Procrastination And Self-Esteem Literature Review Chapter

Self-Development Procrastination and self-esteem

Self-Esteem and Procrastination

Procrastination and self-esteem


Many authors and practitioners have defined self-esteem differently, but the best definition would be the evaluation of any individual, regarding the person's worth. When individuals have different perceptions about the accomplishments they attained, and how successful they were in attaining their short and long-run goals, then the evaluation aims at ascertaining the person's self-esteem. Self-esteem always contains many elements, ranging from personal respect, general liking of oneself, and how one accepts him or herself. If categorized, self-esteem is divided into two. The Global esteem, where the individual's self-esteem is evaluated in general and the domain esteem that focuses on factors of the individual, including the person's physique and academic potentials (Robins et al. 2012).

The significance of high Self-Esteem

High self-esteem has many advantages, and most importantly, it has a positive effect on the happiness and the health of the individual. As the ones with low self-esteem are affected by psychological issues like depression and fatigue, the others with high self-esteem are always appreciating and feeling virtuous about themselves, and are always in the best position to handle negative feedback. They also control their challenges in a dignified manner, as most people believe that the rest of the society respects and appreciates their appearance and personality. Productivity in the aspects of life like education and social interactions is attained with persons who believe in themselves; those of utter self- esteem (Heatherton & Wyland, 1984).

Low esteem is usually caused by a negative feedback mostly from the environment. Most of the people, who are rejected by their appearance, lack either optimal functionality, or incapability to deliver in the academic field. They understand better the meaning of negative feedback and its adverse feedback (Brown, 2010). Currently, many educators and psychology practitioners are ensuring the society is educated on the benefits of maturing high self-esteem. This is due to the study showing all the reprobate vices entrapping the society. They are early pregnancies by most teenagers, dangerous addiction to hard drugs like cocaine and opium, increased rates of violence and murder cases, continued failure in academic progress of schools, and the general increase in crime acts. These acts have been caused...


The programs are, therefore, supposed to advise the community on the benefits of high esteem, which is viewed as the vaccine for the society's vices. Low esteem does not cause the ill-behaved society, but it weakens the possibility of prevention from the vices (Heatherton & Wyland, 1984).
Self-Esteem and Life Outcomes

Self-esteem has adverse effects on the most fundamental elements of life, ranging from satisfaction in relationships, depression, health, occupational positions, amounts of salary and general job satisfaction. Most of the factors of life affect the human being from infancy to old age (Robins & Widaman, 2011).

Relationship Satisfaction

Satisfaction in relationship is suggested to be correlated positively with self-esteem. This means that those who possess the highest self-esteem are at better chance of enhancing their relationship status, compared to those with low esteem. In fact, those with low self-esteem behave in manners suggesting that they are towards damaging of the relations. Most people are more sensitive when rejected and often reduce interaction with those they feel uncomfortable. This surrounding of unrest is what brings conflict into the relationships (Robins and Widaman, 2011).

Occupational position and salary range

Just like the relationship case, there is also a correlated link between the occupational status of any individual, and the person's self-esteem. This analysis is what reveals the socio-economical position of the individual. High esteem has been known as one of the factors leading to educational standards of a person, hence can have an effect on the position level one qualifies for in the job market, and the salary is determined by the hieratical positions (Robins and Widaman, 2011).

Self-esteem effects on health

Stressors, which include the events that have negative implications, the chronic difficulties and most traumas, have an undesirable impact on the mental and also the physical ability of human beings. Medical studies show that a big percentage of the stressors are impacted by lack of proper lifestyles, undesirable social relationships and low self- esteem. In an effort to help control the adversity of deleterious health, high self-esteem is a vital tool that will be of assistance during the medication processes, and can even totally prevent the unhealthy situations (Thoits, 2010).

Job satisfaction

Employees who believe that they have…

Sources Used in Documents:


Bowling, N.A., Eschleman, K.J., Wang, Q., Kirkendall, C., & Alarcon, G. (2010) A Meta-Analysis of The Predictors and Consequences of Organization-Based Self-Esteem. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 83, 601-626.

Brown, J.D. (2010) High Self-Esteem Buffers Negative Feedback: Once More With Feeling. Cognition and Emotions, 24(8), 1389-1404.

Chow, H.P.H. (2011) Procrastination Among Undergraduate Students: Effects of Emotional Intelligence, School Life, Self-Evaluation, and Self- Efficacy. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 57, Number 2, 234-240.

Gardner, D.G., Huang, G., Pierce, J.L., Niu, X., & Lee, C. (2010) Organization-Based Self-Esteem: Relationship With Psychological Contracts and Perceived Employment Opportunities. Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings.

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