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Teaching in the Digital World
Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55564789
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Psalm 119: 97–103
Learners can know more than their teachers in the sense that they are filled with a sense of God. As God knows all things and is the end all, be all, the learner who realizes this truth is like the Psalmist—wiser than all others. The educator who, like the Psalmist, also keeps the Word of God with him at all times is actually in the same boat—so it is important to remember that in Psalm 119:97-103 what we are talking about is a spiritual wisdom, not an earthly or academic wisdom. The spiritual wisdom of David, for instance, is what allowed him to be so near to God in the first place—to be after God’s own heart. That kind of wisdom surpasses all other knowledge because it makes one holy and beautiful to God.
In terms of earthly wisdom and understanding, however, the role of the educator…

Student Individuality in the Classroom
Words: 506 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84368857
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Psalm 139:13-18 reminds us that we have all be created uniquely by God—that He saw us completely before we even saw ourselves. He knows us more deeply that we know ourselves and even in spite of all our faults and questionable acts, He still keeps us in existence and even made us in spite of our mistakes so that we could love Him in return (Sheen, 2008). As Kaiser (1995) notes, the Old Testament is filled with references to the coming Messiah, and here we are reminded of the great gift of life that is ours, thanks to God, and the great mercy He shows us just for having given us life.
Just as we our created uniquely, every learner is also unique—each one learns in different ways. Some learners are visual. Some are experiential. For some, hearing is all that is required—for others, they must perform. Some benefit when…

Metaphysical Poetry Journal Exercise 3 1A
Words: 3452 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 67044569
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The Lord will lead one to safety always. One can simply believe in something higher to get the meaning of this; it doesn't have to be Jesus. Psalm 127, contrarily is confusing because it states that unless the Lord builds the house, it is built in vain. This seems to be more literal, but I do get the idea. Unless the people building the house are doing it with the love of the Lord in their hearts, or building it for him, then what is the point?

Didactic poetry can be quite comforting as seen in Psalm 23 or it can be much too literal and seen as both confusing and condescending. Psalm 127 isn't very instructive spiritually speaking, unlike Psalm 23.

Updated Proverb: A broken toe can hurt, but a broken heart can kill.

Metaphors: Obscure or Illuminate? Didactic literature with its use of metaphors can sometimes obscure the…

King James Bible One Example
Words: 499 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53210629
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The Bay Psalm Book's version of Psalm 23 reflects a more passive version of the Lord. The verbs come at the end of the sentences. For example, it opens by saying, "The Lord to mee a shepheard is," immediately making the Lord's role more passive. This is continued later in the Psalm, where it recites, "they rod, and staffe, my comfort are." Overall, the language simply does not convey an active image of the Lord.

In contrast, the King James version of Psalm 23 portrays a very active Lord. It opens with "The Lord is my shepherd," making it clear that the Lord is actively watching over his flocks of followers. Furthermore, the Lord's rod and staff are not merely a comfort. Instead, the King James version of the Psalm proclaims, "thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me." Here, the person is not merely finding comfort in the rod…

Loss Read P 305 Leaving
Words: 7913 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75963209
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" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.

Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…

Elizabethan Love Poetry Is Laden
Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23235078
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He "almost" despises himself but still seems not to think that his actions were absolutely wrong. Furthermore, the narrator of the Shakespeare Sonnet finds solace and comfort in thinking of his lover. By thinking of the one he loves, a human being, the narrator feels absolved of any wrongdoing. The narrator of the Shakespeare Sonnet is more concerned with the consequences of his actions, such as being an outcast, than with whether the action was right or wrong. For Herbert, morality is quite the opposite. Herbert suggests that the human condition is itself a state of sin.

Therefore, a central difference between secular and religious morality as expressed in Elizabethan poetry is between absolute and situational ethics. For Herbert, morality is based on a set of absolute values that God and only God can create. God is the "Just Judge" and God's judgments transcend any human laws (l 12). Moreover,…

Works Cited

Herbert, Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke. "Psalm 51." Retrieved July 15, 2009 from 

Shakespeare, William. "Sonnet 29." Retrieved July 15, 2009 from

Sons of God
Words: 3033 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91046069
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Sons of God" in Genesis 6 are human, by using the following verses as background on the subject: Deuteronomy 9:18, Joshua 7:6, Psalm 112, Genesis 4:26, Numbers 13:33, Job 1:6, 2:1. The Sons of God referred to so briefly in Genesis 6 are indeed human, because they have the distinct human vice of "wickedness," which in the end seals their fate. They are Sons of God who came to Earth to create a race of "giants," but in the end, God removed them all for their wickedness, and replaced the population with the relations of Noah, whom He favored above all at the time. In Deuteronomy 9:18, the Bible alludes to this sin, when Moses beseeches his people not to bring down the anger of the Lord upon them. Implied here is the anger of the Lord that came before, when he flooded the land for forty days and nights…


Augustine, Saint. The City of God. Trans. Dods, Marcus D.D. New York: Modern Library, 1950.

Bird, T.E. "The Psalms." A Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture. Ed. Orchard, Bernard. New York: Nelson, 1953. 442-473.

Jastrow, Morris. The Book of Job: Its Origin, Growth and Interpretation. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1920.

Massey, Kundan. "Why do Christians Call Jesus the 'Son of God'?" The Tide of the Supernatural. 2004. 30 July 2004.

David Powlison's Book Seeing With
Words: 2272 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80370268
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hile Powlison may not agree with those approaches, he does acknowledge their existence. Therefore, in the second part of his book, Powlison examines psychological knowledge of human behavior and motivation.

However, it is important to keep in mind that the Bible is the basis for all of Powlison's discussions. hile he may develop a personality theory, it is a personality theory based on Scripture. According to reviewer Bob Kelleman:

"the strength of this section is found in Powlison's insistence on building a view of human nature not coram anthropos (from the perspective of humanity), but coram Theos (from the perspective of God). e can understand people via people, or we can understand people via God. Powlison rightly chooses to understand the creature not through the creature but through the Creator (Kelleman).

To do this, Powlison uses x-ray questions, which he says reveal what God sees when he looks at an…

Works Cited

Cross, F.L., ed. "Atonement." The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York:

Oxford University Press. 2005.

Kelleman, Bob. "Book Review: Seeing with New Eyes: Counseling and the Human Condition

through the Lens of Scripture." Discerning Reader. N.p. 2 Aug. 2009. Web. 22 Oct. 2010.

Christians Struggle With the Dichotomy
Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22522480
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Accoding to the autho, the passage indicates that the authos of the Bible wote unde the inspiation of the Holy Spiit, but that they did not eceive exact dictation fom God. They wee inspied to wite as they wished, but the outcome was still detemined by God's ultimate will: "Fo the pophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they wee moved by the Holy Ghost." (2 Pete 1:21). In the same way, the wods of the pophets wee thei own, but the message behind these wods was inspied by God. This is the natue of the inteaction between God's will and human feedom in tems of the Bible.

In this way, Feinbeg uses the Bible to substantiate eveything he says about divine and human will, and I am theefoe convinced that his aguments ae supeio to those of Reichenbach…

references to God's sovereignty and omnipotence. Clearly, passages such as Psalm 115:2-3 indicates that God imposes no limitations upon his own power or knowledge even in the face of non-belief: "2 Why should the Gentiles say, / 'So where is their God' / 3 but our God is in heaven; / He does whatever He pleases." Psalm 139:16 states that God knows absolutely everything regarding the outcome of events: " Your book they all were written, / the days fashioned for me, / When as yet there were none of them."

Surely what Reichenbach attempts to prove is directly in contradiction to the above. In the light of this, therefore, I believe that Feinberg presents a much stronger biblical argument for the manifestation of human freedom and its interaction with God's will. The Bible contains no passages that indicate God's limitations; either self-imposed or otherwise. In contrast to Reichenbach, Feinberg accepts God's unlimited knowledge and power and basis his philosophical arguments upon this rather than attempting to contradict biblical truth. The latter author's argument is therefore stronger in biblical terms.

Prophets Abraham Heschel Passionately Challenged
Words: 393 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31672368
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According to the Psalms (Psalm 132:1-18) and Samuel (2 Sam. 7:2), God "swore an oath to David" that he and his descendants would remain on the throne, as long as they kept His statutes, forever. David embodied five characteristics of the monarchy: (1) He took the Ark of the Covenant brought by Moses, which had been carried around under a tent since Moses' time, and set it up in the temple (built by Solomon), as the symbol of God's choosing this people and this land as His own. (2) David became the "firstborn son of God" and God promised that he and his descendants would forever be on His throne. (3) He was a priest performing priestly duties as God's representative on earth. (4) He was mortal. He had sinned, yet God allowed him to live and remain king. (5) He had a special relationship, a covenant with God himself,…

Works Cited

Judaism." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 11 Dec. 2007 .

Kimelman, Reuven "Abraham Joshua Heschel: Our Generation's Teacher." The Melton Journal, No. 15, Winter 1983.

Paul Celan's Poem Todesfuge or
Words: 2566 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68492994
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It is interesting thus that many of the symbols that usually have a positive meaning in the literary tradition, such as the starts which are shining brightly in the sky or Margaret's golden hair which makes her resemble an angelic figure, have negative connotations in the poem through the reversals that Celan proposes. Also, the blue eyes of the German master and the fact that he writes love letters to Germany might beguile the reader for a moment and make him or her believe that these are the symbols of purity and innocence in the text. Both the commander and Margaret symbolize the Arian race which was considered by Hitler as absolutely faultless. The fact that Margaret is corrupted and destroyed by evil in Faust is a hint at the way in which the Nazi regime turned the qualities of the Arian race into an instrument of evil. Sulamith, by…

Works Cited

Celan, Paul. Todesfuge. 

Goethe, Wolfgang. Faust. Ditzingen: Reclam, 2001

Heine, Heinrich. Das Skalvenschiff. 

Die Luther Bibel.

Christian Tradition Biblical Questions Quite
Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37901375
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Greek bishops could also marry, although such alliances prevent them from rising in position in the church, where Roman priests took celibacy vows. Regarding doctrine, some could Latin approach as more practical and judicial, while the Greek was more speculative about the nature of the Godhead.


Martin Luther founded the Lutheran branch of Protestant Christianity. Luther rejected the authority of the Catholic Pope. The Bible alone was the ultimate authority for Luther. Salvation was by grace and by faith alone in Jesus Christ. Luther retained the sacraments of baptism, penance and Holy Communion and he held that in the Holy Communion the consecrated bread and wine are the Body and Blood of Christ

However, he rejected the ideas of purgatory, indulgences, invocation of the Saints, and prayers for the dead.

In contrast, while John Calvin also rejected the Pope, he believed that God alone could dispense salvation, holding to…

Jesus' Teachings Prayer & Christian Life He
Words: 35411 Length: 109 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 95862373
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Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life

"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…

Messiah in Old Testament the
Words: 7201 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66222637
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In Genesis 3:15, God said, "I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring. He will bruise your head, and you will bruise his heel." According to some biblical experts, this is an oblique reference to the coming of Messiah.

This is taken by many as one of the earliest Messianic prophecies describing Satan's brief victory over the Messiah and the Messiah's ultimate victory over Satan. It is mentioned here because the offspring (Messiah) is described as being of the woman (Eve). This is extraordinary as the nation of Israel has always been patriarchal; people are mentioned in terms of their fathers, not their mothers. Because of this, many see this verse as also being a prophecy of Messiah's birth through a virgin

Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus)

The Book of Genesis also makes reference to the importance of the lineage or the heritage…

Works Cited

Alexander B. On the threshold of the New Millennium. 30 Dec. 2006. 

Clements, Ronald E. One Hundred Years of Old Testament Interpretation. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1976. Questia. 31 Dec. 2006

Concept of God in Judaism and Christianity
Words: 14079 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81059360
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history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…


J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.



Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm

Important Biblical People Events and Places
Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2174073
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Biblical Events Which Were Significant in the Development of the Bible

Book: Psalms

This is a collection of praise songs or poems that were meant to praise God. It was an honest communication with God as well as response to Him. The psalmist was so open with his praise to God that it has over the years been considered the best praise that there is offered to God, with many believers in the Bible referring to it constantly for praise verses or quotes that they would like to give to God. Indeed, it is one of the books that are referred to severally even in the New Testament. Two thirds of the book of Psalms is attributed to David. David was known to be a good poet, musician, founder and organizer of temple music as well as a singer who often used stringed instruments to accompany the psalms/praises when he…


Campbell L., (2015). Psalms: Overview, Authorship, Canonicity, Genre. Retrieved August 3, 2015 from 

Grace Communion International, (2015). Where was Golgotha? Retrieved August 3, 2015 from 

Spiro K., (2015). Crash Course in Jewish History: King Solomon. Retrieved August 3, 2015 from 

The Bible Study Site, (2015). Who Wrote the Book of Psalms? Retrieved August 3, 2015 from

Hindrances to Prayer in the
Words: 1622 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48900585
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"You came near when I called you, and you said, "Do not fear." O. Lord, you took up my case; you redeemed my life. You have seen, O LORD, the wrong done to me. Uphold my cause!." (lamentations 3: 57-59)

What hindrances of prayer do you have?

The hindrances to prayer that I experience are mainly due to a lack of faith at times. Like many people, I sometimes on occasion feel that I do not have sufficient faith and belief in the reality of prayer. However, prayer has proven to be a powerful force in my life and I feel that God responds to our prayer according to that way we act and adhere to His word and guidance.

4. Do you identify with any of these authors?

Yes, I identify with the general views expressed in Isaiah and in many of the other extracts. I believe that very…

Christ's Use of the Old Testament
Words: 2945 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31664126
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Christian religion, the Old and New Testaments form a whole upon which its belief system is based. The transition between the Old and New Testaments resides in the person of Christ, who came to earth as the fulfillment of the Old Testament Messianic prophesy.

This transition then occurs not only through the ultimate sacrifice of Christ at his death and resurrection, but also in his ministry during his lifetime. Christ uses the Old Testament in various ways in order both to establish the new order of the New Testament, but also to validate the authority of the Old.

As the son of God, Christ shows his relationship to the Father through his respect for the validity and authority of the Old Testament. He does this in various ways, of which one is his acceptance of the history of the Old Testament. Jesus refers to various persons of the Old Testament,…


France, R.T. Jesus and the Old Testament: His application of Old Testament passages to Himself and His mission. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1982

Holmgren, Frederic C. The Old Testament and the significance of Jesus: embracing change -- maintaining Christian identity: the emerging center in biblical scholarship. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans Publishers, 1999.

Smith, Barry D. "The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament." Atlantic Baptist University, 2005.

Sper, David. "Jesus Christ and the Old Testament." RBC Ministries, 1990.

How King David Falls Bathsheba and Uriah
Words: 4395 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 53879216
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King David as Described in 2 Samuel 11

Samuel 11 describes the events surrounding the sin of King David with regard to Uriah, whom he essentially had executed so that David's adultery with Uriah's wife would not be made known to him. This shameful action on the part of David displeased the Lord immensely, which is described in the following chapters. This chapter, however, reveals a side of David's character that prior to this incident had not been explored before. Much of what is known about David's character is celebratory -- from his time as the boy who slays the giant Goliath, to his handling of the Ark of the Covenant. David is described as a man after God's own heart (1 Sam 13:14) and most of his actions support this idea. His "humility and innocence" in his approach to Saul, playing for him on his lyre and soothing the…


Bartlett, David; Taylor, Barbara. Feasting on the Word. Louisville, KY: Westminster

John Knox Press, 2009.

Bosworth, David. "Evaluating King David: Old Problems and Recent Scholarship," The

Catholic Biblical Quarterly, vol. 68, no. 2 (April 2006), 191-203.

Rastafari Rastafarianism and Reggae
Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96370277
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46). Nowadays, Rastafarianism is a strong Jamaican tradition.

Reggae Music

Also tied to the experience of social oppression was the growing popularity for the emerging Reggae music. Reggae music came directly out of the religious fervor of the Rastafarians and their desire to remove themselves from the constraints of traditional society through forms of protest. Jamaica had long been experiencing tumultuous political tensions, which proved the perfect breeding grounds for Rastafarianism and the musical traditions which came with it. Early in the 1950s, a new musical sound named Ska came out of Jamaican indigenous music, American jazz, and rhythm and blues. According to research, "On the surface, ska was happy content -- even cheery -- music. But if one listened closely between the polrhythmic pulses of the music, ska was as deceptive as the government's attempt to paint the country with a color-blind palette of national unity," (King et al.…

Works Cited

Dolin, Kasey Qynn. "Words, Sounds, and Power in Jamaican Rastafari." Middle Atlantic Council of Latin American Studies. 2001.

King, Stephen; Barry, T. Bays; & Foster, Renee. Reggae, Rastafari, and the Rhetoric of Social Control. University Press of Mississippi. 2002.

Knipe, Ed. Culture, Society, and Drugs: The Social Science Approach to Drug Use. Prospect Heights: Illinois. 1995.

Wardle, Huon. "Anthropology and History." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 2002. 9(4):793-796.

Prayer Stripped Down to Its
Words: 2983 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26362052
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" The desire of the humble is to be one with God and to heed God's Word without being demanding. To have faith and be humble means internalizing the words of God, "Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven," (Matthew 6:10). Trusting that God's kingdom is far greater than any person could imagine is the meaning of Christian faith. Likewise, Christian faith means praying for God's will to be manifest on earth rather than the will of human beings. Human beings are fallible, whereas God is not. To have faith in a person is good to an extent, but having faith in God is far more reliable and meaningful. "It is better to trust in the LORD than to put confidence in man," (Psalm 118:8).

Jesus reiterates the importance of faith throughout his life and teachings. Faith and prayer remain closely linked in…

Dead Sea Scrolls
Words: 3087 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31154475
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Dead Sea Scrolls

According to Michael aigent and Richard Leigh, the Dead Sea Scrolls, since their discovery in the Judaean desert and their arrival at the various institutions that retain them today, have created "a contradiction. . . between the Jesus of history and the Christ of faith" and have indicated "how explosive a non-partisan examination of the scrolls might be for the whole of Christian theological tradition" (xii).

With this in mind, it is clear that the Dead Sea Scrolls contain historical information that could, in essence, upset the entire scheme of things in relation to the life of Jesus Christ and his role in the history of his people, being the Israelite Jews. Thus, the overall importance of the Dead Sea Scrolls lies in the fact that what theologians and religious historians currently accept as the truth concerning the history of Palestine and the role of Jesus within…


Baigent, Michael and Richard Leigh. The Dead Sea Scrolls Deception. New York: Summit Books, 1991.

Burrows, Millar. The Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Viking Press, 1955.

Rowley, E. Margaret, Ed. The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Preliminary Survey. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1952.

Trever, John. "When was the Qumran Cave 1 Discovered?" Revue de Qumran. Vol. 3, no. 9 (1961): 135.

Zionism the Concept of Zionism
Words: 3377 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 76659345
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In 300 BC, Jews were again exiled to Egypt by Ptolemy. His capture of Jerusalem led to the deportation of thousands of individuals to Egypt, and still others left of their own accord. Those that were left were often assigned to Ptolemy's garrison, since they were extremely loyal. These exiled Jews formed the Jewish colony in Alexandria, but again, the Jews were spread even further apart into the Diaspora (Harding, 58).

In 70 AD, Judea was yet again destroyed when Titus, son of emperor of Rome Vespasian, destroyed the Temple. Jewish captives were put to death, or taken to Rome (Harding, 92). Following the revolt of Bar Kochba in 136 AD, even more Jews were exiled. Still more Jews left due to economic conditions, and were scattered in Cyprus, Syria, Alexandria, and elsewhere (Isseroff, 1).

The resulting Diaspora produced a longing for the Jewish homeland, and an overall sense of…

Works Cited

Abushaqra, Baha. "The Heresy of Jewish Zionism." Media Monitors Network. 23 July 2003. 24 November 2008. .

Coggins, R.J. Introducing the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Corrigan, Edward C. "Jewish Criticism of Zionist." Middle East Policy Council Journal 35.4 (1991).

Edelheit, Hershel. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder: Westview, 2000.

Providence Debate
Words: 3248 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17404719
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Providence Debate

According to J.P. De Caussade, God speaks "today as he spoke in former times to our fathers when there were no directors as at present, nor any regular method of direction."

In other words, Fr. De Caussade asserts that God maintains and has always maintained a personal relationship, or a providential relationship, with mankind. However, the exact way in which God exercises control over the world and the lives of humans in the world has been debated for many centuries. Indeed, in the realm of God's providence, there are numerous variables and nuanced positions, which have been argued by Christians since the time of the Apostles through to the Protestant Reformation right up to today. This paper will consider the two broader views of recent centuries -- the Arminian and the Calvinist -- and evaluate whether there might be alternative views that incorporate both perspectives of how Providence…


Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologiae, Benziger Bros, ed. [trans. Fathers of the English

Dominican Province]. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1947.

Chang, Andrew D. "Second Peter 2:1 and the Extent of the Atonement," Bibliotheca

Sacra, Jan-Mar, 1985, 52.

African Beginnings Africa Was the
Words: 8160 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90731928
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This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."

This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.

In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…


"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible,"  (accessed September 20, 2010).

BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,  (accessed September 20, 2010).

"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES," , (accessed September 20, 2010).

Theology Religion Christian
Words: 3716 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67898091
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Relativist said, 'The world does not exist, England does not exist, Oxford does not exist and I am confident that I do not Exist!' When Lewis was asked to reply, he stood up and said, 'How am I to talk to a man who's not there?'" (Schultz, 1998)

Lewis: A iography

This quote shows how, in truly CS Lewis style, the writer took the everyday questions about religion and faith, tacking them head-on. Lewis was a Christian writer who was deeply influenced by the teachings of God and His Scripture.

CS Lewis was born, in 1898, in elfast, Ireland. He was educated at various schools throughout England (Hooper, 1996). In 1914, he began studying Latin, Greek, French, German and Italian and later moved to Oxford. His education was disrupted by the first World War but within two years, he resumed his studies.

In 1924, Lewis became a teacher of…


Adey, Lionel. C.S. Lewis, Writer, Dreamer, and Mentor W.B. Eerdmans Pub, 1998.

Beversluis, John. C.S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion. W.B. Eerdmans, 1985.

C.S. Lewis, Reflections on the Psalms, (1958) New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, (p. 64).

C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain. Macmillian, 1962.

The Promises Made to David in the Davidic Covenant
Words: 1322 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66480118
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King David and the Covenant

The covenant that God makes with David, also known as the Davidic Covenant, contains a series of promises to David and Israel, the most important being that the Messiah (of the New Testament) will come through the House of David. This is the promise of a Redeemer that the Jews were to look forward to and recognize by the signs, as given through the various prophets, such as Isaiah. God promises that the Messiah will establish a kingdom that will have no end, thus making a connection between the rule of David who is after God's own heart to the reign of Christ the King who will rule over men's hearts. God also describes how Solomon will come and build a House for the Lord while simultaneously conveying a deeper message about the Son of God: "I will be his Father, and he shall be…

Works Cited

Johnson, Paul. A History of the Jews. NY: Harper, 1987. Print.

Kaiser, Walter C. The Messiah in the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zandorvan,

1995. Print.

McKenzie, S. King David: A Biography. UK: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.

Why Wright Does Not Always Understand God
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God I Don't Understand: Reflections on Tough Questions of Faith

Preface and Introduction

The Preface explains why Wright chose to write this book. He felt that it could be a more personal and humble approach to God than that achieved in his other books, which were about "knowing God." In this book, Wright wants to address some of the more confusing aspects of God. He justifies this approach by showing how God Himself points out that His ways are not our ways in Scripture. This is a valid point, and what Wright is doing is drawing attention to the fact that we are not God's equals and therefore should not try to humanize Him but rather should try to understand that He knows and sees all and therefore has a good reason for why He commands and does things that might seem disturbing or odd to us.

However, in Wright's…

David a Man After God's
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Solomon's name is not tainted in cruelties and crimes like that of David. He exhibited the passion to delight God sincerely starting his life in a worthy manner. Worshiping of God was his delight and he exhibited devotedness in the temple construction. Solomon's utterances during devotion are ranked remarkably among the literature of pre-Christian devotion when he was praying at the temple dedication. But when we learn of his heart being turned away after other god we see the reason. 1 Kings 11:4 says, "As Solomon grew old, his wives turned his heart after other gods, and his heart was not fully devoted to the LORD his God, as the heart of his father David had been." Solomon's heart was not perfect with God because it was turned away towards other gods. His heart was the trouble and not his head. A theological opinion change was not the reason for…

Egyptian Influence on Judaism and
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. This was to lead to the inevitable interaction and cross -- cultural pollination between the cultures. Kline states that; " No wonder that such a large number of Egyptian loan words, phrases and intellectual ideas should be preserved in the Old Testament, along with a large number of idiomatic expressions, and two Egyptian units of measure" (Kline). However, while cultural interaction and the adoption of various phrases and words is not denied by most scholars, what is contested and debated is the extent to which this cultural interaction influenced and impacted the development of the religious foundations of both Judaism and Christianity.

4. How Egypt influenced customs and practices; fact vs. myth

There are numerous examples in the literature that refer to a more extensive cultural intersection and interaction with the Egyptian civilization. One can refer to the view that the name of the Divine Unity in this regard.…


Desborough W. Who Were the Israelites? May 17, 2010.


Melchizedek Who Was Melchizedek And
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2009. "The Jewish Jesus." First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life, no. 193, pp. 5+.

This group of writers echoes many of the statements made by Thomas, as well as the Psalm passage that mentions Melchizedek multiple times: "You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek" (Psalm 110:4). But this article actually says that while Christians are indebted to the Jews for Christ, Jews and Christians alike are indebted to the Gentile Melchizedek for Jesus' priesthood. In their words, Christ's priesthood can't be traced to Aaron, "but to Melchizedek, the mysterious non-Jewish 'priest of the Most High God' (Heb. 7:1).

Melchizedek is a mysterious figure; his appearance in the Old Testament is strikingly brief. However, he has become a central, honored figure among Christian and Hebrew scholars. Personally, I choose to believe Thomas' interpretation of the story of Melchizedek. To think of him as a…


Thomas, T.K. 2000. "Melchizedek, King and Priest." The Ecumenical Review, vol: 52, no: 3, p. 403.

Jorgensen, Janyce. 2003. "Between Text and Sermon: Hebrews 7:23-28." Interpretation, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 297+.

Scott, Bud; Williamson, Peter; Whitters, Mark; Schumann, Matt; Hockton, Peter; Hutchison, Fred; Nuzzo, James. 2009. "The Jewish Jesus." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life, no. 193, pp. 5+.

Religion the Truth of the
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The messiah, or "anointed one" is referred to also in the book of Psalms: "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre. Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows," (Psalm 45:6-7). These and many other Old Testament references illustrate the importance of the messiah for the Israelites, and the role that the messiah would play as a spiritual leader.

Because of the abundance of historical and prophetic material substantiating Christ, countless Christians have spread the word of the gospel around the world. From the personal testimony passed down for two thousand years, individuals like me have been able to develop our own relationship with Christ. We draw upon the wisdom of those who have gone before us, reading scripture and participating in the Christian community. It…


"Historical Jesus: A Recent Movement to Reinterpret the New Testament Record." All About Jesus. Retrieved May 11, 2010 from 

"History of Jesus Christ." History World. Retrieved May 11, 2010 from 

"Which Old Testament prophecies did Jesus fulfill?" Retrieved May 11, 2010 from

Christian Canon for the 21st
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The books the researcher would first and foremost include the following books which currently constitute the Old and New Testament of the Bible:

Old Testament

Pentateuch - 5 books

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy

Historical Books - 12 books

Joshua, Judges, Ruth, First Samuel, Second Samuel, First Kings, Second Kings, First Chronicles, Second Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther.

Poetical - 5 books

Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon

Prophetical - 17 books

Major Prophets - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel

Minor Prophets - Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah

Historical Books - 12 books

Joshua, Judges, Ruth, First Samuel, Second Samuel, First Kings, Second Kings, First Chronicles, Second Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther.

Poetical - 5 books

Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon

Prophetical - 17 books

Major Prophets - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel

Minor Prophets - Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

New Testament…

Works Cited

Beeby, H. Dan. "No Loose Canon." International Review of Mission. World Council of Churches. 2000. HighBeam Research. 4 May 2009 .

Blue Letter r Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for metathesis (Strong's 3331)." Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2009. 4 May 2009.


Slick, Matthew J. 2008. "What is the Canon?" Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry.

Paintings Colors and Self-Portrait Introduction
Words: 14235 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 62048188
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Pissarro took a special interest in his attempts at painting, emphasizing that he should 'look for the nature that suits your temperament', and in 1876 Gauguin had a landscape in the style of Pissarro accepted at the Salon. In the meantime Pissarro had introduced him to Cezanne, for whose works he conceived a great respect-so much so that the older man began to fear that he would steal his 'sensations'. All three worked together for some time at Pontoise, where Pissarro and Gauguin drew pencil sketches of each other (Cabinet des Dessins, Louvre).

Gauguin settled for a while in ouen, painting every day after the bank he worked at closed.

Ultimately, he returned to Paris, painting in Pont-Aven, a well-known resort for artists.

X...for pic

Le Christ Jaune (the Yellow Christ) (Pioch, 2002) Still Life with Three Puppies 1888 (Pioch, 2002)

In "Sunny side down; Van Gogh and Gauguin," Martin…


Bailey, Martin. (2008). Dating the raindrops: Martin Bailey reviews the final volumes in the catalogues of the two most important collections of Van Gogh's drawings. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research: /doc/1G1-174598896.html

Martin. (2005) "Van Gogh the fakes debate. Apollo Magazine Ltd. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from HighBeam Research:

Sacred Music in Religion in
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This style is best represented by composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 to 1594) and was written primarily for a cappella choirs without instrumentation and was always sung in Latin, the official language of the Roman Catholic Church (Robertson, "Music Through the Centuries," Internet).

During the Reformation, sacred music became very closely linked to the congregational singing of psalms and hymns in Calvinist and Lutheran churches as a way of "collectively affirming church doctrine and experience which was later adopted by Roman Catholicism" and then in the successive Evangelical revivals, such as with Methodism and Wesleyanism (Predmore, 267). At the same time, traditional polyphonic settings and themes related to the Mass and other liturgical texts was greatly extended and developed and reached its conclusion during the aroque Period with the great Passions, motets and cantatas of Johann Sebastian ach (1685 to 1750). With the refinement of the church pipe organ…


Blackwell, Albert L. The Sacred in Music. UK: Westminster John Knox Press, 2000.

Gregorian Sacred and Ritual Music." 1998. Internet. Retrieved May 21, 2008 at .

Predmore, George V. Sacred Music in the Catholic Church. New York: Kessinger Publishing Company, 2003.

Robertson, Donald. "Music Through the Centuries: Part 2 -- the Sixteenth Century." The Text Library. 2005. Internet. Retrieved May 21, 2008 at  / positive_music/archives/renaissance/about_renaissance.asp.

Bible Inerrancy the Bible for
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He indicates that even what Paul writes to people through his epistles is the Word of God. He is (again presciently) aware that the words might be twisted and misunderstood). But he has no doubt that Paul's writings (more prolific that his own were) as well as his own are divinely inspired Scripture. Paul, writing in Corinthians sums up the closeness of the role of the Holy Spirit in the furtherance of God's Words. He indicates that what he preaches does not come from him. hey are not his teachings, but directly the teaching of the Holy Spirit, which manifests itself in the form of words.

In recognizing Scriptures as the unadulterated Word of God, one must also consider biblical references of what Jesus, his apostles, prognosticators and epistle-writers thought of scripture. Simply put, what do the primary characters of the New estament think of the Old estament? Several centuries…

The astronomical notions of the earth being the center of the Universe are false. Not only are there several universes and galaxies, the Sun is the center of our universe. (Armstrong 1996) the school of thought indicates that the bible writers were influenced by pagan religion followed at the time. The pagans specifically believed in the flatness of the earth and the centrality of the earth and this is reflected in the Bible. (Swindler n.d.) Archeological evidence is also lacking to prove inerrancy. A lot of this comes from the Genesis, Exodus and Leviticus. Stories about the existence of Palestine, the towns of Beersheba and Canaan are anachronistic. Their existence has been historically and archeologically shown to be after the time period that the Bible describes when these places existed. This means that the books of Exodus and Leviticus were written much later than they originally claimed.

The evolution of religion as it is practiced with society has taken place for the better. From a socio-cultural standpoint, strict adherence to the Bible for all time would be detrimental to members of society. Indeed, we call people who do not evolve as backward and primitive. The Bible makes mention of corporal punishment, non-acceptance of homosexuality, intolerance towards other religions, required that a wife be a virgin by the time of her wedding on penalty of death (by stoning), capital punishment for adultery and a variable acceptance of slavery. If we adhered to these issues mentioned in the Bible as inerrant, practicing Christians would not be able to survive in today's society. At least from this standpoint then, most reasonable people will agree that the dictates of the Bible cannot be eternally binding.

If all

Philosophy Reason and Faith the
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"(32) Through faith, a man or a woman entrusts his or herself to another, and thus a human bond is formed.

Therefore, it can be concluded that philosophical reasoning is as vital as faith for diaconal ministry. The unity of truth, that is, the importance of realizing that both philosophy and religion lead to the same ultimate truths, shows that reason and faith are more related than they are usually considered to be: "The unity of truth is a fundamental premise of human reasoning, as the principle of non-contradiction makes clear. Revelation renders this unity certain, showing that the God of creation is also the God of salvation history."(35) as Fides et Ratio emphasizes Christian philosophy points to this unity of truth by showing that the God of creation is also the God of history and that God is at the same time the transcendental truth and the historical, immediate…

Pierre Schaeffer's Musique Concrete Pierre
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The basic materials might include tin cans, fragments of speech, a cough, canal boats chugging or natural snatches of Tibetan chant (all these are in a work called Etude Pathetique).

Musical instruments are not taboo: one piece used a flute that was both played and struck. Differences in balance or performance can also be used to extend the range of materials. All of this is very similar to the way that the sample integrated into popular music have included news actuality, political statements and fragments of other people's compositions." (2003) Nisbett additionally relates that the "preliminary concrete recording was described analytically in terms of a variety of sound qualities" as follows:

Instantaneous content - frequency spectrum or timbre (which might contain separate harmonics, bands of noise or a mixture of the two);

The melodic sequence of successive sound structure; and Its dynamics or envelope (the way sound intensity varies in…

Bibliography of Electronic Music." Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966.

Darter, Tom. Greg Armbruster, ed. "The Art of Electronic Music." New York: Quill, 1984.

Davies, Hugh, ed. "International Electronic Music Catalogue." Cambridge: M.I.T Press, 1967.

Dennis, Brian. "Experimental Music in Schools." London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

Deutsch, Herbert a. "Synthesis: An Introduction to the History, Theory, and Practice of Electronic Music." New York: Alfred Publishing Company, Inc., 1976.

American and Asian Music as
Words: 2888 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63747129
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This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.

Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…


Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007. 

Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. 

Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. 

Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007.

Jewish Humor Is Often Secularized
Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70197589
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Job 34, for example, reveals some of the lamentation embedded in Jewish humor: "here were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?" Sarcasm is a prevailing tone in Biblical literature. In Exodus 14:11: "as there a lack of graves in Egypt, that you took us away to die in the wilderness?" Sarcasm has made its way firmly into modern Jewish humor.

More lighthearted types of Jewish humor can also be located in Biblical texts. Puns, for instance, are inherently lighthearted. Giving rise to "groaner" jokes in a modern context, the Bible's puns are cute when considered in context. The Book of Proverbs also contains lighthearted humor, sometimes in the form of slapstick or hyperbolic descriptions. In Proverbs 11:22, for example: As a gold ring in a swine's snout, so is a beautiful woman from whom sense has departed." Similarly, situational comedy occurs on several occasions in the Bible.…

Works Cited

Cohen, Sarah Blacher. Jewish Wry: Essays on Jewish Humor. Wayne State University Press, 1990.

Friedman, Hershey H. "Humor in the Hebrew Bible." Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, Vol. 13:3, Sept. 2000, 258-285. Retrieved online:

"Humor and Laughter in the Bible." Retrieved online: 

Jews for Jesus. "Jewish Humor…In the Bible?" Issues: A Messianic Jewish Perspective. 1 April 2005. Retrieved online:

When Is a Person Truly in the People of God
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People of God

When Is a Person Truly "In" the People of God?

When Is A Person Truly "In" The People Of God?

"Inclusivism" is a term that encompasses a fairly wide range of positions, as J.A. DiNoia notes in his book, The Diversity of eligions. DiNoia's definition is broad enough to encompass both a minimal and a maximal form of inclusivism. The maximal form is asserted by those who believe that "all religious communities implicitly aim at the salvation that the Christian community most adequately commends." Non-Christian religious bodies may think and act as if their ultimate goals are distinctively different from the church's. However, their goals in fact orient them to some degree towards Jesus Christ, and to the extent that they do, their concrete identities may be truthful and their way of life leads to salvation. A minimal version of inclusivism says little or nothing about the…


Congar, Yves. (1964) The Church: The People of God in Concilium, vol. I. New Jersey: Paulist Press, pp. 11 -- 37.

D'Costa, Gavin. (1986) Theology and Religious Pluralism: The Challenge of Other Religions. Oxford: Blackwell.

Rahner, Karl, S.J. (1968) The Theology of Pastoral Action. New York: Herder.

Karl Barth could be understood as an exclusivist on the basis of the way he opposes "religion" to Christianity in his early work. I would say that by his Church Dogmatics period he had more of an inclusivist position, though one that had little bearing upon his ecclesiology. See Church Dogmatics, trans G.W. Bromiley, II/2 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1957), pp. 417f.

Heaven and Hell Really Exist
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The literal meaning of the word is the place for the dead. Literal meaning of both words is the grave. This can be confirmed with a comparison of the Old Testament and the New Testament (West 34). For instance, it has been mentioned in the Psalms 6.10;

"For You, will not leave my soul in Sheol, nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption." This verse has been referred in Acts 2.27 by the apostle Paul saying that the verse talks about Jesus Christ.

If the Old Testament is taken into account there are many who have highlighted that there is no mentioning of hell to the Israel by the God. There is no place in the Old Testament where God has said to the Israel that if they follow the teachings of the God, they will see and remain in heaven and if otherwise, they will seek…


Bunyan, John. Visions of Heaven and Hell. Sovereign Grace Publishers, 2007.

Daley, J. Michael. Why Do Catholics...: Teens Respond to Questions about the Faith. Saint Mary's Press, 2007.

Gibbs, T. Franklin. The Shocking Truths About Heaven, Hell and Your Birthright Blessing, Volume 2. AuthorHouse, 2011.

Madrid, Patrick. Where is that in the Bible? Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 2001.

Life and Works of Edward Taylor
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Edward Taylor


Private Life


Purpose of orks

Intended audience

Central goal of writings

riting Style

Early works

Comparison between writings in England and America

Comparison to other authors

Personal Style

Use of Imagery

Major Themes

Major orks

Preparatory Meditations

God's Determinations

Other works

Taylor's orks Compared

The Life and orks of Edward Taylor

No study of Puritan literature would be complete without the works of the man often called the best Puritan writer of them all, Edward Taylor. Except for a brief few, the works of this great Puritan author remained unpublished during his lifetime. In 1939, they were discovered by Thomas H. Johnson at Yale, and have since become a valued and praised addition to the other works from the Puritan era. So important are these works that the Norton editors refer to them as "one of the major literary discoveries of the twentieth century" (Rowe). These…

Works Cited

Doepke, Dale. "Suggestion for Reading Edward Taylor's "The Preface." Early American Literature V.3 (1970): 80-82.

Grabo, Norman S. Edward Taylor. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1962.

Schuldiner, Michael. "Edward Taylor's "Problematic" Imagery." Early American Literature 13.1 (1978): 92-101.

Rowe, Karen. Edward Taylor (1642? -- 1729). Online. Georgetown University. Internet. 11 February 2002. Available .

American Pastoral Lutheranism Originated as
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All human beings are considered corrupt and sick and, because of the original sin, are in close relations with the powers of evil, rending them unable to make a significant contribution to their liberation. Ironically in some way, it can be said that Lutherans believe in faith. Faith is understood as trust in God's love and is viewed as the only appropriate way for man to answer to God's initiative. "Salvation by faith alone" is the distinctive and criticized (by catholic adepts) slogan of Lutheranism. Opponents of this doctrine argued that this position does not do justice to the Christian responsibility to do good works; the answer was that faith has to be active in love and that there is an indivisible connection between good works and faith: the former follow from the latter as a good tree produces good fruit.

Worship. The Lutheran church is, by its own definition,…

Reference:  on the Reformation and Martin Luther

2. Encyclopedia Britannica - Articles on Protestantism and Zwingli, 1997 Edition, Vol. 26 and 12

3. Encarta Encyclopedia - Articles on Calvin and Zwinlgi

Spirit in the Church
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Pneumatologists and theologians have long sought to define the role of the Holy Spirit within the Christian faith. These scholars' understanding of the Spirit differs greatly, not only in terms of the role of the Holy Spirit, but also in terms of whether those roles are central to the Christian church (yrie, 1997). Even the base concept of the perception of the Spirit differs among scholars and religious leaders.

This paper discusses the various notions of the role of the Holy Spirit in the Christian Church, as expressed by modern theologians and pneumatologists. Additionally, this paper will discuss the differing views of whether those roles are central to the Church, or if they are to be applied on a more diverse level. Finally, this paper will discuss ways in which the Spirit is celebrated and displayed in the lives of those who believe.

To understand the role of the Holy…


Barres, C. 2004, 'Wonder working power', Heartlight magazine, [Online]. Available at .

Bednar, D. 2003, Mother's weekend welcome (transcript of March 21, 2003 Brigham Young University presentation for Women's Week). Brigham Young University, Rexburg, Idaho. Available at .

D'Ambrosio, M. 2003, 'The charisms of The Holy Spirit for service', Charisms of the Holy Spirit and the sacrament of confirmation, Crossroads Productions, Flower Mound, Texas.

Fanning, W. 1990, 'Baptism', in R. Broderick (ed.), The Catholic encyclopedia, revised and updated, Nelson Reference, New York.