for Body-Worn Cameras to Reduce Violence in Police–Citizen Encounters. Retrieved April 21, 2018 from https://www.bja.gov/bwc/pdfs/2017-Policing-Spokane-Force-and-Complaints.pdf
Recent fatal attacks by police against unarmed citizens -- in particular African-American males -- have been portrayed as insensitive, illegal, and unnecessary violence by cable news programs over the past few years. And those televised reports (shown over and over) have caused angry citizens to participate in large demonstrations in American city streets. Fairly or unfairly, these incidents have caused citizens to turn against police departments -- albeit most police departments do not train their officers to shoot unarmed suspects. Because everyone with a smart phone can take video of police actions, and share videos with news organizations, this has become a negative for law enforcement. In response to these incidents, some police departments are offering rewards to officers that show restraint in the line of duty. This paper presents examples of those strategies by police departments.
The Philadelphia & Los Angeles Police Departments
In Philadelphia, the police department rewards…
Other ranks have their areas of responsibility and control covering a geographic area, a detective division, or a specialized division (Sworn Police Officer Class Titles and Job Descriptions, 2006).
The internal structure of the two departments is not that different, while the areas covered and the number of officers in each department varies greatly. The LAPD covers more territory and does so with a smaller force, also relying more on the patrol car than the officer on a beat than is true in London (or in many other American cities, for that matter). The LAPD has also been characterized as a more paramilitary organization than many police departments, and this would mean more than the Metropolitan Police as well. Of course, another major difference generally known is that the police in London do not carry guns as a rule (except under special circumstances), while the Los Angeles police do carry…
Making the LAPD a Model for Training Police Officers in the 21st Century (2003). RAND Research Brief, retrieved November 19, 2006 at http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB6015/index1.html .
Structure of Policing in London (2006). Metropolitan Police, retrieved November 19, 2006 at http://www.met.police.uk/about/organisation.htm .
Sworn Police Officer Class Titles and Job Descriptions (2006). The Los Angeles Police Department, retrieved November 19, 2006 at http://www.lapdonline.org/join_the_team/content_basic_view/9127 .
In the wake of numerous public complaints as well as allegations within the last two years that point towards excessive use of force by police officers in the apprehension of suspects within the city, there is need to develop a brief that explores the various measures that could be adopted in seeking to enhance our officers’ relations with the community while at the same time attempting to minimize instances of unnecessary aggression and use of force. In essence, in seeking to effect arrests, officers should utilize force that is not only commensurate with the risk posed, but also objectively reasonable. The relevance of formulating blueprints and implementing strategies meant to address the use of force as well as promote or advance the de-escalation of scenarios that turn violent cannot be overstated. In seeking to comprehensively address the issue raised by members of the public regarding the use of force…
City Police Department
Police departments are professional organizations comprised of men and women who are empowered by society to serve as the guardians of society's well being. Organizations of professionals are characterized by extensive and continuing professional training, shared and understanding of and commitment to the values of the profession, and the desire to improve their communities. This paper discusses a city police department that has demonstrated great success over the years -- the New York City Police Department (NYPD).
Founded in 1845, the NYPD is the biggest municipal police force in the world, the oldest in the United States, and the model on which the other city departments have patterned themselves (Larder and Reppetto, 2000). From a population of about 33,000 in 1790, New York City rapidly became a city of nearly 400,000 by 1845. The old constable system, which had policed New York since the days of the…
Kelling, G. (Autumn, 1995). How to Run a Police Department. City Journal, Vol. 5, No. 4.
Lardner, James and Thomas Reppetto. (2000). NYPD: A City and Its Police. New York: Henry Holt.
Livingston, Debra. 1997. "Police Discretion and the Quality of Life in Public Places: Courts, Communities, and the New Policing." Columbia Law Review. 97-3, p. 551-672. April.
New York City Police Department (NYPD). (2004). Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.ci.nyc.ny.us/html/nypd/home.html.
The Magna Charta is apparently responsible for limiting the power of sheriffs in England, meant to lessen the number of abuse cases involving a sheriff physically harming royal subjects with the purpose of collecting taxes. If the colonists had not taken it in the U.S. In the seventeenth century it is likely that the sheriff profession would have ended in England.
hile sheriffs in England were perceived as merciless lawmen willing to apply any measure in order to be in agreement with the king's requirements, those in the U.S. were seen as noble men who risked their lives in order to protect the law. U.S. citizens appeared to be supportive regarding the sheriffs in their jurisdiction. Thomas Jefferson was particularly interested in supporting sheriffs in their endeavor to perform their duties, as his book, "The value of Constitutions" states that "there is no honorable law enforcement authority in Anglo-American law…
1. Arado, Matt, "Sheriff Investigating Death of Epileptic Restrained by Police," Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 24 Feb. 2000: 4.
2. Glenn, Russell W. Panitch, Barbara R. Dionne Barnes-Proby, Williams, Elizabeth Christian, John Lewis Matthew W. Gerwehr, Scott and Brannan, David W. Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2003).
3. "HISTORY OF THE SHERIFF," Retrieved September 13, 2010, from the Camden County Website: http://www.camdencounty.com/sheriff/History%20Of%20The%20Sheriff.htm
Frequently, veteran officers with no formal authority over other officers in the field teach new officers the "way we do things" and to "forget what you learned in the academy."
The phenomenon is pervasive enough that even the most dedicated and professional police supervisors and administrators have to work continually to promote high ethical standards. However, where police supervisors and administrators condone fundamental ethical and legal violations by police officers, the most likely outcome is a completely compromised police organization (eese, 2000). All the other factors contributed but the involvement of supervisors and administrators was the most significant cause of the ampart scandal.
Delattre, E. (2006). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington, DC:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy esearch.
eese, . "The ise and Fall of a Public Leader: The Case of Willie Williams and the LAPD" Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Vol. 6 No.1;…
Delattre, E. (2006). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington, DC:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
Reese, R. "The Rise and Fall of a Public Leader: The Case of Willie Williams and the LAPD" Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Vol. 6 No.1; 2000.
Williams, G. "Incubating Monsters? Prosecutorial Responsibility for the Rampart
Paramilitary Model of Modern PoliceThe paramilitary model of policing incorporates a kind of military-grade level of discipline into the ranks of the police so that they maintain better use of force at all times. The goal of this model is to help the officer be a more disciplined public servant who is self-possessed but fully equipped to restore order at times when public disturbances threaten to turn chaotic or violent (Potter, 2013). While the paramilitary model of policing certainly has its benefits, I believe that it also has some limitations, especially when it comes to the differences between police work and military work. It should be remembered soldiers are tasked with engaging an enemy while the police are tasked with serving and protecting the public. The militarization of the police can give communities the wrong impression that their communities are actually being occupied by a militarized police force rather than…
ReferencesCruickshank, D. (2013). Evaluating the paramilitary structure and morale. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/articles/perspective/perspective-evaluating-the-paramilitary-structure-and-morale Friedersdorf, C. (2017). Footage of police shooting that jurors chose not to punish. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/12/footage-of-a-police-killing-that-jurors-didnt-punish/547868/ Greene, J. R. (2000). Community policing in America: Changing the nature, structure, and function of the police.Criminal justice,3(3), 299-370.Potter, G. (2013). The organization of policing. Retrieved from http://plsonline.eku.edu/insidelook/organization-policing
Executive Summary: Annual Marketing Plan
The annual marketing plan for the local law enforcement organization Ft. Mitchell Police Department is based on the budget of the department, which is financed by the public: state, local and federal taxes as well as bonds all go into financing the budget of the Ft. Mitchell PD. The budget is used to pay officers’ salaries, pensions, equipment, and so on. It is also used to fund the annual marketing plan of the department.
The Ft. Mitchell PD is in need of re-branding itself following a local scandal involving some of its officers what has been deemed by local community leaders and city council as a needlessly escalated conflict between police and minority members of the community. The department has set about developing a number of marketing approaches for its annual plan to help strengthen its image in the community and highlight…
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…
Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.
Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.
Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.
Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
Police Systems and Practices Question Set
Discuss how temperament can impair communication?
The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.
Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.
A police officer's locker room is like any other…
(Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) Police forces became the fodder for systematic research on the need for and development of improved minority representation in public service as well as a frequently attached public entity with regard to minority status in the community. (Frederickson, 2000, p. 3) As early as the 1960s and 70s police forces all over the nation began to be scrutinized for limiting their hiring pool to white males and began to make changes to support the reduction of this reality. (Broadnax, 2000, p. xx)
The development of police forces within the guidelines of public scrutiny as one of the most significant and public hiring authorities in the public sector has created a hiring protocol that though variant to some degree is similar in most agencies and is reflective of public demand for diversity in representation. Many would likely call the last frontier of this more egalitarian hiring process…
Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.). (2000). Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Frederickson, H.G. (2000). Part One Representative Bureaucracy and Equal Employment Opportunity. In Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service, Broadnax, W.D. (Ed.) (pp. 1-4). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Hahn, H., & Jeffries, J.L. (2003). Urban America and Its Police: From the Postcolonial Era through the Turbulent 1960s. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
Kogut, C.A., & Short, L.E. (2007). Affirmative Action in Federal Employment: Good Intentions Run Amuck?. Public Personnel Management, 36(3), 197.
Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…
1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey
3) James O'Keefe. (2004) Protecting the Republic: The education and training of American police officers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Police Information Systems
In the scenario where your Uncle Bob is visiting Miami Florida from California and is pulled over for speeding, and after some discussion with the officer, Uncle Bob is handcuffed and taken into custody, it is likely that the officer on the scene has had contact with their local police department. This contact could have taken place through two way radio over police frequencies, but as more police departments come to rely on computers and Miami is a first rate department with adequate resources, it was probably done through the officer's "mobile office." This would include a dash-mounted laptop computer, called a mobile data computer (MDC), with access to the department's database and certain other information such as "drivers license, local, state, and national wanted persons databases and databases concerning stolen vehicles." (Foster, 2005, p.168)
Through the mobile data computer, and it is important to realize that…
Foster, R.E.. (2005). Police Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Print.
The Functions of Policing at the Local, State and Federal Levels
The functions of police work are highly complex and filled with myriad unpredictable challenges. Officers must place their safety and their lives at risk every day in the interests of maintaining order, protecting the pubic and apprehending law-breakers. The result is an occupation that is filled with stressors, pressures and dangers. One way that the structure of modern police-work helps officers to contend with these conditions is through the division of jurisdictions. American law enforcement is a sector comprised of many interdependent and overlapping agencies. And correspondent to the broader structure of American governance, this overlapping is somewhat hierarchical in nature, with jurisdictions generally determined by the unit of civil incorporation with which a precinct or department is affiliated. Therefore, at the local, state and federal level, responsibilities are generally divided among these different types of policing…
Gaines, L.K. & Kappeler, V.E. (2011). Policing in America. Elsevier.
Kappeler, V.E. & Gaines, L.K. (2009). Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. Elsevier.
Wright, A. (2002). Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practices. Taylor & Francis U.S..
Hidden Dangers, Real Weapons, and Potential Technologies
Police officers are, undoubtedly, society's primary protectors. These individuals undertake assignments knowing that they could be placed in lethal danger, and do so in order to help complete strangers and keep a community safe. For this reason, police officers ought to be very much admired. Despite the personal and professional satisfaction that comes with being a great police officer, these individuals are also well aware that, as mentioned above, there are various aspects affecting their daily professional routines, many of which are not present in other careers, and many of which involve great risks. Yet despite knowing this, many police officers absolutely love their job. The paragraphs below will thus discuss policing operations in detail in order to better understand this particular and very important field of work. The essay will be separated into five sections focusing on the dangers of…
Shreeve, J.L. (2012). CSI Foils Felons. Police Technology. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Scheider, M. & Chapman, R. (2003). Community Policing and Terrorism. Homeland Security Wesite. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Simon, S. (2011). Former LAPD Chief Bill Bratton Predicts the Future of Policing. National Public Radio (NPR.com). Retrieved January 14, 2012, from .
Police Report on a Missing Girl
Amber Hall was reported missing yesterday at 16.00 at her grandfather's yard which is located at 976 Grand Avenue. According Mr. Pinckney, Amber Hall was at her grandfather's backyard playing when they went inside to start having their dinner and to answer a phone call which took them less than 5 minutes.
However, when they returned to the outside yard, they noticed Amber was missing. The police arrived at the scene at 18.27 and started searching the area, and at 20.00 the police begun to invite other people to come and help them in carrying out the search. Amber Hall is a 1st grade student at Hawthorne Elementary, a daughter of Marci Hall of 34 Magee CT and a friend to Terese Pinckney.
According to her grandparents, the girl usually likes playing with woods and sometimes she would accompany them inside the wood, especially…
Policing Services and Programs:
Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…
Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,
Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt
Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing
Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
Likely, there will never be a police department with a completely paper-less information system (Police report writing, 2011). Until then, the basics of report writing will remain the same and is the bread and butter of law enforcement.
Incident Data and Burglary Data
Time the police officer received the call- 1537 hrs.
Address of the burglary -- 2914 E. Indiana, Spokane, ashington 99207
Call sign of the police car -- Paul 302
Erynne M. Vodde
Name of victim -- Erynne M. Vodde
Date of Birth -- 5-31-77
Home Phone [HIDDEN]
Place of ork- Sacred Heart Medical Center -- Pediatrics
ork #- 474-5110
Missing Items -- Cell phone, change jar with around $15 in it (both of them were on top of the dresser in the bedroom next to the bathroom where the window was). There was also some Bud Light Beer Bottles missing…
Moss, M. (2011). How to write a police report. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_4441251_write-police-report.html>
Police report writing. (2011). Retrieved from ttp://www.careerpoliceofficer.com/PoliceandVictims/police_report_writing.html>
Even landscape plantings and pavement designs can "develop a sense of territorial control while potential offenders, perceiving this control, are discouraged" (Otterstatter 2008).
A well-maintained area can create a sense that the potential criminal is being 'watched' and that the property is not friendly to criminal activity. Visible monitoring devices, such as 'blue lights' on college campuses, which enable people who are assaulted to quickly summon the police, and the presence of electronic visual monitoring devices in open areas and in public places such as shopping malls can also decrease crime. Even if officers can not be present at every lonely corner, or even if these devices cannot be monitored 24/7, the visual reminder that some form of watchfulness is likely can be a criminal deterrent. So can what CPTED criminologists call "natural access control," or "a design concept directed primarily at decreasing crime opportunity by denying access to crime…
O'Connor, T. (7 Aug 2007). "Informants, surveillance, and undercover operations."
MegaLinks in Criminal Justice. Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/3220/3220lect02c.htm
Otterstatter, Robert (6 Jun 2008). "CPTED Crime Prevention." CPTED Watch
Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.cpted-watch.com
Because of the type of individuals police officers in mid-to large cities often deal with, they can engender a mind-set of violence and abuse of power. Certainly, the military approach is efficient; the command style authoritarian so it can get quicker results. However, in going with more modern leadership approaches, the servant leadership, or service style might be more appropriate in many areas. This would stress community service; keeping areas safe, but referring as many problems as possible to social agencies, trying for education and partnership, and working to improve society through a more egalitarian approach in which police are integral to the community's entire philosophy.
Part 4 -- Design for an effective police department would entirely depend on the size and composition of the area affected. For instance, large urban area with a concentrated inner-city would require a different organization than a smaller community of 30,000 people. Hypothetically, if…
Patrol Staffing and Development Study. (n.d.) International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from: http://www.theiacp.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=AKL78d4MBw8%3 D&tabid=252
Hesser, L. (2010). Police Chief's Desk Reference. International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved from: http://www.olemiss.edu/ciss/Academics/Research/Police_Chiefs_ Desk_Reference/pdf/4%20org%20strategy%20guide.pdf
Church, J. (April 2007). Non-Sworn Positions in Law Enforcement. Officer.com. Retrieved from: http://www.officer.com/article/10249940/non-sworn-positions-in-law-enforcement
Earle, J. (June 2012). Police Say No Magic When Calculating Staffing Levels. Reporter Newspapers. Retrieved from: http://www.*****/2012/06/28/police-say-theres-no-magic-when-calculating-staffing-levels/
The American system of criminal justice and investigations stem from English common law and practice, which advised colonial governments and gave rise to subsequent systems in the United States. In fact, the standing police force that most Americans take for granted did not always exist. Early Americans, like the English before them, were averse to the concept of a government-sponsored standing police force that could at any time be authorized to strip citizens of their rights and liberties. The current method of law enforcement, from apprehension to pre-trial investigations, also owes its roots to the English.
The first professional, paid American police forces started in the early seventeenth centuries: first in Boston in 1631 and about fifteen years later in New Amsterdam. Known initially as watchmen and later as constables, the officers did not enjoy the same level of responsibility or the same role in society as modern…
Engel, R.S. (2011)Police: History - Early Policing In England, The Beginning Of "modern" Policing In England, Early Policing In Colonial America." Retrieved online: http://law.jrank.org/pages/1647/Police-History.html
"Early Police in the United States." Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/467289/police/36619/Early-police-in-the-United-States
"History of Law Enforcement," (n.d.). Infosheet retrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:q1n8bE8PqeYJ:teachers2.wcs.edu/high/rhs/maryc1/Criminal%2520Justice%2520I/History%2520of%2520Law%2520Enforcement%2520Info%2520Sheet.doc+law+enforcement+history+united+states&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjKuxGm5bbh8GjrtJ5yn4AHn2bIiIWlGBAWSGHopoH9f51uVsygxxkwB5I83si1CkPS_E4Ry83mW7oZ6hQqbjOlD6NYV1qH3lXjh3-T_vu58Mk4_-H6k2V9qchHrfRrO_hH5Nn2&sig=AHIEtbQPG0dtcbkFj_Q-1gi8wj6BmauLrg
Kelly, M. (n.d.). A brief history of the Pinkertons. About.com. Retrieved online: http://americanhistory.about.com/od/19thcentur1/a/allan_pinkerton.htm
Describe the impact of Sir obert Peel on American policing
Sir obert Peel was not an American police officer, or an American politician. He served twice as the Prime Minister of Britain as a Tory, passing a series of significant laws. Part of Peel's concern was in the field of criminal justice and law enforcement. He helped pass major prison reform legislation and also established the first significant metropolitan police force in the United Kingdom. In transforming British police organizations and law enforcement, Peel helped to lay the foundation for the modern American police force and its underlying philosophy.
Peel developed a law enforcement philosophy that was based on involving community residents in the process of crime prevention. The modern concept of community policing is in part based on Sir Peel's original "nine principles," which were outlined in the 19th century. The first of Peel's nine principles is that…
Larrabee, A.K. (2007). Law enforcement: Sir Robert Peel's concept of community policing in today's society. Yahoo! Nov 8, 2007. Retrieved online: http://voices.yahoo.com/law-enforcement-sir-robert-peels-concept-community-638595.html
New Westminster Police Service (n.d.). Sir Robert Peel's Nine Principles. Retrieved onine: http://www.newwestpolice.org/peel.html
Sabath, D.O. (n.d.). The evolution of American policing. Retrieved online: http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.
The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…
NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm
Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html
James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at, http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html
City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html
Organized management is an essential component in any workforce environment and leads to an organizations success. Police managers are an important part of the department, they provide guidance, planning and help control personnel resources. In order for an individual to provide proper management honesty and integrity are an important aspect in running a department.
A police manager is there to provide guidance to other officers who look for that sense of knowledge and this must be done in an ethical way. Ethical mentoring is an important part of this field, essentially putting others before oneself in time of need. A police manager can help guide his or her employees to a goal they desire and help them accomplish an important step in their career. On the other hand if a police manager is not willing to provide the proper guidance, this can be detrimental to the department. Essentially…
Police Management Services - support for Police Departments. (n.d.). Police Policies
and Procedure Development, Police Policy Manuals - Police Management Services. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www.policemanagement.com / aboutus.html
The Role of Integrity, Honesty and Values in the Organization. (n.d.). Cornelius & Associates.
Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www.corneliusassoc.com/CA/new/impact/
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…
Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New
York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0
Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:
Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
A relationship does exist between control and motivation in a police force. Generally police officers are used to working under a fairly individual and self structured environment. Thus when new order is established it is often the source of conflict. In any environment the tendency of personnel is to close up and become less motivated the more control they perceive is being forced over them. A more authoritarian environment such as that under Captain Frebe often breeds resentment rather than discipline and a loyal workforce. It is important however that a chief working in this environment maintain some level of control over employees to maintain order.
How does a unit create balance? Anderson (1999) suggests that managers of a police department should try to distinguish themselves by maintaining an equal amount of concern for the needs of officers as well as the needs of a department.
Anderson, D. (1999). "Policing the police." The American Prospect, January. 49.
Kurke, M.I. & Schrivner, E.M. (1995). "Police psychology into the 21st century." Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
However, another frequently unseen instigator in negative behavioral tendencies amongst officers is the incapacity to properly assimilate the stresses of the occupation. Indeed, a 2004 study, published by the Canadian Police College, outlines the conditions which tend most to provoke police extortion, embezzlement or other such malfeasant behaviors. Amongst its findings, the account asserts that, of those surveyed in its sample population, "officers who experienced frequent operational stress were more accepting of financial corruption." (Sunahara, 2) for some, the study elaborates, the heavy burden of anxiety, fear, discontent or nihilism which can be the reality of police work may inspire the rationalization of this misappropriation.
The compensatory dissociation from the realities of law, order and ethical responsibility can, in such cases, be the cause of gross deviation from policy and procedure. Both within the insular social structure of a police department and in the employ of a responsibility which is…
Kurke, M.I. (1995). Police Psychology into the 21st Century. Hillsdale, New Jersey
Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
O'Connor, Dr. T. (2001). Police Psychology. Forensic Psychology.
Stearns, G.M. & Moore, R.J. (1993). The Physical and Psychological
Police: History, Structure, and Functions
The policing system's development in Britain was closely followed by a similar development in America. Policing by the initial colonizers assumed two forms: "The Big Stick" (for-profit, private agency policing) and the "Watch" (communal as well as informal) (Spitzer, 1979). Community volunteers primarily charged with warning citizens of imminent danger made up the latter system. The night watch was first implemented in the year 1636 in Boston. New York and Philadelphia implemented night watch system in the years 1658 and 1700, respectively. This system did not prove particularly successful in controlling crime. Supplementing the "watch" mode of policing was a group of official law enforcers, labeled "constables," who were often salaried by a fee system, based on number of warrants served by them. Policing's informal procedure continued for several years following the 1765-83 American evolution. Only in the 1830s did the U.S. first introduce a…
Davis, Rowenna. (2009). Policing the police, The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/libertycentral/2009/feb/28/convention-modern-liberty-police on October 5, 2016.
Lewis, M.A. (2011). "Perspective: Peel's Legacy," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. The FBI. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2011/december/perspective-peels-legacy on October 5, 2016.
Lundman, Robert J. (1980). Police and Policing: An Introduction, New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Spitzer, Stephen, (1979). The Rationalization of Crime Control in Capitalist Society, Contemporary Crises 3, no. 1.
Police Mentally Ill
Policing and Mentally Ill Individuals
There is a significantly higher proportion of mentally ill individuals in the criminal justice system than compared to the same proportion of the United States in the society in general. It is estimated that a mentally ill individual is about eight times more likely to enter into the criminal justice system than they are a mental hospital. These individuals, as the video and the interview illustrates, have special challenges that make them difficult to deal with. Often they hear voices and are paranoid schizophrenics that require a host of special medications to allow them the possibility of being stable. However, many of these individuals face specific challenges that make it difficult for them to access and maintain an effective treatment regimen. This paper will provide a brief overview of how this situation arose and what implications it has for modern police forces.…
CIT International. (N.d.). Mephis Model. Retrieved from CIT International: http://www.citinternational.org/training-overview/163-memphis-model.html
Conan, N. (2012, April 2). A Patient's Perspective: Police and the Mentally Ill. Retrieved from NPR: http://www.npr.org/2012/04/02/149857042/a-patients-perspective-police-and-the-mentally-ill
PBS. (2009, April 28). The Released. Retrieved from Frontline: http://video.pbs.org/video/1114528522/
Torrey, E.E., Geller, J., Stanley, J., & Jaffe, D. (N.d.). The Shortage of Public Hospital Beds for Mentally Ill Persons. The Treatment Advocacy Center, 1-17.
Police Applicants: What types questions police applicants interview phase determine possessed racist bigoted ideologies? 2. eligious Beliefs: 1. Should police officers pro-life forced provide security pro-choice demonstrators clashes religious beliefs? 2.
Police applicants: What types of questions would you ask police applicants during the interview phase to determine if they possessed racist or bigoted ideologies?
When interviewing a police applicant, it is possible to ask direct questions regarding his or her legal beliefs, such as "do you believe that all persons are entitled to equal treatment under the law" and "do you believe that the U.S. Constitution applies to all citizens, regardless of their race, creed, or color?" More personal questions are also valid such as: "do you believe that people of similar backgrounds should 'stick together' or not" and "do you believe that certain types of people are more likely to commit crimes and why?"
While such direct questions…
Williams, J. (2013). Public safety for all? Huffington Post. Retrieved:
However, in certain instances, the element of fear in a policeman cannot justify the use of lethal force. This restraint, according to the Federal Bureau of investigation, is highly advocated for since deadly force is unlawful and can be mostly be used against a law enforcement officer. Areas of shoot out in schools and traffic and in states or cities, where the populous if high highly exempt the use of deadly force. In these situations, there is usually a dynamic interaction of the police, suspects or confirmed criminals and the public. This is the deadly mix concept that provides rational insights on the restraint of lethal force by the police. By so doing, the police adhere to the law enforcement training offered to them, which invokes their perception towards the use-of-force situations in handling offenders. Whether, during the on-duty or off-duty performances, the restrain upon the use of lethal force…
Pinizzotto, a.J., Davis, E.F., Bohrer, S. B and Infanti, B.J. (2012). Restraint in the Use of Deadly Force. [Online] Retrieved from URL
These people often lack familiarity with public safety operations. Campus chiefs of police and directors of security are often challenged by the opposing interests of their chief executive officers. Informing campus leaders about importance of public safety is vital to its success. Nonetheless, time constraints and other challenges and priorities imposed on these leaders make it difficult for them to devote any time to security and safety matters before the problems arise (National Summit of Campus Public Safety, 2005).
The look and feel of security on college and university campuses has changed dramatically since September 11th. Colleges and universities have implemented the following:
- updated their campus emergency management plans to include response protocols for an active shooter on campus, bomb threat, evacuation, lockdown and other high probability incidents that might occur.
- registered their campus emergency management plans with their local municipal police departments and county offices of emergency…
Canas, Richard. (2008). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from The New York Times Web site:
National Summit of Campus Public Safety. (2005). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from U.S.
Department of Justice Web site:
Community- and problem-oriented policing have risen as the most important mediums for improving the efficiency of police efforts in communities and as ways of reformation of police organizations.
Community-oriented policing has turned out to the symbol of police in America. In every area of the United States, community policing has emerged as an adaptive style of policing. It is considered as a powerful organizing vehicle for the public protection. If truth be told, it has become an accepted principle for law enforcement agencies. Community-oriented policing promises to thoroughly change the relationship among the police department and the public, deals with community problems, and improves the living conditions of the neighborhoods (Greene, 2000).
The main idea behind community-oriented policing is that the enforcement of law should be focused, proactive and sensitive to the community. It tends to break down the barriers between the law enforcement department and the…
Greene, J.R. (2000). Community Policing in America: Changing the Nature, Structure, and Function of the Police. Criminal Justice, 3, 299-370. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_3/03g.pdf
Stephens, G. (2005). Policing the Future: Law Enforcement's New Challenges. The Futurist, 39(2), 51+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-129170684/policing-the-future-law-enforcement-s-new-challenges
The Key Elements of Problem-Oriented Policing (n.d.). In Center for Problem-Oriented Policing . Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=elements
"What is POP?" (n.d.). In Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop
departments, police officer a generalist. Discuss inconsistent Max Weber's theory division labor? 2) Police departments written protocols including general orders procedures.
Max Weber promotes the idea of specialized division of labor, thus meaning that his theories are against instances such as a police officer taking on generalist roles. By carrying out specialized roles, individuals are more likely to assist the community as a whole in achieving positive results. This would also make it possible for the system to be better organized and for the idea of hierarchy to be less problematic.
Police departments need to encourage officers to take on open minded attitudes in spite of the fact that their role is to enforce laws whenever this is required. Officer discretion involves a law enforcement agent being able to properly understand the situation that he or she is in. Decision space is the information concerning the options that he or…
Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department
For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…
Policing in the United States has mainly been based and expanded on the ideas of English way of policing. The English way of policing has not only been used as the basis for American policing but it has also been used to commence an era of evolving police agencies. In its early years, policing in the United States was largely regarded as a civic duty or responsibility of community members. The appointed officers were neither trained nor paid for their services to community members. Consequently, the chosen Sheriffs were usually motivated by financial incentives and lost their focus on enforcement of the law, which contributed to the perception that policing was primarily reactive in nature. However, the nature and structure of policing changed significantly following the emergence of urbanization, industrialism, and the society, which resulted in increase in crime. This forced the police or law enforcement officers to…
"History and Structure of American Law Enforcement." (n.d.). Sample Chapter 5. Retrieved
December 19, 2013, from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078111536/931930/SampleChapter05.pdf
Parfaniuc, N. (n.d.). Historical Development of Police Agencies and Their Jurisdiction.
Retrieved December 19, 2013, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065966/Historical-Development-of-Police-Agencies-and-their-jurisdiction
Memo: The need to increase our members of the city police force
ecently, there has been a heated debate in the city council regarding crime rates. epresentative Brown has alleged that crime rates are skyrocketing and says that increased members of the police are necessary to engage in effective policing. Although members of our force have taken umbrage at these allegations that we are not performing our duties in an effective manner, I would contend that this is a critical juncture for law enforcement in our town. Although the actual crime rates have not been going up, there is still a vital need to increase members of our force. Our city is changing, and the police force must change with it likewise.
Our city is classified as a mid-sized metropolis of approximately 75,000 residents. However, for the past several years we have been steadily expanding at…
Broken windows theory. (2012). Google. Retrieved: