Procrastination Essays (Examples)

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Social Psychology

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47180616

Sirois, Fuscia M.; Melia-Gordon, Michelle L.; and Pychyl, Timothy A. 2003. "I'll look after my health, later'": and investigation of procrastination and health." Personality and Individual Differences 35, pp. 1167-1184.

Is the problem clearly stated?

The authors examined the mediational role of stress and health behaviors in the procrastination - illness relationship. This was an exploratory study looking for correlations that might indicate areas for further study. They hypothesized that stress mediates the procrastination-illness relationship. In addition they explored possible other factors that might affect any relationship between procrastination and health.

Does the problem have a theoretical rationale?

The theoretical rationale for the study was covered extensively in the review of the literature. Since there was little previous research connecting the behavioral trait of procrastination to physical health, the researchers included detailed study of the theoretical literature as well.

3) How significant is the problem?

The authors did not talk about the significance of the problem. They might have considered relating it to individuals who delay seeking health care because they lack health insurance. Alternatively they could have demonstrated some relationship between delay of treatment and medical outcome. There are many such examples including the outcome of those with myocardial…… [Read More]

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Boredom New Name Meaninglessness This Is

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45332485


New name = Meaninglessness.

This is the state of feeling apathetic and listless with the individual feeling lack of interest or absorption in anything of life's activities. The term 'meaning' implies that the activity or span of time is filled with intense interest and relevance to the person, infusing him or her with purpose and excitement. It is purpose-filled and, seen as leading to some definite outcome, imbues the agent and/or participants or spectators with vitality and a sense of being-with-itness, of living in the moment. The reverse of that -- 'meaninglessness' -- denotes the condition of eradication of meaning. Eradication of meaning is synonymous to boredom where life / existence or the present moment is seen as vapid, empty, and hollow, and where nothing of substance is seen to occur.

It is for this reason that existentialists often employ 'boredom' as term in their novels or philosophies, equating it with angst or anxiety where, even thoguh the individual may not be bored in the literal sense -- meaning that he or she may be having 'fun' in the time-honored traditional manner, nonetheless this 'fun' falls flat since it is meaningless. The resultant sensation is a vapidity and frustrated…… [Read More]

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Augustine Relates the Common Human Condition of

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21611827

Augustine relates the common human condition of procrastination directly to himself. It thus serves the dual purpose of expounding both the phenomenon of procrastination as experienced by humanity, and of illuminating for the reader the process that Augustine went through at this time. The significance of this is that Augustine is honestly reviewing his life and the mental processes that brought about his conversion.

The way in which he treats his development throughout the work is thus entirely honest and frank. In Book 3 and 4 for example Augustine explains his infatuation with a variety of different philosophical interests, including the Manichaen heresy, astrology and material influences. These, along with his search for an ever-illusive happiness and peace, are what keep him from fulfilling his mother's dream to become a true convert. He confesses to a sense of hunger that brought him to his endless journey of searching for pleasure:

"I came to Carthage, where a caldron of unholy loves was seething and bubbling all around me. I was not in love as yet, but I was in love with love; and, from a hidden hunger, I hated myself for not feeling more intensely a sense of hunger." (Book 3,…… [Read More]


Augustine. "Confessions."
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Economic and Psychological Effects of

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4262097

Thus, the longer a woman delays becoming pregnant, the more she is susceptible to suffering psychological ramifications.

Of course, the biological clock, or that which determines the best period of time in a woman's life to become pregnant and experience a successful pregnancy, plays a major role in fertility treatments. However, some young women, due to a lack of education early in life, may not realize that such a thing as a biological clock exist. According to Michael Fox, the absence of not knowing about this clock may exclude some women from receiving fertility treatments, due to waiting too long. Fox adds that as a result doctors and fertility specialists should "be more aggressive in the counseling of women who are in (their) early to mid thirties and beyond who consider delaying childbearing" (2000, Internet).


When a woman decides to wait until her mid forties or beyond to have a child or if she is told by her physician or OB/GYN that her procrastination has resulted in lowering her chances to become pregnant, she is left with few options. Some women who either wait too long or find out that they cannot conceive turn to high-tech fertility treatments like…… [Read More]


Berkowitz, G.S., et al. (1990). "Delayed Childbearing and the Outcome of Pregnancy." New England Journal of Medicine. 322.

Domar, A.D., et al. (2000). "Impact of Group Psychological Intervention on Pregnancy Rates in Infertile Women." Fertil Steril. 73.

Kearney, Brian. (1998). High-Tech Conception. New York: Bantam Books.

Fox, Michael. "Age and Fertility: The Biological Clock: Fact or Fiction?" Duval County Medical Society. Internet. May, 2000. Accessed September 29, 2005. http://www.dcmsonline.
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Burnout and Technical College Counselors

Words: 7250 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98439444

The assumption here is that counselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post secondary educational institutions, and the variety of services the 2-year postsecondary counselors must provide to these students. This assumption is congruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional school counselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties match the descriptions set forth by national standards for school counseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).

Consequently, school counselors are required to formulate decisions on a daily basis concerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many school counselors are overwhelmed by these constantly changing working conditions and requirements, and a number of counselors experience high levels of stress as a result. Because the connection between high levels of stress in the workplace and burnout are well documented, these findings represent issues of special concern because of the potential adverse impact on counselors' mental and physical well-being. Moreover, stress has also been associated with burnout (Wilkerson & Bellini). Consequently, heightened levels of stress and burnout can result in ineffective…… [Read More]

cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).

Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.

There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).

Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout

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Moore & Kearsley The Nature

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66188569

Among the research findings in this regard was the view that field independent student are often more successful in the distance learning environment. Other factors such as introversion and extroversion were discussed and introverted personality types were seen to be more successful in the distance teaching environment. It was also found that extracurricular concerns can have both positive and negative course completion outcomes. Support from family or employer was also found to be a very significant variable that had a positive effect.

Another relevant area of discussion was study skills. It was generally found that good study skills and habits were a central determining factor for the distance students. Furthermore, procrastination was found to be a very negative factor, especially if one takes into account the demands of the distance education.

The difference between the classrooms and the distance learning environment was also discussed, with many students stating that they preferred a more personal teaching or classroom environment. This also relates to various problems that the distance students tend to mention - including technical issues and particularly difficulties in contacting teachers and instructors. These aspects led to the cardinal issue of the perceived resistance to distance education and the factors…… [Read More]

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Hiring New Employees Is Generally

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95240301

It's a common problem and luckily it is one which can be fixed if it's addressed properly.


One of the best solutions to procrastination and rampant disorganization is to get the person in question to admit that he has a problem and to get him to admit that he's preventing himself from functioning at his highest level of productivity and success.

Introducing general organizational skills to Carl could be a crucial factor in his success. Carl might never have received such basic training when he was developing. "Employees in the workplace must have general organizational skills, which allow them to determine the supplies they need, how to arrange their files and whom to contact for specific information. Managers who work with employees will often organize the work of employees to keep them busy, especially those that require a lot of direction, like file clerks or contract workers" (Suttle). In conjunction with that skill, Carl will need to learn basic planning skills and how to get projects completed within specific time periods, and how to plan accurately to bring tasks to fruition and to anticipate problems that could potentially delay the project (Suttle). Carl also needs to be taught skills…… [Read More]


Grohol, J. (2005, January 10). Learn About Procrastination. Retrieved from 

Kirsch, M. (2013). Stop Procrastinating -- Right Now! Retrieved from

Marano, H. (2010, July 7). Procrastination: Ten Things To Know. Retrieved from

Suttle, R. (n.d.). Organizational Skills in the Workplace. Retrieved from
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Annoying Procrastinator There Are Many Modern Definitions

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90827130

Annoying Procrastinator

There are many modern definitions of a human behavioral trait known as procrastination. One of the most common ways of understanding procrastination is as a "behavior sequence of postponement." (A Brief History of Procrastination)

This type of behavior results in a "substandard behavioral product" involving some aspect that is seen to be important. (ibid) This in turn leads to states of emotional "upset" and distress.

In simpler terms, a procrastinator is someone who avoids or puts off doing some important work or completing a significant task. The individual is not necessarily lazy but often delays participation as a way of protecting himself against potential failure or rejection. Procrastinators are often prone to perfectionism and by avoiding performance protect their self-esteem. Often it's a simple case of not being adequately interested in the task at hand. Researchers have found that task aversiveness and not task capability determines whether a person will procrastinate.

Another example of a procrastinator is someone in an office who continually finds reasons for not dealing with an approaching deadline or task that must be completed. Usually a procrastinator will find logical reasons to support his or her delaying strategies. For example, they might argue that…… [Read More]


A Brief History of Procrastination. March 20, 2005.
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Maladaptive Perfectionism

Words: 2212 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6082859

Dr. Mai Rizk

Perfectionism, is it something that's good or bad?

What is Perfectionism?

Cons of Perfectionism

Perfectionism within everyday

Pros of Perfectionism


Perfectionism is often regarded as a personality trait that is undesirable in most areas in life, especially as it pertains to social relationships and even to some extent professional relationships (Benson, 2014). Although professional relationships often admire perfectionists and their ability to go above and beyond what is required of them, it can also lead to overwhelming stress and unnecessary conflicts. Perfectionists believe that people do not need nor deserve second chances if they try their best at something. The inherent problem with this statement is perfection is hard to come by and when feeling are involved, perfection is almost or completely non-existent.

Perfection is limited and interpretation of situations is subjective. Therefore it is best to give people second chances in order to allow one's self not only a better relationship with the individual or group, but also to mature emotionally as a human being. I myself agree that perfectionism is a pointless burden because it generates too much stress and standards that most cannot meet. (In fact most psychologists and sociologists see perfectionists develop…… [Read More]


Benson, E. (2014). The many faces of perfectionism. Retrieved 30 November 2014, from

Burnam, A., Komarraju, M., Hamel, R., & Nadler, D. (2014). Do adaptive perfectionism and self-determined motivation reduce academic procrastination? Learning and Individual Differences, 1. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2014.10.009

Flett, G., Druckman, T., Hewitt, P., & Wekerle, C. (2011). Perfectionism, Coping, Social Support, and Depression in Maltreated Adolescents. J Rat-Emo Cognitive-Behav Ther, 30(2), 118-131. Doi: 10.1007/s10942-011-0132-6

Frost, R., & Steketee, G. (2002). Cognitive approaches to obsessions and compulsions. Amsterdam: Pergamon.
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Natural as Speaking On the

Words: 1345 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62653902

The deadliest enemy to writer's block is re-reading what I just wrote and analyzing it.

However, getting past the stream-of-consciousness stage is even harder than getting started. That's when I start realizing that other people are going to read what I write. No matter how I feel about it, a deadline is looming and I have to produce. Being disciplined is essential at this stage because only pressure can keep the pen or keyboard going. Even when I am not interested in writing about myself in a diary I can use stream of consciousness to compose the first draft of an essay. With stream of consciousness I can write without worrying about how it sounds, even to me. I can get into a mind state beyond any self-criticism. I can worry about technicalities later.

The technicalities are easier to deal with when the raw content is there. Writing without stream-of-consciousness is like trying to make gasoline without tapping an oil well. At some point I have to engage in the mundane process of tapping the well. Once I strike oil, then I can worry about refining the product.

With the basic grammar skills I have from grade school, I can…… [Read More]

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HRM Outline Human Resource Management

Words: 9449 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89370006

, 2010). The model includes several mediator (e.g., knowledge exchange) and moderator variables (e.g., self-leadership competencies of actors) that explain why and when this approach is effective and looks at leadership in more of a comprehensive way than focusing on one individual. Such perspectives have suggested that when employees become involved in the decision making processes then this can strengthen leadership.

Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership is the leadership model that represents what most people view as the concept of management. Transactional leadership is defined by an exchange relationship between the managers and the employees that are all motivated by their own self-interests and meeting the expectations that are associated with their job description. Transactional leadership consists of monitoring, controlling, and motivating employees through economic incentives and other types of exchange incentives (Bass, 1985). Most of the motivation in this model stems from financial exchanges such as by either salaries, performance bonuses, benefits or other incentives to lead the organization towards is shared goals by more of a contractual arrangement than anything else.

On form of transactional leadership is known as management by exception. This is a form of management that involves monitoring performance at regular intervals and taking corrective action…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alipour, F., K., I., & Karimi, R. (2011). Knowledge Creation and Transfer: Role of Learning Organization. International Journal of Business Administration, 2(3), 61-67.

Antonacopolou, E. (2001). The Paradoxical Nature of the Relationship Bewteen Training and Learning. Journal of Management Studies, 38(3), 327-350.

Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Bass, B. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industry, military, and educational impact. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
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Paradise III Decisions in Paradise

Words: 997 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78106877

Certain physical resources, including educational handbooks, facilities for training, and infrastructure resources will also be needed. The supply of these resources should be kept in Kava inasmuch as is possible, in order to provide jobs and establish business and social roots in the community on the island. Actions that need to be taken include preliminary meetings with government officials and social leaders, the evaluation of locations for youth development programs and the hiring and training of instructors, which again should be selected from the people of Kava if at all possible in order to build and maintain stronger ties in the community and establish early goodwill through good instruction and god opportunities. These actions and the limited resource consumption they require will give a sense of the organization's values and purpose to the people of Kava in addition to Nik, Chris, and Alex, providing a consistent and strong values-based platform for the organization on the island of Kava, upon which the rest of the organization's developments can be built.

Ethical Considerations Stakeholder Perspectives

The time pressures that exist for many organizations and industries today can lead to rash actions that do not full take into account all of the necessary…… [Read More]

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IT Policy for Your Company

Words: 3694 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80663943

This particular employee is left with less time to perform his professional tasks. This translates into a delay in the project delivery schedule. Additionally, the project delays could generate major customer dissatisfactions, or the breakage of contractual terms, which could easily materialize in more severe organizational losses. Nevertheless, considering that the employee works overtime to reduce the chance of project delays, this time has to be remunerated; virtually, it translates into increased financial costs for the company. Then, the mobile telephone could be used to make quick telephones to competitors and as such sabotage the company's efforts and success chances.

3. Opponents of an IT Policy

Despite the validity of the arguments presented in favor of implementing a strong IT policy, fact remains that there exist also some reasons which make a strong IT policy less favorable within the context of the modern workplace. These are succinctly described below.

3.1. Installation of pirated software

The matter of piracy in the workplace is somewhat different from the following three parts for the simple reason that it involves not only features of morality and work ethics, but is in its essence an illegal operation. Given this situation, it is rather difficult for…… [Read More]


Finlay, W., Clarke, M.J., 1990, New Technology and the Modern Workplace: The Prospects for Industrial Accord, Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 4

2007, Microsoft Admits Piracy Benefits, Computer Business Review,  last accessed on December 9, 2009

2008, Effects of Software and Internet Piracy, Top SEO, / last accessed on December 8, 2009

2009, Internet Abuse in the Workplace, Staff Monitoring Solutions, last accessed on December 8, 2009
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Public Sector Strategy and Leadership

Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85246950

Welcome any and all suggestions [...]

4. Decide together on the best solution. Seek consensus in doing this" (Bruce and Pepitone, 1998)

The solution presented above has the direct benefit of involving the employees in the decision making process. This will make them feel that they are valuable assets for the organization and will increase their morale. However, to ensure that the staff members increase their performances as well, the leaders at the CAB have to offer them a wide series of incentives. These could include (but are not limited to): wage increases, premiums and bonuses, more flexible schedules, more extensive benefit plans, opportunities for promotions, training and professional development programs, day care centers for their children or more holydays and personal days

5. Changes in the Managerial Style and the Organizational Culture

Following the 1980s, the business community and the public sector have been struggling with reduced levels of quality, high employee turnover rates and absenteeism. "These weaknesses are associated with the most common organizational cultures and leadership styles. The premise for change is that such styles alienate the workforce, through failing to provide a genuine sense of involvement in and commitment to corporate goals. The basic challenge, then,…… [Read More]


Bruce, a., Pepitone, J.S., 1998, Motivating Employees: A Briefcase Book, McGraw Hill Professional

Cascio, W.F., Boudreau, J.W., Ramstad, P.M., 2008, Investing in People: Financial Impact of Human Resource Initiatives, FT Press

David, F., 1989, Strategic Management, Columbus Merrill Publishing Company

Joyce, P., Woods, a., 2001, Strategic Management: A Fresh Approach to Developing Skills, Knowledge and Creativity, Kogan Page Publishers
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Hybrid Online Instruction There Is

Words: 3091 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2875150

Class Assessment Techniques

Classroom Assessment Techniques are decisive methods of evaluation that are useful in two major areas. The level of which the student has understood the content of the course can be assessed and provides information regarding your teaching methods efficiency. It's an approach which bases on the fact that the planning of learning activities and structuring of teaching is better when one knows the how and what the student is learning. It's also a simple technique which is anonymous and non-graded activities of in-class that provided useful feedback to the teacher and the students on the learning and teaching process. The difference of Classroom Assessment to other methods of assessing the students is that its objective is to improve the course and not grade assignment. It's primarily aimed at understanding of the learning process of the student and improvement of the teaching approaches (Angelo, & Cross, 1995, p.257).

The concerns regarding effective teaching and better learning are addressed directly by Classroom Assessments and other Classroom research methods. Classroom Assessment is a major component of classroom research which was developed purposefully to ensure college instructor are more sensitive and systematic observers to the learning process in the daily classroom…… [Read More]


Alexander, B. (2006). Web 2.0: A new wave of innovation for teaching and learning? Educause

Review, 41(2), 32-44. Retrieved March 29th 2010 from

Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1995). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bartram, D. (2007). Guidelines and standards for computer-based testing. Retrieved March, 30th,
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Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood

Words: 4019 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62247855

" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that childhood abuse "was related to a large range of physical and psychosocial difficulties." (Cromer, 2005; p. 14) the work of Nemeroff et al. (2004)states findings that there is an association between experiences in childhood and "increased adult psychopathology" which can be explained by the "profound effect early-life experiences have on…… [Read More]


Beamish, Patricia M. And Hill, Nicole R. (2007) Treatment outcomes for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.(Private Practices) Journal of Counseling and Development 22 Sept 20077. Online available at

Bechtel, Robert B. And Ts'erts'Man, Arzah (2002) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Boston University School of Social Work (2007) Online available at

Cromer, Kiara R. (2005) a Pathoplastic Vulnerability Mode: An Association Between Traumatic Stressful Life Events & OCD. Florida State University 2005. Online available at
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PSI System and Other Educational

Words: 5885 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5995460


The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.

Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.

A wealth of empirical studies have documented the benefits of other educational approaches that emphasize different learning styles and intellectual strengths outside of those typically rewarded by traditional approaches to academic education. In particular, Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory teaches that traditional educational methods largely exclude many students whose greatest capacity for learning…… [Read More]


Abdulwahed, M. And Nagy, Z.K. "Applying Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle for Laboratory Education." Journal of Engineering Education. American Society for Engineering Education. 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from HighBeam


Burton, J.K., Moore, D.M., and Magliaro, S.G. (2004). Behaviorism and instructional technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

Dunne, J.D. (1997). Behavior Analysis: No Defense Required. Wright University.
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Stress Statement of Authorship I Assert That

Words: 934 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26413647


Statement of Authorship: I assert that this material was written by me, and that any external sources consulted are properly cited and listed in the bibliography.

University students may be under high levels of stress due to their workloads and conflicting pressures from friends, family, and job. Research points to a set of proven stress reduction techniques that can be incorporated into any student's daily life. Techniques can be varied, depending on individual preferences, needs, and situations. For example, one solution for reducing stress is to cease associating with people who are negative or angry (University of Victoria Counselling Services, 2004). However, for some students this is not possible because bosses or family members could be the culprits and it would be difficult to extricate oneself from the social situation. In general, though, the techniques of stress reduction can be carried out with the result of better health and overall well being.

Positive self-talk and other mental health techniques can be especially useful for students. Keeping a thought diary or log of self-talk can help students recognize when they think thoughts of low self-esteem or self-hatred, and then learn how to correct those thoughts. Negative self-talk can be replaced…… [Read More]

Williams, K.A., Kolar, M.M., Reger, B.E., & Pearson, J.C. (2001). Evaluation of a Wellness-based Mindfulness Stress Reduction Intervention: A Controlled Trial. American Journal of Health Promotion: July/August 2001, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 422-432.

Winefield, T., Boyd, C., Saebel, J. & Pignata, S., 2008. Update on national university stress study. In Australian Universities Review 50(1).

Woolfolk, R.L., Lehrer, P.M. & Allen, L.A., 2007. "Conceptual issues underlying stress management. Chapter 1 in Principles and Practices of Stress Management. Guilford.
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Feminist Reading of Austen's Persuasion I Will

Words: 2126 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93736056

Feminist Reading of Austen's Persuasion

"I Will Not Allow Books to Prove Anything":

Women Reading and Women Writing in Austen's Persuasion

Feminist criticism is equally concerned with female authorship and with female readership and in the case of Jane Austen, both issues must be addressed. Frantz in 2009 noted that on one level Austen's influence on female readership has been immense: she claims that "readers and authors of contemporary romance claim Jane Austen as the fountainhead of all romance novels," a genre which constituted the "largest share of the consumer market in 2008" but which is assumed to have an exclusively female readership. Yet feminist criticism of the early novel overall has begun to focus specifically on the rationale offered for novel-reading in the eighteenth century, when the printer's apprentice Samuel Richardson wrote Pamela in imitation of what Jenny Davidson describes as "conduct manuals," or books of etiquette for female readers. As Davidson notes in her discussion of Austen, this genre presents female readers with "an elaborate code which governs the behavior of young women" (157). But the problem with a book is that one needs to learn how to read it. The question of female literacy is intimately linked…… [Read More]


Austen, Henry. "A Memoir of Jane Austen." A Memoir of Jane Austen and Other Family Recollections. Ed. Kathryn Sutherland. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. 147-154. Print.

Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park. New Jersey: Gramercy Books, 1981. Print.

Austen, Jane. Persuasion. Project Gutenberg. Web.

Davidson, Jenny. Hypocrisy and the Politics of Politeness: Manners and Morals from Locke to Austen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
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Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second

Words: 3701 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93159084

Knowledge and Learning and Teaching a Second Language:

Researchers have divided the skills necessary for the acquisition of second language comprehension, particularly in the reading area, into two general theories: bottom-up, text-based, psycholinguistic approaches or top-down, socially-oriented conceptual approaches. In each case, lack of second language comprehension is attributed to misunderstanding of some key variable of the approach. For example, bottom-up studies tend to trace miscomprehension to misunderstanding of grammar (syntax), vocabulary (semantics), or other textual aspects. Accordingly, comprehension from the bottom-up is a data-driven process (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983).

In contrast, top-down studies primarily attribute miscomprehension to the lack of specific background knowledge or cultural familiarity that is necessary to understand the text. Top-down understanding is seen as a process that is driven by concepts (Carrell and Eisterhold, 1983). Goodman (1967) is credited with first recognizing this additional aspect to reading comprehension, although he did not use the term "top-down" (Adamson, 1993, p. 45). Another early researcher in this area, Steffenson, Joag-dev, and Anderson (1979), focused on the cultural barriers to reading comprehension. Later work solidified this type of approach into the Schema Theory Model, where understanding involves an interaction between background knowledge of the reader, described as the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adamson, H.D. (1993). Academic competence: Theory and classroom practice. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.

Bernhardt, E.B. (2001). Progress and procrastination in second language reading research. Retrieved January 29, 2003 at

Carrell, P.L. (1983a). Background knowledge in second language comprehension. Language Learning and Communication. 2, 25-34.

Carrell, P.L. (1983b). Three components of background knowledge in reading comprehension. Language Learning. 33, 183-207.
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Learning Objectives and Action Plans

Words: 2434 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7485861

Learning Goals and Action Plans

Management Skills Learning and Development Action Plan

Career Goal and career Opportunities

Currently, I am midway in my career and all is going well. At this point in time, I have another 20 -- 25 years of service remaining. From the onset, it is important to note that I have spent the majority of my career in Middle Management with a strong yearning to delve into Senior Leadership. Towards this end, I have taken advantage of numerous Professional development opportunities and completed a number of degrees in Education to further my career prospects. I hold a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Education, Masters of Education and a Graduate Certificate in Theology. I have largely immersed myself into the Catholic Education arena, specifically at the Secondary level. I have also worked in positions of middle leadership such as Director of Music, Religious Education Coordinator, Youth minister and Pastoral Care Coordinator. Within the next three years, I expect to be in a position of Senior Leadership such as a Deputy Principal or any other position of equal value. Having completed my Master's degree in Educational Leadership and having significant currency in Theology and Religious Education, I feel…… [Read More]


Antonakis, J., Fenley, M. & Liechti, S. (2012). Learning Charisma. Retrieved from

Birkinshaw, J. & Cohen, J. (2012). Make Time for the Work that Matters. Retrieved from

Butt, J. (2014). ENTJ Description. Retrieved from

Buckingham, M. (2005). What Great Managers Do. Retrieved from
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Analyzing Depression in Adolescents Group

Words: 3394 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83809960

Depression in Adolescents Group

Curriculum overview

This group aims at aiding participants in modifying their cognitions, maladaptive schemas, and behaviors. Participants acquire a grasp of how to be more relaxed and occupied in more pleasing activities. Such changes to behavior will trigger the succeeding profounder change levels. Participating individuals will be aided in altering their depressogenic and impractical thoughts as well, to thoughts that are more practical, successively decreasing their depression levels. In order to achieve true, longer-term change, as well as to lower the possibility of recurrence of depression, one needs to modify maladaptive schemas. The group is presented with the 'schemas' idea, group members are aided in distinguishing their respective schemas, and efforts are initiated towards altering schemas. However, one must bear in mind the fact that this process of schema transformation is time-consuming and won't be achieved by the time of the group's termination. Participants in the group complete the BHS (Beck Hopelessness Scale) and BDI (Beck Depression Inventory), record their dysfunctional thoughts on a daily basis, and obtain depression-related knowledge (Corey et al., 2011).

Goals: Providing participants with depression-related information, facilitating cognitive and behavioral changes in them, and triggering the maladaptive schema change process.

Target: Students…… [Read More]


Association for Specialists in Group Work. (2007). Best practice guidelines 2007 revisions. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 33(2). doi: 10.1080/01933920801971184

Clabby, J. F. (2006). Helping Depressed Adolescents: A Menu of Cognitive-Behavioral Procedures for Primary Care. Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 8(3), 131-141.

Corey, G., Corey, M.S., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Myers, J.E., Willse, J.T., & Villalba, J.A. (2011). Promoting self-esteem in adolescents: The influence of wellness factors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1), 28-36. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00058.x
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Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory According

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37174595

Technical tasks are preferred over people and interpersonal details. They also enjoy experimenting, simulating, and working with practical applications.

When there are too many people with one learning type over another in the same organization, there may be a deficiency in a particular type of strength which could prove to be valuable to the organization. For instance, if the organization does not have any accommodators, but rather has several convergers, divergers, and assimilators, then the organization may be in need of an individual whom can work quickly and whom can figure something out without a given set of procedure or directions and whom perhaps can derive conclusions based upon his/her gut instinct. If an agency has a balance of learners and the agency is aware of the strengths and weaknesses within the organization, then groupings may be done so that each group has an individual representing a particular learning style. Furthermore, many organizations spend a significant amount of money investing in the training of their employees. Corporate trainers should be aware of the types of learners in their audience so that all employees' learning needs are taken into consideration when preparing how to deliver information so as to foster real…… [Read More]


Osland, H., Kolb, D.A., & Rubin, I. (n.d.). Organizational Behavior (8th ed.).
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Apologize Profoundly for Handing This

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56413942


Tenant agrees to allow Landlord access to apartment in the case of, and for the purpose of, investigation of apartment and for prerequisite repairs.


Tenant refrains from accumulating litter, junk, or waste materials on premises and contracts to maintain all furnishings in the apartment in like condition as when taken. At the end of this contract no additional repairs should be necessary beyond normal wear and tear.


A maximum of 2 vehicles are parked on the premises, and these vehicles are moved in the event of snowplowing.

Premises are kept in accordance with government legislation (including police, sanitary, and other regulations).


Eviction occurs to Tenant on the following grounds:

Unpaid rent; conviction of crime in connection with premises; and the aforementioned agreements are violated. In these and similar circumstances, the Landlord and/or representative(s) of the Landlord may evict the Tenant.



That the Tenant(s) signing this contract will be undisturbed in their leasing of the premises provided that they follow aforesaid terms of the agreement


To return deposit to Tenants within 30 days following the expiration of their lease, provided that damages and unpaid rent have been covered, and that an itemized list…… [Read More]

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English Comp the Most Beneficial

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4664371

After reading the chapter, I have come to understand the significance of journaling. With journaling, I feel free to say what I want and not feel guilty when what I write does not amount to much. Journaling helps me clear my mind and it helps me remember ideas. Reading over my journal entries helps me act on my ideas and keep track of them. I actually have two different journals -- one for ideas, which helps me stay focused and a personal journal that is more for reflecting. I love the journaling concept because an entry can be as short or as long as I want it to be. My personal journal allows me to express my feelings, which helps me feel as though my mind is clear. This is especially helpful at the end of a long, tired day.

What I have learned the most from this chapter is how writing does not have to feel like a task or an assignment. Many times, I see writing as something that must be done and I generally put it off and end up working under pressure. Understanding that it can be an enjoyable process is actually something different for me…… [Read More]

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Allstate Insurance Company Using the

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72648203

In terms of the second component of the motivational strategy at the Allstate Insurance Company, the Quarterly Leadership Measurement System however, I feel that this is a technical business tool aimed at a numerical and factual understating of people, operations and workplace settings. Additionally, I feel that when under the pressure of a quarterly examination, the motivation and drive for work would be replaced by anxiety. However the fact that the research is conducted quarterly, rather than annually like it is in most firms, translates into a higher managerial ability to really observe and understand the particularities and performances of each individual staff members.

On the long-term however, I think that these two motivational strategies are insufficient and that new elements ought to be added in order to maintain the employees satisfied and motivated.

All in all, the Allstate Insurance Company is a reputable presence within the American insurance industry. The strategic vision at the basis of its expansion strategy has been that of setting intermediate goals in the satisfaction of the needs of the various categories of stakeholders, and through this, the accomplishment of the overall organizational scopes. Two particular elements of this strategy have been those of embracing…… [Read More]


Cassacchia, C., 2008, American Association of Justice ranks Allstate No. 1 among nation's worst insurers, Business Journal, last accessed on July 21, 2010

Wemple, E., Allstate gets spanking, Washington City Paper, http://www.*****/blogs/citydesk/2008/07/09/allstate-gets-a-spanking / last accessed on July 21, 2010

2006, In tough hands at Allstate, Business Week, last accessed on July 21, 2010

2010, Allstate Insurance Company Website, last accessed on July 21, 2010
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Starting a Sports Program at

Words: 2797 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42154822

8. Staffing

The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:

Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.

One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.

One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the given circumstances. A sports counselor can help students prioritize and identify their sports talents, or they can help them apply to schools which offer sports scholarships. Given however that the services of the counselor would not be required on daily basis, it would as such be advisable to hire him…… [Read More]


Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge

Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland

Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac,  last accessed on July 6, 2010

2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, last accessed on July 6, 2010
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Grammar Issues in Public My

Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90274737

Purely from a technical perspective, my writing habits are actually not that bad: I know how to free-write my ideas; I am good at organizing them into logical order afterwards; I make good outlines; and then, I am able to develop those outlines into rough drafts and a final product. The principal problem that I encounter in my writing is that all of that tends to occur within a much shorter time frame than necessary for optimal results because of my tendency to procrastinate. In fact, I realize that I am now so conditioned to procrastinating that it is very difficult for me to get into the right frame of mind for concentration on my writing task unless I am already under significant time pressure. Once in a great while, I have had the experience of misconstruing a deadline and believing that an assignment (or an exam) was scheduled earlier than it actually was. On another occasion, a deadline extension was granted, spontaneously, to the entire class the day before a major project was due. Those are the ideal circumstances for me to produce my best work, simply because I am forever handing in work or sitting for exams in…… [Read More]

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Warming Ethics Global Warming and

Words: 2352 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28606530

The human causes of global warming are less certain than the eventual depletion of fossil fuels, but the damages predicted to result from uncontrolled warming brought on by fossil fuels are so great that the gamble becomes too great. Only the same intentions as listed above would take this risk with future generations.

The Need for Action

The ethical and social issues at work in the use of fossil fuels and the global warming phenomenon create a clear need for effective action to be taken, and soon. Many scientists believe that it may already be too late to halt the warming trend, let alone reverse it -- the build up of greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has created a situation that is already self-perpetuating, meaning that the warmer temperatures observed over the past century will continue to rise even if all use of fossil fuels and release of greenhouse gases ceased immediately (Ralston 2009). The same is possibly true of peak oil; if we have already passed the point of peak production, there is no going back (Graefe 2009).

Action can still be taken on both fronts, however. In order to create the greatest potential…… [Read More]


Graefe, L. (2009). "The peak oil debate." Economic review 94(2), pp. 1-14.

Howard, R. (2009). "Peak oil and strategic wars." Futurist 43(5), pp. 18-21.

Ralston, S. (2009). "Engineering an Artful and Ethical Solution to the Problem of Global Warming." Review of policy research 26(6), pp. 821-37.

Rathore, B.; Kulkarni, A. & Sherasia, N. (2009). "Understanding future changes in snow and glacier melt runoff due to global warming in Wangar Gad basin, India." Research communications 97(7), pp. 1077-81.
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Psychology - Counseling Intro to

Words: 1479 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25105508

However, they should also know what aspects of they reveal are confidential. An adolescent should know if he or she says that he 'hates his parents' that the therapist does not have a responsibility to 'tattle' to the client's parent, even if the parent is paying for the session

2b. Discuss 2 counseling situations where duty to warn would be necessary. What would be the ethical issues involved: If the client is likely to be harmful to others, such as if he or she threatens someone physically, the therapist must report the threats. Also, if the client is likely to be harmful to him or herself, such as threatening suicide or acting in a manner that is so severely delusional he or she is not competent to engage in basic self-care, the therapist may need to act. (Such as a patient engaging in severe self-harm or a patient with a severe eating disorder). The therapist must evaluate the seriousness of the client's threat and the rights of those individuals affected by the client.

2c. Discuss the importance of ethical standards in the counseling profession: Clients must feel as if they can be candid with their therapists. Therapy as a profession…… [Read More]


Corey, G., (2009) Theory and practice of counseling & psychotherapy. (8th Edition). Belmont,

CA. Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Family systems. (2009). Genogram. Retrieved November 24, 2009 at
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HR Portfolio Project Human Resource

Words: 3313 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87264248

Essential Mental Functions: the new senior developers are expected to reveal fair behavior towards their colleagues, subalterns, supervisors and clients. Among the most important mental functions that need to be possessed are: the ability to discern between what is right and what is wrong and what is ethical and what is unethical; empathy and kindness; the ability to make and enforce decisions; a good and reliable memory; originality, creativity and a sense for innovation (extremely important within the it community); the ability and desire to engage in cognitive efforts; the ability to be reasonable and communicative; the ability to rely on his/her own power and skills to resolve a task or a problem (such as a conflict in the workplace); the function of being temperate

Essential Physical Functions: considering that the candidate possesses the necessary mental functions, the necessities regarding physical functions are less comprehensive. Given the rather sedentary nature of the programming business, the sole physical requirement is for the candidate to be able to reveal palm and finger mobility. For the future, we consider the introduction of software that will allow writing code through dictation, rather than typing. Until we achieve this however, it is necessary that our…… [Read More]

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Study Skills and Why They

Words: 1422 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 631363

This also refers to the false impression that cramming is a successful learning technique. As this study notes; "…it is much better to create an interval between the times you study an item" ( Glenn, 2007, p. 2). Similarly, a study entitled Smart way to study (2009) also emphasizes that intervals between study session have been shown to improve retention and understanding of the material. This method also means that information is retained and can be utilized in a more interactive manner by the student.

3. Tips to improve study skills

Study preparations are an important part of developing useful and long-term study skills. As has been referred to, the organization and management of the correct study skills that are appropriate to each individual's predilections is an important aspect that should be borne in mind in the development of successful learning skills. This also includes significant aspects, such as choosing the right time to study and the environment in which one studies. An environment should be selected where there are few distractions and as little noise as possible.

Another important aspect is the time that is set aside for study. A specific number of hours set aside for study each…… [Read More]


Fleming G. Would Group Study Improve Your Grades? College Professors Think So!

Retrieved July 16, 2009, from

Larson, S. (2005). Teaching for Transformation in Today's Challenging Youth.

Reclaiming Children and Youth, 14(1), 27+. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from Questia database:
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Online Ed Outlines Introduction and

Words: 1619 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76629443

The way we communicate says everything about who we are, and in this small and diverse world it is of increasing importance.

Being Prepared: Example

The online community seems to provide a great deal of anonymity, but the things said there have a farther reach and larger staying power than previous communications.

Learning to communicate effectively and politely will take you very far.

Planning for the Future: Overview

Setting goals is the first step in achieving them. Knowing about your values can help you determine what you want to get out of life. After determining this, you can set meaningful, realistic, and practical goals based on these identified desires.

Goals take many forms, but three essential goals to set during your college years are personal, academic, and professional goals. Though there is always room to adjust them planning now will help you immensely in achieving your future goals.

Planning for the Future: Example

Goals also need plans of action to achieve them. Part of tis plan comes in developing your idea of what you want.

I did not set out initially to become a writer, but as I let my values lead me to certain activities, types of learning, and…… [Read More]

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Educational Resources the School Library

Words: 365 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31235964

Achieving goals only depends on prioritizing those goals that are the most important and fulfilling them first.

Managing Time Wisely

To manage time wisely, we can create schedules for ourselves. Study time can be worked into anyone's schedule. We can reserve blocks of time for social events, sports, and other activities, too. Procrastination should be avoided at all costs; if something can be achieved now then now is the best time to do the work.

Fostering Reading Comprehension and Retention

Reading comprehension and retention require practice. The more we read the more we will understand. Our vocabularies expand and so will our understanding of how sentences are constructed. Retaining what we read demands a high level of concentration, which also takes practice to develop.

Applying Personality and Learning Styles

Personality affects the way we learn and the environment we prefer to learn in. If we recognize our learning style, we can emphasize our strengths by studying in ways that benefit us. For example, some individuals learn best when listening to music, and others learn best when…… [Read More]

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Interpersonal Process & Strategy Framework

Words: 1129 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12712770

For instance, when a needed to resolve personal issues, the manager understood him and supported him by allowing flexible schedules and even reduced amounts of work when possible.

Apathy: Apathy is situated at the opposite pole from love, but they are somehow similar in the meaning that they are seldom found in the workplace. The modern working environment tries to resolve such issues and find solutions to remove such strong feelings. In the given situation, it could be said that the friend of the dissatisfied employee manifested apathy towards the management. These feelings were however of short duration, based on the impulse of supporting a and also on previous negative experiences with the manager.

3. Aggression

Aggression towards the other: In the current scenario, most of the aggressive behavior was revealed by the supporting friend B. However he did not become involved in direct disputes, he would reveal flashes of anger directed at the manager, during which he would badmouth him.

Confrontation: A direct confrontation was avoided by all three parties. A was frustrated and felt that he deserved the raise. Having to ask for it made him feel unappreciated and humiliated. Therefore, he avoided a direct discussion with the…… [Read More]


Bion, W.R., Experiences in Groups, New York: Basic Books, 1961

Schutz, W., FIRO: A Three Dimensional Theory of Interpersonal Behavior, New York: Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1958
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Financial and Managerial Accounting Activity-Based

Words: 3164 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71581363

The applicability of Activity-Based Costing for decision making is directly linked to the influences that ABC has over process control. In this order of ideas, by better identifying the incurred costs or the overhead, managers can better monitor and control the evolution of products, prices, costs and consequently, profits. ABC identifies the costs incurred by each item in terms of resources consumed. Therefore, with the aid of ABC, organizational managements have the ability to control resource allocation.

Activity-Based Costing reveals yet another significant feature: it has the ability to evaluate the costs of not producing an item. This basically means that with the aid of the ABC, managers are able to know how much they have lost due to machine malfunctioning, product damaging, increased inventory costs or time spent waiting for a machine component to be replaced. "Activity-Based Costing therefore gives not only much better cost control, but increasingly, it also gives result control" (Drucker, 2006).

4. Systems of Control within Organizations

As established by Kaplan and Cooper, organizations can be qualified in terms of their implemented control systems. Vicxo Software currently finds itself at the border of the second and third stages. In other words, it used to implement…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnat, R., 2005, Strategic Control: A New Perspective, Strategic Control, accessed on October 21, 2008

Chellasamy, P., Ligy, V.K., 2008, Activity-Based Costing - a Tool for Decision Making, Fibre 2 Fashion, accessed on October 21, 2008

Cooper, R., Kaplan, R.S., 1998, Design of Cost Management Systems, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall

Drucker, P.F., 2006, Classic Drucker, Harvard Business School Press
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Ethical Strengths and Weaknesses of

Words: 2800 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88316431

The basic reason for the diverse findings could refer to the following:

most studied have been conducted on a single organization the family-friendly policies are analyzed as a whole and therefore the efficiencies of a single program are neglected employees' answers are given in questioners and the workers have to rely on memory and personal perception most of the studies have no terms of comparison the studies generally measure satisfaction with the offered benefits, instead of job performance the studies only analyze the recipient of family-friendly programs, but should also question his team-mates, who interact with him and are able to measure the impact the studies are conducted over short periods of time the studies do not consider the "individual differences between employees, (the) social support in organizations, (the) job/organizational characteristics and uses of additional organizational level outcomes" (Kossek and Lambert, 2004)

The ethical implications of family-friendly programs are quite various, but a primary positive one is given by the promotion of gender equality. Most family-friendly programs have been aimed to support women develop their careers, while also being able to raise their children properly. "Several European governments have actively worked to increase women's equality in all areas of life,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, S.E., Coffer, B.S., Byerley, R.T., 2002, Formal Organizational Initiatives and Informal Workplace Practices: Links to Work-Family Conflict and Job Related Outcomes, Journal of Management, Vol. 28, No. 6

Armour, S., October 19, 2003, More Companies Downsize Family-Friendly Programs, U.S.A. Today

Auerbach, H.W., 2006, Fairness at Work - Federal Labour Standards for the 21st Century, Federal Labour Standards Review

Flannery, R.B., May 2000, Violence in America: Coping with Drugs, Distressed Families, Inadequate Schooling and Acts of Hate, Continuum International Publishing Group
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ACME Electric Motors and Controls

Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50022642

2. Long-term strategies


On the long run, the American organization should try to enlarge and consolidate their market share. They should constantly conduct research as to identify the new needs and wants of customers and integrate them within the ACME products. The success of this strategy will be obvious once the manufacturer is able to identify and satisfy needs before the clients become aware they even had those demands. The long-term strategy will be a pull one, where the audience is drawn towards the product, placed and promoted to represent the American tradition.


The ultimate operational desire for the ACME officials should be to increase efficiency. To achieve it, they should implement time management programs. These programs are aimed to increase the quality of the tasks performed within a given time. Also, they should combine them with training programs that teach employees how to reduce procrastination and how to work better. However these trainings would initially require additional expenditures, they would pay out in the long-term as the company would be able to reduce the number of employees and the remaining ones would be highly skilled and therefore able to cope with the extra work.


However the…… [Read More]


Fleming, J., Senior, B., February 2006, Organizational Change, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall

Paley, N., April 1999, Manager's Guide to Competitive Marketing Strategies, 2nd Edition, CRC Press

Jackson, J.B., March 2, 2007, Product Positioning Strategies, Ezine Articles,,last accessed on July 10, 2008