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Procrastination appears to be a common problem in western worlds, specifically with college students in relation to academic-specific tasks in comparison to normal adults with everyday tasks. Varied perspectives have been applied to the research of procrastination and some have come to their conclusions as to the nature of procrastination and the reasons behind it. Indirect evidence points to a correlation existing between self-esteem and procrastination. The evidence briefly displays that high levels of self-esteem tend to be coupled with lower rates of procrastination as well as lower levels of conflicting effects from procrastination.
Findings have pointed to achievement motivation having a part in the relationship between self-esteem and procrastination. Achievement motivation is a perceived trait associated with this correlation as well as almost a hundred other traits that all demonstrate the inherent closeness of the two elements in terms of activation and causation. Higher levels of motivation resulted in…
Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Solomon, Laura J.; Rothblum, Esther D. Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol 31(4), Oct 1984, 503-509. doi:10.1037/0022-022.214.171.1243
Self-esteem as a mediator between perfectionism and depression: A structural equations analysis. Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Slaney, Robert B.Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol 45(3), Jul 1998, 304-314. doi: 10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.1994
Procrastination and Self-Esteem Research
The summary statistics resulting from the ANOVA analysis suggest that there is a definite correlation between procrastination levels and self-esteem in the population examined. Procrastination scores from the procrastination scale (Lay, 1986) covered a wide range of responses, however a mean score of about sixty with a standard deviation of just over twelve, meaning that the majority of the study population had a (self-assessed) procrastination level of over fifty percent and with a fair degree of concentration in the middle quartiles, as well. This grouping is somewhat significant in and of itself, demonstrating a fairly persistent emergence of some level of procrastination throughout the population studied, yet the spread in the procrastination level as reported by the subjects is still broad enough to reduce the level of certainty in the further analysis and the correlation the data appoints to.
A closer examination of preliminary descriptive…
Evaluating the information received from these sources, especially popular magazines, websites, and even many of the self-help books -- which are written to make the author a profit, it must be acknowledged -- is at least as important as gathering it in the first place. One of the most important considerations in evaluating the information I gather will be determining the purpose and intent of the author/provider of the information. Peer-reviewed sources and websites for certain professional organizations (specifically the APA) are likely to be less biased than the author of a self-help book, for example, because the former are not for-profit endeavors. The purpose and intent of a given piece of information or article speaks a great deal to its validity. If there are motives behind a piece of informative work other than the simple exploration and dissemination of the truth, the validity of that information comes under heavy…
Marano, H. (2003). "Procrastination: Ten Things to Know." Psychology Today. Accessed 15 September 2009. http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200308/procrastination-ten-things-know
"Never do today what you can put off until tomorrow," is the procrastinators motto. Although many of us have a joke or two at the expense of our procrastinating friends, it really is a problem that can be so severe for people that it affects their life and work. Students are often prone to procrastination in completing school work and studying for tests. To understand why people procrastinate it's necessary to understand what procrastination is and what causes it.
Procrastination is the avoidance of doing a task which needs to be accomplished ("Overcoming Procrastination," 2011). People who procrastinate often use unimportant tasks as excuses to avoid doing the important things that need to get done. It's the failure to complete important tasks that has the greatest effect on people who procrastinate. Procrastination often leads to feelings of guilt, inadequacy, depression and self-doubt ("Overcoming Procrastination," 2011). These feelings often intensify…
Overcoming Procrastination (Jan. 4, 2011). State University of New York at Buffalo. Retrieved from http://ub-counseling.buffalo.edu/stressprocrast.shtml
Zane, Peder J. (15 April 2008). Why we procrastinate. McClatchy - Tribune Business News. Retrieved January 11, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Dateline. (Document ID: 1462078361).
THE FUNNY THING ABOUT PROCRASTINATION body remains at rest...unless acted upon by an outside force"
Newton's First Law
If there are any corollaries to Newton's Law of Inertia that apply to people, they would seem to be:
person remains at rest unless the consequences of continued procrastination outweigh the unpleasantness of interrupting his rest."
Procrastination is a very natural urge. It is most likely to overwhelm any competing inclination to action where there is no absolute deadline for completion, particularly where there is no risk of criticism from anyone with the power to punish one for it. The opportunity for procrastination within the professional arena is usually somewhat limited by the prospect of having to answer to one's superior prior to achieving one's procrastination potential. Conversely, household chores represent a virtually limitless opportunity for full expression of the procrastination urge, by virtue of the fact that one risks no…
Procrastination, I pay for it often. It's bad enough that I have trouble sleeping most nights, but when I put off studying for exams until the last moment and was up all hours of the night studying, it certainly did not help my day. By the time I was satisfied with my familiarity of the material I had to learn there were only a couple of hours left for sleep. Coffee helped a little, but I went through the day with the feeling of fatigue hanging over my head. I was able to complete my exams and go through the day feeling a little tired, but not worn out. I was not any crankier than I normally am; I felt a little slower, a little out of sync, but not useless. Perhaps a way to describe it is that there was less reserve energy in my tank than there is…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.-Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Ferrie, J.E., Shipley, M.J., Cappuccio, F.P., Brunner, E., Miller, M.A., Kumari, M., & Marmot, M.G. (2007). A Prospective Study of Change in Sleep Duration: Associations with Mortality in the Whitehall II Cohort. Sleep, 30 (12), 1659 -- 1666.
Ohayon, M.M. & Reynolds, C.F. (2009). Epidemiological and clinical relevance of insomnia diagnosis algorithms according to the DSM-IV and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD). Sleep Medicine, 10, 952-960.
Sadock, B.J. & Sadock, V.A. (Eds.) (2007). Kaplan & Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (10th Edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Procrastination and self-esteem
Self-Esteem and Procrastination
Procrastination and self-esteem
Many authors and practitioners have defined self-esteem differently, but the best definition would be the evaluation of any individual, regarding the person's worth. When individuals have different perceptions about the accomplishments they attained, and how successful they were in attaining their short and long-run goals, then the evaluation aims at ascertaining the person's self-esteem. Self-esteem always contains many elements, ranging from personal respect, general liking of oneself, and how one accepts him or herself. If categorized, self-esteem is divided into two. The Global esteem, where the individual's self-esteem is evaluated in general and the domain esteem that focuses on factors of the individual, including the person's physique and academic potentials (obins et al. 2012).
The significance of high Self-Esteem
High self-esteem has many advantages, and most importantly, it has a positive effect on the happiness and the health of…
Bowling, N.A., Eschleman, K.J., Wang, Q., Kirkendall, C., & Alarcon, G. (2010) A Meta-Analysis of The Predictors and Consequences of Organization-Based Self-Esteem. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 83, 601-626.
Brown, J.D. (2010) High Self-Esteem Buffers Negative Feedback: Once More With Feeling. Cognition and Emotions, 24(8), 1389-1404.
Chow, H.P.H. (2011) Procrastination Among Undergraduate Students: Effects of Emotional Intelligence, School Life, Self-Evaluation, and Self- Efficacy. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 57, Number 2, 234-240.
Gardner, D.G., Huang, G., Pierce, J.L., Niu, X., & Lee, C. (2010) Organization-Based Self-Esteem: Relationship With Psychological Contracts and Perceived Employment Opportunities. Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings.
Self-Esteem and Procrastination
Self-esteem is a primary component of each person's life experiences on a daily basis. Self-esteem may be defined as a person's evaluation of themselves, for example "I am not satisfied with myself as a person" or "I like the way I am." Sometime unconsciously, we evaluate ourselves day after day; this is a not a conscious procedure because only the individual realizes the end result. When an individual experiences an emotional "gut feeling," the individual feels either good or bad about themselves. As human beings, we have a fundamental need for motives of self inclusion (Franzoi 59).
Self-esteem operates as a mechanism to aid individuals to ensure that they are carrying themselves properly in a particular situation. Self-esteem runs the gamut from inclusion and exclusion. Human beings are most susceptible to exclusion, as we tend to measure ourselves on a scale from low to high self-esteem. Those…
Franzoi, Steven L. Social Psychology 5th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 2009.
Burka, J.B. & Yeun, L (1982). Mind games procrastinators play. Psychology Today, pp.32-34
Burka, J.B. & Yeun, L (1983). Procrastination: Why you do it, and what to do about it. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Effert, B.R. & Ferrari, J.R. (1989). Decisional Procrastination: Examining personality correlates. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 4, 151-161
Perhaps these students are not really engaged in the work they are doing or have serious underlying mental health issues.
Students may have jobs, be involved in athletics, or have really heavy course loads that stretch their time too thin and force them to often work to the very last moment. Perhaps money is tight and a student picks up extra shifts at work in order to pay the rent and tuition causing procrastination on homework or studying. Some students are just immature and irresponsible and spend too much time partying or watching tv and force out mediocre work at the last minute. Working at the last minute does not always mean the work is mediocre but the stress and crisis-mode of working at the last minute is too much for any normal human being to sustain. Professors may procrastinate tasks that are required of them in order to prioritize…
Angela Hsin Chun, Chu, and Choi Jin Nam. "Rethinking Procrastination: Positive Effects of "Active" Procrastination Behavior on Attitudes and Performance." Journal of Social Psychology 145.3 (2005): 245-264. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 3 Apr. 2011.
Fiore, Neil a. The Now Habit: A Strategic Program for Overcoming Procrastination and Enjoying Guilt-free Play. New York, NY: Penguin Group. 2006.
Procrastination: a Student Perspective
Procrastination is a fact of life, particularly that of a student's life. Procrastination is completely avoidable, yet it is also quite inevitable. Procrastination can stem from internal and external factors. There are some students are lazy. There are students who have poor time management skills; they do not prioritize elements of their schedules appropriately and prepare assignments at the last moment. There are students who do not care about schoolwork. These students are not invested in or connected to their studies; perhaps they are not knowledgeable in the ways education can be satisfying personally, professionally, and otherwise. It depends on the student. Every students procrastinates at one point or another, what varies is how often students procrastinate and how far they push the point of procrastination. There are some students that have found that with some instructors, it does not matter if they complete the assignments…
The Effects of Self-Esteem Level on Degrees/Frequencies of Procrastination: A Survey Study
That there is a relationship between procrastination and self-esteem is well-established in previous and current research literature, however the nature of this relationship remains largely unknown. A survey study using the osenberg Self-Esteem instrument and the Lay Procrastination scale was conducted to shed further light on this area of inquiry. Findings show a direct and inverse correlation between self-esteem and procrastination, with a more extreme difference noticeable amongst those with low self-esteem/high procrastination.
The relationship between levels of self-esteem and the degree and/or frequency to which a given individual is prone to procrastination has been the subject of a great deal of research and scholarship over the past several decades (Beck et al., 2000; Ferrari, 2000; Steel, 2007; Lupien et al., 2010; Deniz, 2011; Powers et al., 2011; Saleem & afique, 2012; etc.). Much of this…
Beck, B.L., Koons, S.R., & Milgrim, D.L. (2000). Correlates and consequences of behavioral procrastination: The effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem and self-handicapping. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality.
Beshlideh, H., Yousefi, N. & Haghighi, J. (2012). An investigation of psychometric properties of Rosenberg self-esteem scale in students of Shahid Chamran University in Ahwaz. Journal of Educational Psychology 9(15): 41-66.
Deniz, M. (2011). An Investigation of Decision Making Styles and the Five-Factor Personality Traits with Respect to Attachment Styles. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 11(1), 105-113.
Ferrari, J.R. (2000). Procrastination and attention: Factor analysis of attention deficit, boredomness, intelligence, self-esteem, and task delay frequencies. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality.
com) and motivation which is defined as, "the condition of being motivated" (merriam-webster.com). Stress and health were also major key words in the article, as these were aspects that were being measured by the researchers. Stress is defined as "a physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation" (merriam-webster.com) while health is defined by the Merriam-ebster dictionary as, "the condition of being sound in body, mind, or spirit; the general condition of the body." All of the words mentioned make it clear what the article intends to focus on.
The most important passages are those that explain the limitations in the study. As was clearly stated by the authors, "ithout random assignment and experimental control, we cannot assert that procrastination causes the stress and health effects" (Tice & Baumeister, 457). Another important passage, also a limitation acknowledgment is, "there…
Tice, Dianne M., and Baumeister, Roy F. "Longitudinal Study of Procrastination, Performance, Stress, and Health: The Costs and Benefits of Dawdling." Psychological Science 8.6 (1997): 454-58. Print.
Merriam-Webster.com. Merriam-Webster, 2013. Web. 4 February 2013.
Introduction- For psychologist, procrastination is the uniquely human ability and desire to replace high-priority tasks with those of low-priority, or to avoid doing certain tasks on purpose. It is typically an avoidance behavior, a mechanism for coping with anxiety or fear about a certain task or decision. In general, it can be defined as being: a) counterproductive, needless, and delaying. It may also contribute to several other psychological issues: stress, a sense of guilt, a crisis situation, a loss of personal productivity, and a sense of social disapproval as a result of not meeting expectations, responsibilities, or commitments. It is a self-sabotaging behavior that ironically often produces additional procrastination. As a part of general human behavior, it is considered normal in some scenarios at some times. However, as procrastination impedes normal functioning or becomes chronic, it is likely the sign of an underlying psychological disorder (Schraw, adkins and Olafson).…
Ariely, D. And K. Wertenbroch. "Procrastination, Deadlines and Performance." Psychological Sciences 13.3 (2002): 219-24.
Burka, Y. Procrastination: WHy You Do It. New York: DaCapo Press, 2008.
Ferrari, J. Still Procrastinating? New York: Wiley, 2010.
Ferrari, J., K. Johnson and W. McCown. Procrastination and Task Avoidance: Theory, Research and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1995.
The watch was designed to allow the wearer to log onto the Web. It had microchips capable of doing anything a laptop could do. So out it came. Problem was that you need a keyboard and monitor big enough to see and use. The Web watch, amazingly, had neither. You had to hook it up to a PC to use it! Swatch introduced it too soon due to its enthusiasm over the technology. Perhaps they should have procrastinated (Matlack, 2000).
Chrysler and General Motors. Their procrastination, greed and laziness in sticking to the big, expensive, gas-guzzlers when the foreign car market was moving elsewhere -- into the U.S. And profitability -- and the resultant loss of business, cancellation of dealerships, and layoffs of tens thousands of workers, has to be the worst business decision in modern history.
Matlack, C. (2000, September 11). ad timing for Swatch's web watch. Retrieved…
Matlack, C. (2000, September 11). Bad timing for Swatch's web watch. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from Business Week: http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/sep2000/nf20000911_089.htm procrastinate. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved July 1, 2009, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/procrastinate
Sirois, Fuscia M.; Melia-Gordon, Michelle L.; and Pychyl, Timothy A. 2003. "I'll look after my health, later'": and investigation of procrastination and health." Personality and Individual Differences 35, pp. 1167-1184.
Is the problem clearly stated?
The authors examined the mediational role of stress and health behaviors in the procrastination - illness relationship. This was an exploratory study looking for correlations that might indicate areas for further study. They hypothesized that stress mediates the procrastination-illness relationship. In addition they explored possible other factors that might affect any relationship between procrastination and health.
Does the problem have a theoretical rationale?
The theoretical rationale for the study was covered extensively in the review of the literature. Since there was little previous research connecting the behavioral trait of procrastination to physical health, the researchers included detailed study of the theoretical literature as well.
3) How significant is the problem?
The authors did not talk…
New name = Meaninglessness.
This is the state of feeling apathetic and listless with the individual feeling lack of interest or absorption in anything of life's activities. The term 'meaning' implies that the activity or span of time is filled with intense interest and relevance to the person, infusing him or her with purpose and excitement. It is purpose-filled and, seen as leading to some definite outcome, imbues the agent and/or participants or spectators with vitality and a sense of being-with-itness, of living in the moment. The reverse of that -- 'meaninglessness' -- denotes the condition of eradication of meaning. Eradication of meaning is synonymous to boredom where life / existence or the present moment is seen as vapid, empty, and hollow, and where nothing of substance is seen to occur.
It is for this reason that existentialists often employ 'boredom' as term in their novels or philosophies, equating…
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
Among the research findings in this regard was the view that field independent student are often more successful in the distance learning environment. Other factors such as introversion and extroversion were discussed and introverted personality types were seen to be more successful in the distance teaching environment. It was also found that extracurricular concerns can have both positive and negative course completion outcomes. Support from family or employer was also found to be a very significant variable that had a positive effect.
Another relevant area of discussion was study skills. It was generally found that good study skills and habits were a central determining factor for the distance students. Furthermore, procrastination was found to be a very negative factor, especially if one takes into account the demands of the distance education.
The difference between the classrooms and the distance learning environment was also discussed, with many students stating that they…
It's a common problem and luckily it is one which can be fixed if it's addressed properly.
One of the best solutions to procrastination and rampant disorganization is to get the person in question to admit that he has a problem and to get him to admit that he's preventing himself from functioning at his highest level of productivity and success.
Introducing general organizational skills to Carl could be a crucial factor in his success. Carl might never have received such basic training when he was developing. "Employees in the workplace must have general organizational skills, which allow them to determine the supplies they need, how to arrange their files and whom to contact for specific information. Managers who work with employees will often organize the work of employees to keep them busy, especially those that require a lot of direction, like file clerks or contract workers" (Suttle). In…
Grohol, J. (2005, January 10). Learn About Procrastination. Retrieved from psychcentral.com: http://psychcentral.com/library/procrastination.html
Kirsch, M. (2013). Stop Procrastinating -- Right Now! Retrieved from Goodhousekeeping.com: http://www.goodhousekeeping.com/health/wellness/procrastination-get-done
Marano, H. (2010, July 7). Procrastination: Ten Things To Know. Retrieved from psychologytoday.com: http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200308/procrastination-ten-things-know
Suttle, R. (n.d.). Organizational Skills in the Workplace. Retrieved from Chron.com: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organizational-skills-workplace-1277.html
There are many modern definitions of a human behavioral trait known as procrastination. One of the most common ways of understanding procrastination is as a "behavior sequence of postponement." (A rief History of Procrastination)
This type of behavior results in a "substandard behavioral product" involving some aspect that is seen to be important. (ibid) This in turn leads to states of emotional "upset" and distress.
In simpler terms, a procrastinator is someone who avoids or puts off doing some important work or completing a significant task. The individual is not necessarily lazy but often delays participation as a way of protecting himself against potential failure or rejection. Procrastinators are often prone to perfectionism and by avoiding performance protect their self-esteem. Often it's a simple case of not being adequately interested in the task at hand. Researchers have found that task aversiveness and not task capability determines whether a…
A Brief History of Procrastination. March 20, 2005. http://ernest.carleton.ca/~tpychyl/history.html.
The deadliest enemy to writer's block is re-reading what I just wrote and analyzing it.
However, getting past the stream-of-consciousness stage is even harder than getting started. That's when I start realizing that other people are going to read what I write. No matter how I feel about it, a deadline is looming and I have to produce. Being disciplined is essential at this stage because only pressure can keep the pen or keyboard going. Even when I am not interested in writing about myself in a diary I can use stream of consciousness to compose the first draft of an essay. With stream of consciousness I can write without worrying about how it sounds, even to me. I can get into a mind state beyond any self-criticism. I can worry about technicalities later.
The technicalities are easier to deal with when the raw content is there. Writing without stream-of-consciousness…
mental health is an ever-Expanding arena. The experts continue to debate many of the issues that impact self-esteem.
Self-esteem is something that can create a confident productive life, or it can be a destructive insidious problem that plagues adult life. One of the things that has been examined for many areas of mental health is the order in which one is born within his or her family. Sibling birth order has been credited for how one lives their childhood, how they develop as adults, how various things impact them including parental alcohol and drug abuse and how much money one will make in a lifetime.
This paper presents a research proposal about sibling birth order and how it impacts the development of self-esteem. The proposal explains the importance of understanding the issue, some of the literature that has already been published in the area and a suggested methodology for conduction…
BIRTH ORDER AND EDUCATION http://clearinghouse.mwsc.edu/manuscripts/17.asp
RHONDA K. CLAYTON
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
MISSOURI WESTERN STATE COLLEGE
, 2010). The model includes several mediator (e.g., knowledge exchange) and moderator variables (e.g., self-leadership competencies of actors) that explain why and when this approach is effective and looks at leadership in more of a comprehensive way than focusing on one individual. Such perspectives have suggested that when employees become involved in the decision making processes then this can strengthen leadership.
Transactional leadership is the leadership model that represents what most people view as the concept of management. Transactional leadership is defined by an exchange relationship between the managers and the employees that are all motivated by their own self-interests and meeting the expectations that are associated with their job description. Transactional leadership consists of monitoring, controlling, and motivating employees through economic incentives and other types of exchange incentives (Bass, 1985). Most of the motivation in this model stems from financial exchanges such as by either salaries, performance…
Alipour, F., K., I., & Karimi, R. (2011). Knowledge Creation and Transfer: Role of Learning Organization. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), 61-67.
Antonacopolou, E. (2001). The Paradoxical Nature of the Relationship Bewteen Training and Learning. Journal of Management Studies, 38(3), 327-350.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industry, military, and educational impact. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Certain physical resources, including educational handbooks, facilities for training, and infrastructure resources will also be needed. The supply of these resources should be kept in Kava inasmuch as is possible, in order to provide jobs and establish business and social roots in the community on the island. Actions that need to be taken include preliminary meetings with government officials and social leaders, the evaluation of locations for youth development programs and the hiring and training of instructors, which again should be selected from the people of Kava if at all possible in order to build and maintain stronger ties in the community and establish early goodwill through good instruction and god opportunities. These actions and the limited resource consumption they require will give a sense of the organization's values and purpose to the people of Kava in addition to Nik, Chris, and Alex, providing a consistent and strong values-based platform…
This particular employee is left with less time to perform his professional tasks. This translates into a delay in the project delivery schedule. Additionally, the project delays could generate major customer dissatisfactions, or the breakage of contractual terms, which could easily materialize in more severe organizational losses. Nevertheless, considering that the employee works overtime to reduce the chance of project delays, this time has to be remunerated; virtually, it translates into increased financial costs for the company. Then, the mobile telephone could be used to make quick telephones to competitors and as such sabotage the company's efforts and success chances.
3. Opponents of an IT Policy
Despite the validity of the arguments presented in favor of implementing a strong IT policy, fact remains that there exist also some reasons which make a strong IT policy less favorable within the context of the modern workplace. These are succinctly described below.
Finlay, W., Clarke, M.J., 1990, New Technology and the Modern Workplace: The Prospects for Industrial Accord, Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 4
2007, Microsoft Admits Piracy Benefits, Computer Business Review, http://www.cbronline.com/news/microsoft_admits_piracy_benefits last accessed on December 9, 2009
2008, Effects of Software and Internet Piracy, Top SEO, http://www.topseo.org/2008/08/11/effects-of-software-and-internet-piracy / last accessed on December 8, 2009
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Class Assessment Techniques
Classroom Assessment Techniques are decisive methods of evaluation that are useful in two major areas. The level of which the student has understood the content of the course can be assessed and provides information regarding your teaching methods efficiency. It's an approach which bases on the fact that the planning of learning activities and structuring of teaching is better when one knows the how and what the student is learning. It's also a simple technique which is anonymous and non-graded activities of in-class that provided useful feedback to the teacher and the students on the learning and teaching process. The difference of Classroom Assessment to other methods of assessing the students is that its objective is to improve the course and not grade assignment. It's primarily aimed at understanding of the learning process of the student and improvement of the teaching approaches (Angelo, & Cross, 1995, p.257).…
Alexander, B. (2006). Web 2.0: A new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? Educause
Review, 41(2), 32-44. Retrieved March 29th 2010 from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0621.pdf
Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1995). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bartram, D. (2007). Guidelines and standards for computer-based testing. Retrieved March, 30th,
" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…
Beamish, Patricia M. And Hill, Nicole R. (2007) Treatment outcomes for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.(Private Practices) Journal of Counseling and Development 22 Sept 20077. Online available at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-170413211.html
Bechtel, Robert B. And Ts'erts'Man, Arzah (2002) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Boston University School of Social Work (2007) Online available at http://www.bu.edu/ssw/training/pep/programs/workshops/boston/index.shtml
Cromer, Kiara R. (2005) a Pathoplastic Vulnerability Mode: An Association Between Traumatic Stressful Life Events & OCD. Florida State University 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11/unrestricted/Cromer_Thesis_Nov_2005.pdf
The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.
Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.
Abdulwahed, M. And Nagy, Z.K. "Applying Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle for Laboratory Education." Journal of Engineering Education. American Society for Engineering Education. 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from HighBeam
Burton, J.K., Moore, D.M., and Magliaro, S.G. (2004). Behaviorism and instructional technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Dunne, J.D. (1997). Behavior Analysis: No Defense Required. Wright University.
Feminist Reading of Austen's Persuasion
"I Will Not Allow ooks to Prove Anything":
Women Reading and Women Writing in Austen's Persuasion
Feminist criticism is equally concerned with female authorship and with female readership and in the case of Jane Austen, both issues must be addressed. Frantz in 2009 noted that on one level Austen's influence on female readership has been immense: she claims that "readers and authors of contemporary romance claim Jane Austen as the fountainhead of all romance novels," a genre which constituted the "largest share of the consumer market in 2008" but which is assumed to have an exclusively female readership. Yet feminist criticism of the early novel overall has begun to focus specifically on the rationale offered for novel-reading in the eighteenth century, when the printer's apprentice Samuel Richardson wrote Pamela in imitation of what Jenny Davidson describes as "conduct manuals," or books of etiquette for female…
Austen, Henry. "A Memoir of Jane Austen." A Memoir of Jane Austen and Other Family Recollections. Ed. Kathryn Sutherland. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 147-154. Print.
Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park. New Jersey: Gramercy Books, 1981. Print.
Austen, Jane. Persuasion. Project Gutenberg. Web.
Davidson, Jenny. Hypocrisy and the Politics of Politeness: Manners and Morals from Locke to Austen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second Language:
Researchers have divided the skills necessary for the acquisition of second language comprehension, particularly in the reading area, into two general theories: bottom-up, text-based, psycholinguistic approaches or top-down, socially-oriented conceptual approaches. In each case, lack of second language comprehension is attributed to misunderstanding of some key variable of the approach. For example, bottom-up studies tend to trace miscomprehension to misunderstanding of grammar (syntax), vocabulary (semantics), or other textual aspects. Accordingly, comprehension from the bottom-up is a data-driven process (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983).
In contrast, top-down studies primarily attribute miscomprehension to the lack of specific background knowledge or cultural familiarity that is necessary to understand the text. Top-down understanding is seen as a process that is driven by concepts (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983). Goodman (1967) is credited with first recognizing this additional aspect to reading comprehension, although he did not use the term…
Adamson, H.D. (1993). Academic competence: Theory and classroom practice. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.
Bernhardt, E.B. (2001). Progress and procrastination in second language reading research. Retrieved January 29, 2003 at http://language.stanford.edu/conferencepapers/AAALBernhardt01.doc
Carrell, P.L. (1983a). Background knowledge in second language comprehension. Language Learning and Communication. 2, 25-34.
Carrell, P.L. (1983b). Three components of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Language Learning. 33, 183-207.
Depression in Adolescents Group
This group aims at aiding participants in modifying their cognitions, maladaptive schemas, and behaviors. Participants acquire a grasp of how to be more relaxed and occupied in more pleasing activities. Such changes to behavior will trigger the succeeding profounder change levels. Participating individuals will be aided in altering their depressogenic and impractical thoughts as well, to thoughts that are more practical, successively decreasing their depression levels. In order to achieve true, longer-term change, as well as to lower the possibility of recurrence of depression, one needs to modify maladaptive schemas. The group is presented with the 'schemas' idea, group members are aided in distinguishing their respective schemas, and efforts are initiated towards altering schemas. However, one must bear in mind the fact that this process of schema transformation is time-consuming and won't be achieved by the time of the group's termination. Participants in the…
Association for Specialists in Group Work. (2007). Best practice guidelines 2007 revisions. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 33(2). doi: 10.1080/01933920801971184
Clabby, J. F. (2006). Helping Depressed Adolescents: A Menu of Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures for Primary Care. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 8(3), 131-141.
Corey, G., Corey, M.S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Myers, J.E., Willse, J.T., & Villalba, J.A. (2011). Promoting self-esteem in adolescents: The influence of wellness factors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1), 28-36. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00058.x
......strengths include superior interpersonal skills as well as the ability to be diligent, honest and an enthusiastic worker. I am bi-lingual: I can speak, write and read fluently in two languages: English and Arabic. I also have extensive experience in applying information technology solutions to a wide array of banking operations. I have demonstrated excellence in my studies as an honor student for four straight years. I have received a Certified Corporate Governance Officer (CCGO) designation from the London School of Business and have successfully completed the Graduate Development Program for Banking and Financing Jobs Competencies at the Institute of Banking Studies in Kuwait. I also solidly maintain relationships with a number of key financial services personnel in Kuwait, including members of the Board of Directors at Ahli United Bank Kuwait (AUBK) along with high-level administrators at the Central Bank of Kuwait and Capital Market Authority. I contributed to the…
Curious young astronomers who ask, "what are stars made of?" And "Why do astronauts float in space?" will find answers here. A brief survey of the universe in a question and answers format.
Reading level: Ages 4-8
Paperback: 28 pages
Tayleur, K. Excuses! Survive and Succeed by David Montimore Baxter. (Mankato, MN) Stone Arch Books: 2007
Young David Mortimore Baxter, who knows how to stay out of trouble, shares excuses for avoiding chores, bullies, homework, and vegetarian dinners. David experiences his fifteen minutes of fame and the impacts it has on his friends and family.
Reading level: 9-12
Paperback: 80 pages
Williams, M. The Velveteen Rabbit. Square Fish: 2008.
By the time the velveteen rabbit is dirty, worn out, and about to be burned, he has almost given up hope of ever finding the magic of love. The original "Toy Story."
Reading level: Ages…
Technical tasks are preferred over people and interpersonal details. They also enjoy experimenting, simulating, and working with practical applications.
When there are too many people with one learning type over another in the same organization, there may be a deficiency in a particular type of strength which could prove to be valuable to the organization. For instance, if the organization does not have any accommodators, but rather has several convergers, divergers, and assimilators, then the organization may be in need of an individual whom can work quickly and whom can figure something out without a given set of procedure or directions and whom perhaps can derive conclusions based upon his/her gut instinct. If an agency has a balance of learners and the agency is aware of the strengths and weaknesses within the organization, then groupings may be done so that each group has an individual representing a particular learning style.…
Osland, H., Kolb, D.A., & Rubin, I. (n.d.). Organizational Behavior (8th ed.).
Tenant agrees to allow Landlord access to apartment in the case of, and for the purpose of, investigation of apartment and for prerequisite repairs.
Tenant refrains from accumulating litter, junk, or waste materials on premises and contracts to maintain all furnishings in the apartment in like condition as when taken. At the end of this contract no additional repairs should be necessary beyond normal wear and tear.
A maximum of 2 vehicles are parked on the premises, and these vehicles are moved in the event of snowplowing.
Premises are kept in accordance with government legislation (including police, sanitary, and other regulations).
Eviction occurs to Tenant on the following grounds:
Unpaid rent; conviction of crime in connection with premises; and the aforementioned agreements are violated. In these and similar circumstances, the Landlord and/or representative(s) of the Landlord may evict the Tenant.
That the Tenant(s)…
After reading the chapter, I have come to understand the significance of journaling. With journaling, I feel free to say what I want and not feel guilty when what I write does not amount to much. Journaling helps me clear my mind and it helps me remember ideas. Reading over my journal entries helps me act on my ideas and keep track of them. I actually have two different journals -- one for ideas, which helps me stay focused and a personal journal that is more for reflecting. I love the journaling concept because an entry can be as short or as long as I want it to be. My personal journal allows me to express my feelings, which helps me feel as though my mind is clear. This is especially helpful at the end of a long, tired day.
What I have learned the most from this chapter is…
The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:
Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.
One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.
One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…
Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge
Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland
Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac, http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm last accessed on July 6, 2010
2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/safebasics/sport_safety.html# last accessed on July 6, 2010
The human causes of global warming are less certain than the eventual depletion of fossil fuels, but the damages predicted to result from uncontrolled warming brought on by fossil fuels are so great that the gamble becomes too great. Only the same intentions as listed above would take this risk with future generations.
The Need for Action
The ethical and social issues at work in the use of fossil fuels and the global warming phenomenon create a clear need for effective action to be taken, and soon. Many scientists believe that it may already be too late to halt the warming trend, let alone reverse it -- the build up of greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has created a situation that is already self-perpetuating, meaning that the warmer temperatures observed over the past century will continue to rise even if all use of fossil fuels…
Graefe, L. (2009). "The peak oil debate." Economic review 94(2), pp. 1-14.
Howard, R. (2009). "Peak oil and strategic wars." Futurist 43(5), pp. 18-21.
Ralston, S. (2009). "Engineering an Artful and Ethical Solution to the Problem of Global Warming." Review of policy research 26(6), pp. 821-37.
Rathore, B.; Kulkarni, A. & Sherasia, N. (2009). "Understanding future changes in snow and glacier melt runoff due to global warming in Wangar Gad basin, India." Research communications 97(7), pp. 1077-81.
However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session
2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a…
Corey, G., (2009) Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. (8th Edition). Belmont,
CA. Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Family systems. (2009). Genogram. Retrieved November 24, 2009 at http://www.genopro.com/genogram/family-systems-theory/
Potential Concerns about the Consumer Financial Protection Agency
Despite the multitude of benefits revealed by the CFPA, commercial banks and mortgage lenders continually present their growing dissatisfaction with the act. epresentatives of this side include reputable organizations such as JP Morgan Chase or Wells Fargo, as well as a series of independent mortgage brokers and mortgage lenders and local and regional banking institutions. Their most compelling reasons for the dismissal of the Consumer Financial Protection Agency are succinctly presented below:
1. The banks feel that there is no real necessity for new regulatory legislation as the economy is already showing sighs of recovery; these financial institutions feel that the resources would be better spent otherwise. Additionally, the CFPA does not introduce any real new elements, but politically enforces the lessons already learnt from the economic crisis
2. The state could abuse its power through the Consumer Financial Protection Agency in…
Allen, M., Javers, E., Barack Obama to Create Consumer Financial Protection Agency, Politico, 16 June 2009, http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0609/23790.html last accessed on September 30, 2009
Andrews, E.L., Banks Balk at Agency Meant to Aid Consumers, New York Times, June 30, 2009
Geithner, T.F., Written Testimony of Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner, House Financial Services Committee, Financial Stability, http://www.financialstability.gov/latest/tg231.html last accessed on September 30, 2009
Hall, K.G., Banks Fight to Kill Protection Agency, McClatchy, September 24, 2009, http://www.mcclatchydc.com/227/story/75997.html last accessed on September 30, 2009
Essential Mental Functions: the new senior developers are expected to reveal fair behavior towards their colleagues, subalterns, supervisors and clients. Among the most important mental functions that need to be possessed are: the ability to discern between what is right and what is wrong and what is ethical and what is unethical; empathy and kindness; the ability to make and enforce decisions; a good and reliable memory; originality, creativity and a sense for innovation (extremely important within the it community); the ability and desire to engage in cognitive efforts; the ability to be reasonable and communicative; the ability to rely on his/her own power and skills to resolve a task or a problem (such as a conflict in the workplace); the function of being temperate
Essential Physical Functions: considering that the candidate possesses the necessary mental functions, the necessities regarding physical functions are less comprehensive. Given the rather sedentary nature…
This also refers to the false impression that cramming is a successful learning technique. As this study notes; "…it is much better to create an interval between the times you study an item" ( Glenn, 2007, p. 2). Similarly, a study entitled Smart way to study (2009) also emphasizes that intervals between study session have been shown to improve retention and understanding of the material. This method also means that information is retained and can be utilized in a more interactive manner by the student.
3. Tips to improve study skills
Study preparations are an important part of developing useful and long-term study skills. As has been referred to, the organization and management of the correct study skills that are appropriate to each individual's predilections is an important aspect that should be borne in mind in the development of successful learning skills. This also includes significant aspects, such as choosing…
Fleming G. Would Group Study Improve Your Grades? College Professors Think So!
Retrieved July 16, 2009, from http://homeworktips.about.com/od/homeworkhelp/a/study.htm
Larson, S. (2005). Teaching for Transformation in Today's Challenging Youth.
Reclaiming Children and Youth, 14(1), 27+. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009565771
The way we communicate says everything about who we are, and in this small and diverse world it is of increasing importance.
Being Prepared: Example
The online community seems to provide a great deal of anonymity, but the things said there have a farther reach and larger staying power than previous communications.
Learning to communicate effectively and politely will take you very far.
Planning for the Future: Overview
Setting goals is the first step in achieving them. Knowing about your values can help you determine what you want to get out of life. After determining this, you can set meaningful, realistic, and practical goals based on these identified desires.
Goals take many forms, but three essential goals to set during your college years are personal, academic, and professional goals. Though there is always room to adjust them planning now will help you immensely in achieving your future goals.
Achieving goals only depends on prioritizing those goals that are the most important and fulfilling them first.
Managing Time Wisely
To manage time wisely, we can create schedules for ourselves. Study time can be worked into anyone's schedule. We can reserve blocks of time for social events, sports, and other activities, too. Procrastination should be avoided at all costs; if something can be achieved now then now is the best time to do the work.
Fostering Reading Comprehension and Retention
Reading comprehension and retention require practice. The more we read the more we will understand. Our vocabularies expand and so will our understanding of how sentences are constructed. Retaining what we read demands a high level of concentration, which also takes practice to develop.
Applying Personality and Learning Styles
Personality affects the way we learn and the environment we prefer to learn in. If we recognize our learning style, we…
For instance, when a needed to resolve personal issues, the manager understood him and supported him by allowing flexible schedules and even reduced amounts of work when possible.
Apathy: Apathy is situated at the opposite pole from love, but they are somehow similar in the meaning that they are seldom found in the workplace. The modern working environment tries to resolve such issues and find solutions to remove such strong feelings. In the given situation, it could be said that the friend of the dissatisfied employee manifested apathy towards the management. These feelings were however of short duration, based on the impulse of supporting a and also on previous negative experiences with the manager.
Aggression towards the other: In the current scenario, most of the aggressive behavior was revealed by the supporting friend B. However he did not become involved in direct disputes, he would reveal flashes of…
Bion, W.R., Experiences in Groups, New York: Basic Books, 1961
Schutz, W., FIRO: A Three Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior, New York: Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1958
The applicability of Activity-Based Costing for decision making is directly linked to the influences that ABC has over process control. In this order of ideas, by better identifying the incurred costs or the overhead, managers can better monitor and control the evolution of products, prices, costs and consequently, profits. ABC identifies the costs incurred by each item in terms of resources consumed. Therefore, with the aid of ABC, organizational managements have the ability to control resource allocation.
Activity-Based Costing reveals yet another significant feature: it has the ability to evaluate the costs of not producing an item. This basically means that with the aid of the ABC, managers are able to know how much they have lost due to machine malfunctioning, product damaging, increased inventory costs or time spent waiting for a machine component to be replaced. "Activity-Based Costing therefore gives not only much better cost control, but increasingly, it…
Barnat, R., 2005, Strategic Control: A New Perspective, Strategic Control, http://www.strategic-control.24xls.com/en139last accessed on October 21, 2008
Chellasamy, P., Ligy, V.K., 2008, Activity-Based Costing - a Tool for Decision Making, Fibre 2 Fashion, http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/7/670/activity-based-costing-a-tool-for-decision-making1.asplast accessed on October 21, 2008
Cooper, R., Kaplan, R.S., 1998, Design of Cost Management Systems, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall
Drucker, P.F., 2006, Classic Drucker, Harvard Business School Press
The basic reason for the diverse findings could refer to the following:
most studied have been conducted on a single organization the family-friendly policies are analyzed as a whole and therefore the efficiencies of a single program are neglected employees' answers are given in questioners and the workers have to rely on memory and personal perception most of the studies have no terms of comparison the studies generally measure satisfaction with the offered benefits, instead of job performance the studies only analyze the recipient of family-friendly programs, but should also question his team-mates, who interact with him and are able to measure the impact the studies are conducted over short periods of time the studies do not consider the "individual differences between employees, (the) social support in organizations, (the) job/organizational characteristics and uses of additional organizational level outcomes" (Kossek and Lambert, 2004)
The ethical implications of family-friendly programs are quite…
Anderson, S.E., Coffer, B.S., Byerley, R.T., 2002, Formal Organizational Initiatives and Informal Workplace Practices: Links to Work-Family Conflict and Job Related Outcomes, Journal of Management, Vol. 28, No. 6
Armour, S., October 19, 2003, More Companies Downsize Family-Friendly Programs, U.S.A. Today
Auerbach, H.W., 2006, Fairness at Work - Federal Labour Standards for the 21st Century, Federal Labour Standards Review
Flannery, R.B., May 2000, Violence in America: Coping with Drugs, Distressed Families, Inadequate Schooling and Acts of Hate, Continuum International Publishing Group
2. Long-term strategies
On the long run, the American organization should try to enlarge and consolidate their market share. They should constantly conduct research as to identify the new needs and wants of customers and integrate them within the ACME products. The success of this strategy will be obvious once the manufacturer is able to identify and satisfy needs before the clients become aware they even had those demands. The long-term strategy will be a pull one, where the audience is drawn towards the product, placed and promoted to represent the American tradition.
The ultimate operational desire for the ACME officials should be to increase efficiency. To achieve it, they should implement time management programs. These programs are aimed to increase the quality of the tasks performed within a given time. Also, they should combine them with training programs that teach employees how to reduce procrastination and how…
Fleming, J., Senior, B., February 2006, Organizational Change, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall
Paley, N., April 1999, Manager's Guide to Competitive Marketing Strategies, 2nd Edition, CRC Press
Jackson, J.B., March 2, 2007, Product Positioning Strategies, Ezine Articles, http://ezinearticles.com/?Product-Positioning-Strategies&id=474245,last accessed on July 10, 2008
This is the character I can relate to most. I often wait until the last minute to study for a test or to do a paper. Pulling all nighters is common, when I have a test the next day. Then I go into the class exhausted. For papers, at the last minute, I have to hurry up and not only get the work done, but done well. This is difficult, and there is a good possibility that my work is late, I do not do the best that I can, and the quality suffers.
I need to be more like the character Sniff in the book, especially since I usually know in advance what papers and tests are due and when. This means developing and, more important, following a better time management system. I have half-heartedly tried this in the past, but only do it for a couple of days.…
Johnson, S. (1998) Who Moved My Cheese? New York: Penguin Group.
However, in the abstract idea that all limitations are overcome and the top management succeeds in creating the boundaryless organisations, the company would be met with several advantages. For instance, the staff members would be more ingenious and more eager to help the employer resolve any impending problems. he company would benefit from more dedicated staff, which is free to come up with strategies and solutions and which in the end add more value to the entity.
JetBlue has taken the first steps in becoming a boundaryless organization when they encouraged the employees to become more involved in the decision making process. he HR strategy could carry on retrieving the most beneficial outcomes. he control over the staff members is however a boundary that is difficult to eliminate as the corporate success directly depends on how the staff interacts with the customers; and these interactions must be clearly supervised and…
The concept is rather fruitful in theory, but its practical application is quite difficult to achieve due to various limitations. For instance, there is a risk that the employees will increase procrastination and will decrease the quality of their operations; then, the control and supervision of the staff would be reduced and this would also negatively impact the organization. However, in the abstract idea that all limitations are overcome and the top management succeeds in creating the boundaryless organisations, the company would be met with several advantages. For instance, the staff members would be more ingenious and more eager to help the employer resolve any impending problems. The company would benefit from more dedicated staff, which is free to come up with strategies and solutions and which in the end add more value to the entity.
JetBlue has taken the first steps in becoming a boundaryless organization when they encouraged the employees to become more involved in the decision making process. The HR strategy could carry on retrieving the most beneficial outcomes. The control over the staff members is however a boundary that is difficult to eliminate as the corporate success directly depends on how the staff interacts with the customers; and these interactions must be clearly supervised and improved as to achieve the organizational goals.
2008, 25 Lessons from Jack Welch, 1000 Ventures, http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/mgmt_new-model_25lessons-welch.html#Boundarylessness , last accessed on May 26, 2008
As a testament to the respect he garners in the neighborhood, however, he is allowed to pass by without being sprayed by the water.
Radio Raheem's warrior status is first challenged in the film by a group of Latinos hanging out on their front stoop. They are listening to the radio, which is blasting Latin music. Suddenly, Radio Raheem appears, with his ghetto blaster pumping out Public Enemy. The Latinos react in anger, and turn up their music in order to drown out Radio Raheem's. This contest goes on for a few more takes, but it is ultimately Radio Raheem who emerges victorious in attaining maximum volume. The "fight" against the "power" has been won - at least momentarily. As Radio Raheem marches down the street, leaving his victims behind, a small black child runs up next to him. Radio Raheem gives the child a high five.
In another important…
Calvino, Italo. 1974. Invisible Cities. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Cannon, Damian. 1997. "Mean Streets (1973)." Movie Reviews UK. Retrieved April 24, 2008 from: http://www.film.u-net.com/Movies/Reviews/Mean_Streets.html.
Ebert, Roger. 2003. "Mean Streets." Retrieved April 25, 2008 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20031231/REVIEWS08/401010340/1023 .
Friedman, Lawrence S. 1997. The Cinema of Martin Scorsese. New York: Continuum.
Hamlet's enigmatic behavior so upsets Ophelia that she drowns herself, making Laertes even more set on revenge. Eventually these two deaths lead to a duel (provoked by Claudius) between Hamlet and Laertes, No one wins.
Laertes kills Hamlet with a poison-tipped sword; Hamlet kills Laertes. Gertrude drinks poison intended by Claudius for Hamlet. Hamlet, dying and seeing his mother already dead, forces the remaining poison down Claudius's throat. Conrad suggests that even with all of his flaws, including extreme procrastination, Hamlet is "essentially courageous" (680). Ultimately then, due either directly or indirectly to Hamlet's failure to act sooner and more decisively in avenging his father's death, everyone, yet no one, is avenged.
The catalyst for the tragic events that take place within Shakespeare's Hamlet is the title character's indecisiveness, leading to an unfortunate series of ill-timed; poorly executed events ultimately resulting in many deaths, most importantly that of Hamlet himself.…
Conrad, Bernard R. "Hamlet's Delay -- a Restatement of the Problem." PMLA, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Sep., 1926) 680-687.
Eliot, T.S. "Hamlet and his Problems." The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism.
London: Methuen, 1922. 74-88.
Lawall, Sarah, et al. "William Shakespeare 1564-1616." The Norton Anthology of World
[Bradley: 121]. According to Beck (1997) depressive symptoms include consistently low mood, pessimistic thoughts, loss of excitement and decreased energy. These symptoms are found in Hamlet as well as he calls himself melancholic (II.ii.597) and confirms his condition further by saying:
But I have that within which passes show,
These but the trappings and the suits of woe. (I.ii.85-6)
Hamlet also tells us that he has lost excitement for life and people in general as he confides in osencrantz and Guildenstern, saying nothing really excites or delights him anymore. (II.ii.295-309).
How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable
Seem to me all the uses of this world! (I.ii.133-4)
His negativity is also apparent on numerous occasions. For example he refers to Demark as a prison (II.ii.243) and makes bitter comments about women (III.i.111-51). He talks about death and mortality frequently and make allusions to poor sleep when he says, "were it not…
Bradley AC. Shakespearean tragedy [2nd ed]. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1924
Beck P. Symptoms and assessment of depression. In: Paykel ES, ed. Handbook of affective disorders [2nd ed]. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1997
Samuel Johnson, On Shakespeare, Penguin, London. 1989.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Writings on Shakespeare, Capricorn, N.Y. 1959.
There are three types of commitment: Affective (the employees identify themselves with organizational goals and stay within an organization because they want to); Continuance commitment - employees stay because they have to stay, they cannot afford to leave; Normative - employees stay because they feel obligated to do so; they ought to stay. However, the types of commitment I will foster in an organization with touristic profile would be normative commitment and affective commitment, implicitly. I believe that is a good combination to avoid absenteeism and turnover. Normative commitment can be enforced in several ways in such companies. One could be the training of employees - investing resources in training employees makes them feel they have an obligation to put forth effort on the job and remain inside the organization. For travel agents there are many possibilities for ensuring training - they can be trained in sales, in assertive communication…
Job Description of Travel Agents on http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/41-3041.00
2. Heathfield, S. "Understanding Stress and Workplace Stress"
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3. Froggatt, W. "Managing Stress in the Workplace with Rational EffectivenessTraining http://www.rational.org.nz/orgs/workstress.htmL. Ast Retrieve November 14, 2006
They think about the break, they go on the break and the come back thinking about the passed break and waiting to the future one. By the time they focus on the actual task, the next break is up. But if they get two breaks, of 30 minutes each, then they will not constantly interrupt their work and the efficiency would increase.
Setting stricter deadlines, but -- as a manager -- being prepared for them to be delayed. This strategy is useful as the stress of an upcoming deadline will often press the employees to be more active and efficient (Schilling, 2007). This does not mean that the employees would be exploited, only that the time allocated to procrastination is decreased.
Developing and implementing a reward system, based on performances. In other words, it would be necessary for the managers at the Junction Hotel to evaluate the efficiency of each…
Chapman, A., 2010, Frederick Herzberg's motivation and hygiene factors, Business Balls, http://www.businessballs.com/herzberg.htm last accessed on July 19, 2011
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There were times when waiting was necessary but such waiting did not result in my being psychologically damaged. Air conditioning was a fan in the window and, amazingly, we somehow managed with only one television. My father largely dictated what we watched but Saturday morning was my time and I took full advantage of it. Growing up all I ever wanted was to live in a similar home. Now, my dreams have expanded but I sometimes wish that I could bring myself to want nothing greater than what I grew up with. There was a beauty in the simplicity of it all.
Growing up as essentially an only child I was expected to help out around the house considerably. Both of my parents were severe taskmasters who did not tolerate excuses or prolonged explanations. They only wanted to know how and why something did not get done. My tasks were…
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As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
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History has shown time and again that effective leadership can make the difference between success and failure in almost any type of setting. Indeed, truly effective leadership in the workplace can produce valuable outcomes that far outweigh the meager resources that were used to achieve them. While the importance of effective communication methods is a consistent theme in the organizational leadership literature, other factors have also been identified as contributing to successful team outcomes, including mutual respect, accountability and commitment. Although there are no "one-size-fits-all" approaches to effective team leadership, it is possible to identify what techniques, strategies and tactics have been shown to work under different circumstances to develop a set of best practices that can generally inform team leaders in their efforts to lead their teams in achieving organizational goals. To this end, this paper reviews the literature concerning the relevant theories, principles, roles, strategies, tactics and the…
Betts, S.C. & Santoro, M.D. (2007). Integrating leadership Theories and team research: a conceptual framework based on level of analysis and type of control. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, 11(1), 1-3.
Clutterback, D. (2001, April). Linking Communication to Business Success: A Challenge for Communicators, International Association of Business Communicators. Retrieved from http://www.allbusiness.com/sector-54-professional-scientific/784539-1.html
Feiner, M. (2005). The Fiener Points of Leadership. Retrieved from http://www.feinerpoints.com/index2.php .
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Judicial independence is vital to a healthy society. Agree or disagree and discuss with particular reference to the judiciary system in Australia.
I agree with this statement. The reason why is because history is full of examples showing how judicial independence improves the overall amounts of: transparency and personal freedoms in society. This is because, an independent judiciary is providing a way of giving ordinary citizens the ability have their issues addressed. Once this takes place, it means that the rule of law can begin to function effectively, due to the fact that everyone feels that they will be treated fairly by the court system.
In those nations where the judiciary is often run by the government itself, this means that the citizens have less personal freedom. The reason why is because, the close relationship between these branches will give one more dominance over the others. Once this takes place,…
Australia is the 8th Least Corrupt Country. (2009). ABC. Retrieved from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/11/18/2745801.htm '
The Australian Legal System. (2011). Treasury. Retrieved from: http://www.treasury.gov.au/documents/1197/HTML/docshell.asp?URL=Preconditions-03.asp
The Courts. (2011). EMA. Retrieved from: http://www.ema.gov.au/www/agd/agd.nsf/Page/Legalsystemandjustice_TheCourts
The Duty owed to the Court. (2006). Supreme Court of Victoria. Retrieved from: http://www.supremecourt.vic.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/justlib/Supreme+Court/resources/3/c/3c87ba8045ff93b8bc85bf3676cca658/Chief+Justice+QLD+Bar+Assoc.pdf
person steals the property or possession of another, the action is considered both a criminal and moral offense that if caught, the corresponding penalties are meted out. The matter is easily provable because what was taken is a tangible entity that provides solid proof of the usurpation. The issue becomes contentious when what has been stolen is intangible especially if these are original ideas, thoughts, designs and concepts. This then comes under the purview of plagiarism, a well-known offense not only in the academic circles but in the milieus dealing with intellectual property rights and copyright. Plagiarism should be differentiated from copyright though wherein "copyright is an area of civil and criminal law that prevents a series of uses of a qualifying creative work [while] plagiarism is a primarily ethical issue that centers around the dishonesty of claiming another's work as your own (ailey, 2011)." Nonetheless, plagiarism at its plainest…
Bailey, J. (2011). The role of copyright in fighting plagiarism: Part 1 and 2. PlagiarismToday. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2011/07/05/role-of-copyright-fighting-plagiarism-part/
Hansen, B. (2003, September 19). Combating plagiarism. The CQ Researcher, 13(32): 773-796. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.cqpress.com/docs/Combating%20Plagiarism.pdf
Institute for Interactive Media and Learning. (2007, April 18). Why students plagiarise. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.iml.uts.edu.au/assessment/plagiarism/why.html
iParadigms, LLC. (2011). Plagiarism. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.plagiarism.org/