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Article 33.1 states:
No Contracting State shall expel or return ('refouler') a refugee in any manner to the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account of his race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion."
This is the guiding principle that guides asylum laws around the world. United nations human rights commission is seriously concerned about the plight of refugees and those under fear of persecution and thus wants contracting states to extend assistance. However countries are concerned about their own security problems and thus refuse to acknowledge all refugee applications. The number of applications has thus gone down seriously. One key article states: "...2005 saw the lowest number of asylum-seekers since 1987. During the first months of 2006, applications dropped a further 14 per cent, compared to the same period last year. While this continued decline can be partially…
Jose Riera, Migrants and Refugees, Why Draw a Distinction?
In the last 18 months, the U.S. has begun the process of resettling 60,000 Bhutanese refugees. This group of refugees has a couple of unique features that makes it a compelling story. This group comes from Bhutan, and are of Nepali origin, people who had settled in Bhutan decades ago. However, they were evicted from Bhutan in the 1990s, but Nepal has also refused to give them citizenship as well. The United States has been at the fore of the countries that have been able to step in and resettle them from their refugee camps.
The Bhutanese have come to the United States with no real community to help them resettle, different from other groups, which lends an element of uniqueness to the story. The Bhutanese also have an interesting element as a stateless people, a situation that tends to only arise rarely, but which has a compelling human…
Ukrainian authorities have mobilized few resources to deal with migrant problems, though international organizations have been somewhat more helpful. (Popson & Ruble, 2001)
However, the phenomenon of urban refugees is not always seen in negative light. There are a number of countries with large urban refugee populations that manage to deal with the refugees in a positive and generally effective manner. However, it must also be pointed out that these are usually First rather than Third World or developing countries.
One such country is Canada. As Siemiatycki & Isin (1997) state,."Few city regions in the world have been more dramatically transformed by recent immigration than Toronto. And few institutions have a more direct impact on immigrant settlement and integration than municipal governments." (Siemiatycki & Isin, 1997) Canada has developed governmental policy to manage and order the immigration and refugee situation in that country. For instance, Toronto's ex-mayor David Crombie, has…
Brown, L.R. 2003, Deflating the World's Bubble Economy: "Unless the Damaging Trends That Have Been Set in Motion Are Reversed Quickly, We Could See Vast Numbers of Environmental Refugees Abandoning Areas Scarred by Depleted Aquifers and Exhausted Soils," USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), Vol.132, pp. 14+.
Hyndman J. And McLean J. 2006, Settling Like a State: Acehnese Refugees in Vancouver, Journal of Refugee Studies, vol 19, no 3, 2006, pp. 345-360.
Hoffmann, M., & Echandi, M. 2006, Cuba's Free Education System Benefits Refugees. UN Chronicle, vol. 43, no. 73
Landau L.B. FMO Research Guide: Urban Refugees, [Online] Available at http://www.reliefweb.int/library/RSC_Oxford/data/FMO%20Research%20Guides%5CUrbanRefugees.pdf.Landau
The term 'refugee' as defined under the UN Convention for efugees, 1951 is applied to determine permissibility for entering other nations (Jupp, 2003). According to the UNHC (United Nations High Commissioner for efugees) (UNHC, 2004), the word refugee refers to an individual, who, because of a justifiable fear of persecution on grounds of race, nationality, religion, political views, or membership in any specific social group, moves out of his/her country of origin, and cannot or (because of fear) is not poised to take advantage of home country protection.
efugees in Canada
Historically, Canada is renowned all over the world for instituting a pluralistic structure, as well as officially passing policies endorsing multiculturalism; the country's population has risen in terms of both number and cultural diversity owing to an inflow of migrants, recently (Winston, n.d.). As per a census report for the year 2006, Canada's overall population comprises 19.8% residents…
Fleras, Augie. (2012). Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and aboriginal dynamics in Canada. Toronto: Pearson.
Jupp, J. (2003). There has to be a better way: a long-term refugee strategy, Arena, no 65, Blue book no. 5, pp.BB1 -- BB12.
Mountz, Alison. (2011). Where asylum-seekers wait: feminist counter-topographies of sites between states. Gender, Place and Culture. 18(3), pp. 381-399
No One is Illegal. (2013). Refugee Process in Canada. No One is Illegal -- Toronto. Retrieved from http://toronto.nooneisillegal.org/node/378
In this regard, the main fault can be attributed to the ruling elite because: "Primary responsibility for assisting and protecting internally displaced persons rests with their own governments. Should governments prove unable or unwilling to discharge this responsibility, however, governments are expected to invite or at least accept international assistance for ensuring the welfare and security of internally displaced persons" ('Internally displaced persons' 2012). Nevertheless, it is also clear that the international community has a moral obligation to stop this violence and assist the people who are already disaffected by its impact.
There have been some efforts to enlist the support of neighboring countries to help the SPLA consolidate its power, but the stated mission of this organization may make some neighboring countries headed by autocratic rulers nervous in the post-Arab Spring environment, but Nilsson reports that many have lined up in support of the SPLA anyway. In this regard…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
'Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.' (1954, April 22). Office of the United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights. [online] available: http://www2.ohchr.org / english/law/refugees.htm.
'Internally displaced persons.' (2012). International Organization for Migration. [online]
In fact, little prior research had been conducted earlier regarding to mental health interventions within the context of traumatized Muslim refugees. Based on this lack of proper study on the matter, current programs targeting Muslim refugees have little informative experiences to lead to more effective treatment. By increasing awareness of such stress along with the best treatment options, care workers can greatly improve the quality and effectiveness of care for Muslim refugees dealing with the psychological ramifications of leaving their home and resettling abroad.
The Cultural Orientation Project. (2004). Muslim refugees in the United States. Culture.
etrieved January 30, 2009 at http://www.cal.org/co/muslims/mintro.html.
Gade, Fakhrurradzie & McDowell, obin. (2009). Muslin group flees Myanmar but faces more woe. The Connecticut Post. etrieved January 30, 2009 at http://www.connpost.com/ci_11580044.
Snyder, Cindy; May, J. Dean; Zulcic, Nihada N.; & Gabbard, Jay. (2005). Social work with Bosnian Muslim refugee children and families: a review of…
The Cultural Orientation Project. (2004). Muslim refugees in the United States. Culture.
Retrieved January 30, 2009 at http://www.cal.org/co/muslims/mintro.html.
Gade, Fakhrurradzie & McDowell, Robin. (2009). Muslin group flees Myanmar but faces more woe. The Connecticut Post. Retrieved January 30, 2009 at http://www.connpost.com/ci_11580044 .
Snyder, Cindy; May, J. Dean; Zulcic, Nihada N.; & Gabbard, Jay. (2005). Social work with Bosnian Muslim refugee children and families: a review of the literature. Child Welfare. 84(5): 607-30.
Fortunately most counselors can overcome their biases and opinions of refugee populations by participating in intensive multicultural training. This training is rapidly becoming emphasized in social work circles whether or not a counselor plans to interact with refugees or not during the course of his or her lifetime. Multicultural training can also benefit counselors in traditional practice settings when working with diverse populations in general (Clark & Hofsess, 1998).
Need For Sensitivity
Counselors must be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of refugees for many reasons. For one working with refugees or immigrants by nature must be based on a foundation of "culturally competent practice" which includes a set of "beliefs, knowledge and skills" that enable a counselor to work closely with members of a culture different from that of the social worker (Potocky-Tripodi, 123).
Because the needs of refugee populations are so specialized, they are most likely to realize…
Clark, L., and Hofsess, L. 1998. Acculturation. In S. Loue, ed., Handbook of immigrant health. New York: Plenum, pp. 37-60.
Devore, W., and Schlesinger, E.G. 1999. Ethnic-sensitive social work practice (5th ed.).
Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Potocky-Tripody, M. (2002). Best practices for social work with refugees and immigrants. New York: Columbia University Press.
And towns where millions of resettled villagers and farmers have been located have no choice but to accept already overcrowded conditions, and job and housing shortages.
ecause of the many dams, those farmlands located close to the estuary will be rendered useless due to the lower than usual flow of the river. This will occur because salt water will intrude during dry seasons, ruining the land for growing crops (Hsu, n.d.).
Sedimentation will affect fisheries downstream from Three Gorges Dam, while the reservoir behind the dam will affect those in the middle stretches of the Yangtze by slowing the flow of water. This changes the fish habitats and results in a drop in fishing productivity. The dam will also trap 75% of the nutrient-rich sediments which are usually used as fertilizer for fisheries and agriculture resulting in additional losses to fishing and agricultural production.
Even tourism will be affected, at…
Associated Press. (2009, February 5). Scientists: Deadly Chinese earthquake may have been man-made. Retrieved January 12, 2010, from Foxnews.com: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,487967,00.html
Bezlova, A. (2007, October 12). Environment-China: three Gorges Dam may displace millions more. Retrieved January 15, 2010, from ipsnews.net: http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=39621
Bosshard, P. (2009, November 30). Lessons from China's Three Gorges Dam. Retrieved January
15, 2010 from japanfocus.org: http://www.japanfocus.org/-Peter-Bosshard/3262
Manchester (2004) discusses the work in New Zealand of ON TACC, Auckland's Transcultural Care Centre, which offers an intersectoral approach to severe behavioral and mental health issues for children and young people from refugee backgrounds living in the central city. Established as a pilot program last year, it provides specialized interventions involving the school, family and mental health services for refugee children who have been identified as having high and complex needs. Delivered in partnership with refugee communities, it involves three major services: The Ministry of Education Special Education, the Auckland District Health Board Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (Kari Centre), and the Department of Child, Youth and Family Services. The ON TACC team consists of psychologists, a psychiatrist, social workers, cultural advisers and a behavioral support worker. Some of the team members are from refugee backgrounds. It is the first time such a transcultural and intersectoral service has…
Fazel, M., & Stein, A. (2003) Mental health of refugee children: comparative study [Electronic version]. British Medical Journal 327(7407), 134-135.
Human Rights Watch. (2004) [Electronic version]. Brazil: Real Dungeons. Juvenile Detention in the State of Rio de Janeiro Human Rights Watch. 16( 7).
Fleitlich, B. (2001) Social factors associated with child mental health problems in Brazil:
cross sectional survey. [Electronic version]. British Medical Journal 32, 599-600.
Rise of Populist Movements and Large Numbers of Refugees in Germany
Germany has witnessed a significant increase in the number of asylum seekers migrating into the country in the recent past. As of 2016, the number of refugees seeking asylum in Germany was more than 700,000, which represented a huge increase from the less than 100,000 refugees who asylum in the country in 2006. The huge numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Germany has come at a time when Europe is facing a refugee crisis. According to Postelnicescu (2016), Europe is currently facing a refugee crisis that has generated concerns on whether it should maintain its core democratic values and freedoms or maintain freedom and justice. The increase in the number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe including Germany is attributable to the prevalence of terrorism, which is a global security concern. Moreover, this increase is attributable to the current…
Amann et al. (2015, December 11). The Rise of Germany’s New Right. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/refugee-crisis-drives-rise-of-new-right-wing-in-germany-a-1067384.html
Fischer, S. (2016, September 5). The Rise of the Populists – A Problem for Merkel and Germany. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/rise-of-populist-afd-a-problem-for-merkel-and-germany-a-1110954.html
Leonard, M. (2016, March 5). The Germany Crisis: Angela Merkel, Refugees and the Rise of the Right. New Statesman. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/uk/2016/03/germany-crisis-angela-merkel-refugees-and-rise-right
Postelnicescu, C. (2016, May). Europe’s New Identity: The Refugee Crisis and the Rise of Nationalism. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 12(2), 203-209.
Since this has been the case, there have been others that have called for the United Nations to deploy their Western European military forces to Darfur, as well as for the United States, whose military forces would also be seen to fall under the jurisdiction of the United Nations, to send troops that could be utilized in helping to stabilize Darfur, but so far this has not taken place (Lacey & Polgreen, 2006).
Even though the United Nations seems hesitant to involve themselves in Darfur's problems and help the refugees, a peace-keeping resolution for Darfur was unanimously passed by the United Nations on the 16th of May of this year (UN, 2006). According to this particular resolution, an assessment team must go to Sudan to prepare it for the United Nations, which will then take control of a peace-keeping mission that is already over there and is currently being led…
Darfur crisis: More urgent than ever. (2006). International Rescue Committee. Retrieved at http://www.theirc.org/media/www/darfur_hope_amid_the_violence.html .
A de Wall, A. (2005). Famine that kills: Darfur, Sudan. Oxford University Press.
Flint, J., & de Wall, A. (2006). Darfur: A short history of a long war. Zed Books.
Lacey, M., & Polgreen, L. (2006). The tragedy of Darfur: Ethnic conflict in Sudan has killed 200,000 and civilians and created 2 million refugees. New York Times Upfront.
This result of Aiken's analysis stemmed from the problematic conceptualization of the definition of 'terrorism.' Like UN international laws against terrorism, the lack of clear definition identifying terrorism and terrorists and other innocent individuals makes Canada's Immigration Law not only mutually exclusive, but also unfairly defined and does not favor and in fact, causes detriment, against 'aliens' sincerely seeking and non-maliciously seeking asylum.
Similarly, Zard (2002) looked into the technical details surrounding several laws pertaining to refugees, such as the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, UK Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act of 2001, and Uniting and Strengthening Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act (USA-PATRIOT Act). hile the first law does not provide a clear definition of acts relating to terrorism, allowing them to assume the identity of refugees when seeking asylum to other countries, the two other laws created in the UK and U.S., respectively,…
Aiken, S. (2001). "Manufacturing "terrorists": Refugees, national security, and Canadian Law." Refuge, Vol. 19, No. 3.
Zard, M. (2002). "Exclusion, terrorism and the Refugee Convention." Forced Migration Review, Vol. 13.
Adjustment for Iraqi and Cuban efugees
Theoretical framework of theory of work adjustment finds that Iraqi and Cuban immigrants require developing person-work environment co-responsiveness. This is through continuous adjustment, develop their identities that relate with their work environment, and through a slow and gradual process. The theory identifies the work environment requires specifics from migrant workers, and migrant workers need requirements from the work environment. Lastly, is the matching of work requirements and individual capability, work needs and individual skills, work values and personal abilities. This is because the theory recognizes Iraqi and Cuban immigrants have poor work environment relations and adjustment problems. These arise from prejudices, assumptions, and preconceived notions against western culture, live in their traditional collectivist and group-oriented culture, which are detrimental to the development of their careers and work experiences.
Theory of Work Adjustment for Iraqi and Cuban efugees
This study creates a theoretical formula for…
Bemak, F., Chung, R., & Pedersen, P.B. (2003). Counseling Refugees: A Psychological Approach to Innovative Multicultural Interventions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Brown, S.D., & Lent, R.W. (2012). Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work. Wiley Publishers.
Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M.D. (2012). Career Counseling: Foundations, Perspectives, and Applications. 2nd ed., New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Hardin, E.E., Leong, F.T., & Osipow, S.H. (2001). Cultural Relativity in the Conceptualization. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 36-52.
Social Problem and Personal Statement
Part 1: Trauma and Resilience of the Karen Population
Traumatic and stressful experiences usually characterize migration and resettlement processes. Immigrants may experience pre-migration trauma in their home countries and trauma during and their migration (Goodman et al., 2017). Immigrants are at a more significant risk for pre-migration exposure to violence making them susceptible to trauma- and war- connected mental health conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological distress (Arnetz et al., 2013). In the recent years, the resilience concept as a protective factor against the trauma-related psychological disorder development has garnered growing consideration. The Karen population from Burma that has settled in Saint Paul, Minnesota has found sources of resilience to help them get through the hardships (Voigt, 2016). This paper highlights the essentiality of acknowledging the resilience of refugees and the need for social workers to have a better understanding of the…
The migrant caravan comprises thousands of refugees from Central America: mainly Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador. One cannot be “for” or “against” the caravan itself because it already exists. However, it is possible to develop a cogent response to how the United States should address the challenges posed by the migrant caravan. There are no simple solutions to the migrant caravan; an ethical response requires a close examination of how to feasibly balance the needs for human rights versus the potential for American communities to adapt to a sudden influx of refugees. Ultimately, the United States does need to treat the migrant caravan as an opportunity to reconsider its role in the Pan-American economic, political, and social landscape. I agree with sensible processing of the migrant caravan, and disagree that the people comprising the caravan should be harassed, neglected, or turned away automatically.
Humanitarian ethics are one of the most…
Fry, Wendy. “Facing no way into U.S., some caravan members head home.” San Diego Union-Tribune, 26 Nov, 2018. https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/news/border-baja-california/sd-me-two-tents-20181126-story.html
As a social worker, you should understand some of rights a refugee has under the law of the land and the international refugees' laws. For instance, under Article 33 of the Convention elating to the Status of efugees, it spells out clearly that a refugee is supposed not to be returned to his/her mother country where his/her life or freedom may be at risk on account of his/her religion, race, political opinion and nationality. Such are the fundamental laws which a social worker must be keen when handling a refugee (Capps, 2004).
Boundary issues can sometimes be a difficult subject. One of the roles of a social worker is to work with other stakeholders to ensure that all immigrant found within the borders of a country are taken care of. A social worker has the mandate to recommend to the immigration officers for deportation and can also stop…
National Association of Social Workers. (2009). Immigrants and Refugees. In Social work speaks (8 ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Capps, R., & Passel, J. (2004). Describing immigrant communities. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from www.fcd-us.org/usr_doc/DescribingImmigrant Communitites.pdf
Balgopal, P.R. (2000). Social work practice with immigrants and refugees. New York: Columbia University Press.
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
Education Standards Addressed
This training will prepare students to become Microsoft Office certified.
To learn Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Access) at a level proficient enough to become certified.
The instructor will start the students off on the first day with an introductory computer course to familiarize them with the hardware and software. This will be on the first day of training and students will be allowed practice time.
Students will learn to navigate the internet and perform basic searches. The will also be given a subject by the instructor and told to find information on the subject. This will help with research skills.
This training program prepares students to perform clerical duties in an office support position. Emphasis is on using word processing, spreadsheets, presentation software, and databases.
The classes will be instructor led as well as online training. The training will…
AmeriCorps. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://www.americorps.gov/
Business Volunteers Unlimited - businessvolunteersunlimited.com. (n.d.). Retrieved November 01, 2010, from http://www.businessvolunteers.org/
Lutheran Refugee Services. (n.d.). Lutheran Family Services of Nebraska. Retrieved November 01, 2010, from http://www.lfsneb.org/community/refugee.asp
Service Learning. (n.d.). International Rescue Committee | the International Rescue Committee goes to crisis zones to rescue and rebuild. We lead refugees from harm to home.
Karen people of Burma are made up of a number of separate ethnic groups that do not share common culture or language. The majority of the Karen people live in Karen State located in southern and southeastern Myanmar and make up roughly 7% or five million of the Burmese population. The majority of the Karen population have settled around or near the Thailand-Myanmar border. The Karen people have a rich history with some under leadership of the KNU or Karen National Union. Those influenced by the KNU have waged war since 1949 against the chief Burmese government, seeking independence. This has led to some Karen people leaving the country and moving to the United States as Refugees.
This literature review aims to understand the nature of the problem that resulted in migration of Karen people to other countries like the United States, what barriers they meet when they are relocated,…
Rohingya Refugee Crisis
Rakhine state is historically known to be the home of Muslim population who in a large part identify as Rohinya. They have suffered legal and social discrimination and they have had historical long-standing tensions with the Buddhist Rakhine community. The violence, occasioned by inter-ethnic clashes, that was experienced in Myanmar’s Rakhine state since the August of 2017 has seen exponential number of refugees flee into Bangladesh, thereby getting exposed to terrible suffering and squalid living conditions in the refugee camps. According to the UN CERF, (2018), there were an estimated 1.2 million refugees hosted in Bangladesh which included the new refugees, the old refugees who had already migrated into the region and the affected host communities urgently needed assistance as they were in distress. Though Bangladesh, being an Islamic nation and its geographical location makes it an obvious option for the Muslim Rohingya refugees, there are other…
virtual reality event at a museum. I was really excited to go because I'm always interested in learning more about technological innovation and how it is used in different ways. The new virtual reality technology out there involves the use of multiple cameras that record in all directions and are thus used to create experiences using the captured imagery. The image is thus viewed through the virtual reality goggles.
I was really impressed by the opening speech of the vent. One of the speakers works for the United Nations. That speaker presented and spoke about some o the things that virtual reality is used for. As an example, one of the image sets used was a refugee camp. In other words, the virtual reality goggles can be used to depict and show what a Syrian girl in a refugee camp and her surroundings would look like. IT is a new…
(Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1) Limitations of the program were acknowledged after a study reported findings which state: "...there an awareness of hidden areas of trauma that exist in this population, such as, for instance, an awareness that most humanitarian entrant women (between 80% and 100%) have been the victims of rape and the shame associated with this mitigates against disclosure and dealing with the effects of it." (Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1)
Allan, David and afoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html
Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good eginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EF9E6-975-438-2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf
Allan, David and Bafoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html
Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good Beginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EFB9E6-9B75-438B-B2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf
Gallegos, Danielle, et al. (2007) Service Provision in the Upper Northern Suburbs for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities: A Scoping Study. March 2007. On behalf of the CaLD Interagency Reference Group for the Northern Metropolitan Corridor. Online available at http://www.cscr.murdoch.edu.au/CaLDNorthScopingReport.pdf
Spinks, Harriet (2008) Adult Migrant English Program Budget 2009-09 Social Issues. Parliament of Australia. Parliamentary Library. Online available at http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/RP/BudgetReview/Social_Issues.htm
Turkey to address the needs of the Syrian refugees, thereby facilitating the safety of the refugees while ensuring the health of the local Turkish communities.
United Nations leader Ban Ki-moon has described the Syrian Civil War as having reached "appalling heights of brutality," ("UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP"). According to official United Nations counts, more than 460,000 Syrians have fled Syria to find safety, and those numbers are expected to surge to 700,000 by the beginning of 2013. Most of the refugees have crossed over the border to Turkey and also to Jordan, but many others have gone farther -- to North Africa and Europe. With the crisis having already reached epic proportions, and growing bigger, the time for providing a Christian plan of aid is nigh.
There are many options for assisting the refugees. The most pressing is to help Turkey build enough well stocked…
Krajeski, Jenna. "Taking Refuge: The Syrian Revolution in Turkey." World Policy Institute. 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/summer2012/taking-refuge-syrian-revolution-in-turkey
Ozey, Ramazan. "Turkey's Land Borders and Border Disputes." Retrieved online: http://www.ramazanozey.net/rozey/icerik/detay.asp?id=4&dil=en
Reynolds, James. "Syrian Refugees Slipping into Turkey." BBC News. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20433238
"UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP." Retrieved online: http://www.focus-fen.net/index.php?id=n293725
There is widespread fear among a section of the Americans that a Paris-style attack can happen in the U.S. if the country allows the influx of Syrian refugees and this is the primary basis of the American backlash against the Syrian refugees. There is also a raging debate on the issue and there are both facts as well as assumptions ad presumptions that are being put forward by both the camps -- those who support Syrian refugee intake into the U.S. and those who oppose it.
There is a school of thought that dismisses the fear among a section of the Americans that Syrian refugee intake can result in a Paris-style attack. The argument put forward in favor of this statement is the process of relocating refugees into America which is very different from how they are allowed into the Europe and elsewhere. According to the State Department,…
Irish Social Policy
The global recession came along with many negative effects to may countries in the world. Coupled with the terror attacks, the global fear increased even more and the situation became worse and worse for asylum seekers in the Western countries. Ireland consequently found itself in a situation that made it awkward for the refugees and other asylum seekers who run there for shelter. The asylum seekers and the refugees found themselves deprived of many basic human provisions and rights that every individual should be allowed to enjoy.
Inequalities of Irish policy
The policies in Ireland are very detrimental to the refugees. For instance with introduction of the Direct Provision policy the adult asylum seekers were entitled to an allowance of €19.10 per week, children €9.60 which are way below what the average Irish earns and is barely enough for any tangible provision for an individual leave alone…
Integrating Ireland, (2009). Direct Provision. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.integratingireland.ie/direct_provision
Justin Frewel, (2010). The Plight of Asylum Seekers in Ireland. Irish Left Review. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.irishleftreview.org/2010/02/24/plight-asylum-seekers-ireland/
Mikko Lahteenmaki, (2004). Refugee and Migration Policy in the European Union. International Seminar for Experts in the Series Great Debates organized by the Cicero Foundation, Paris. May 10, 2011 from http://www.cicerofoundation.org/pdf/report_refugee_migration.pdf
The Referendum Commission (2011). Background Information on the Citizenship Referendum.
Albanian refugees from Kosovo'
This paper is a research assignment regarding all aspects facing Albanians from Kosovo.
Over the past, there have been various, significantly dramatic instances during which individuals and whole communities have migrated from their homelands as a result of a particularly crucial issue or predicament, relocating themselves within foreign regions and countries. The degree of immigrants is usually controllable buy the concerned authorities of the country which is being inundated by the immigrants, this, however, being a course of action that is not, usually, as effective as would be desired, as a result of the rate of immigration usually being so significant that by the time the authorities are even aware of the threat posed, the country is already heavily prevalent with immigrants from a particular country. A significant case of this sort of immigration has been that the Albanians of Kosovo were forced to…
Conflict in Kosovo (Accessed 2002) @
Schwarz Benjamin; Picking A Good Fight (2000) @
The issue of Third Culture Kids (TCK) is one that can no longer be wished away. It is a phenomenon that has been in existence for decades now and generations are embroiled in the TCK issue as their preceding generation. The TCK are often referred to as people who have been raised in a culture other than that of their parents or the culture of the country mentioned in their passports.
The growing number of TCKs is occasioned by a myriad of reasons in the different parts of the world where these individuals live. The most common cause of TCK is the occupational commitment, where the type of jobs that most people do keep them away from their own homes and culture and situate them for years in different cultures. Some could be having business abroad, be in long term government appointments and other jobs that keep them away from…
"he final third are an estimated 10,000 "people group," or 2.1 billion humans, who for reasons of language or geography have never heard about the Christ of Christmas. And reaching them, missionaries say, involves crossing physical, political, and linguistic barriers." hose barriers will not always be gracious, not always be welcoming, but it goes without saying that devoted Christians do, and will continue, to overcome those barriers to touch the lives of other who have yet to experience the inspiration of the Word of God.
Not a Competition
here is not a competition for souls in Christian missionary work. Missionary work does not use people as human pawns on the chessboard of world politics.
Sometimes, it may be difficult for people, and missionaries alike, to understand that. Christians missionaries serve vital roles in places around the world where each day people lose the battle against the natural forces of nature,…
The Sphere Project represents a far more recent attempt at codification. It was established on July 1, 1997 by the Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response (SCHR) and Interaction, with the aim of examining and setting the minimum standards of behavior for those involved in humanitarian responses. The project has involved front line NGOs and the Red Cross and the Red Crescent Movement, interested donor governments, and UN agencies cooperating to develop a set of standards in core areas of human relief."
More Quiet Missionary
There are those who have alleged that the Anglican Church has forgotten its missionary responsibility In fact,
Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey is Volume 12 in a Berghahn/Oxford University Press series on forced migration. The series addresses modern and post-modern population migration issues from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Like the other issues in the Studies in Forced Migration series, Crossing the Aegean is a collection of scholarly essays offering nuanced approaches to the delicate subject matter. Edited by enee Hirschon, the book is divided into three core sections. The first provides crucial background information and a general overview. The overview covers the geography and history of the region since ancient times, as the Greek empire did indeed span the Aegean Sea to link what are now two distinct nation-states. Background information provides more of a modern historical perspective, including issues related to the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire. The background information does provide the…
Hirschon, Renee. Crossing the Aegean. New York/Oxford: Berghahn/Oxford University Press, 2003.
ship called the MV Sun Sea carrying 490 asylum seekers from Sri Lanka, was intercepted off the B.C. coast. The arrival of these Tamil migrants sparked a controversy as to how Canada should receive Tamil and other potential refugees fleeing Southeast Asia. On one side of the controversy, Canadian officials voiced concern that the migrants could be criminals and terrorists, and should not be allowed to enter Canadian borders. On the other hand, these accusations could have been utterly baseless, originally espoused by the Sri Lankan government for the purpose of deflecting international attention from their human rights abuses. Indeed, screenings of 76 Tamil migrants who arrived from Sri Lanka in October 2009 revealed that all were eligible to claim political refugee status, despite rumors that they might have had criminal ties. The recent debate regarding whether to accept the Tamil migrants on the MV Sun Sea was reminiscent of…
Human rights organizations have reported that in spite of official denials throughout the 1980s through the present, the government has initiated political killings, abductions, and armed clashes with the Tamils. Currently, the UN is investigating thousands of unresolved disappearances of innocent civilians there. The separatist resistance group, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), which formed in opposition to government repression, have also violated human rights and engaged in terrorist acts, mostly within Sri Lankan territory. Nonetheless, it is dangerous and irresponsible for the Canadian government and media to espouse speculative rhetoric that Tamil migrants are terrorist or have links to al-Qaeda.
Like the Tamils of Sri Lanka, the Ghadar was an organization founded by Punjabi Indians in Canada with the aim to liberate India from oppressive British colonial rule. The movement began with a group of immigrants who settled in Canada. It is important to note that migrants and migrants from Southeast Asia have been an integral part of Canada's culture and history for over a century, although they have faced long-standing resentment and prejudice from our white majority. For example, around the time of the 1914 arrival of the Komagata Maru at Vancouver, which carried Indians escaping the oppression of British colonial rule, British Columbia passed stringent laws discouraging Indians from immigrating to Canada. Indians were also denied the right to vote, prohibited to run for public office, serve on juries, and were not permitted to become professionals. Many race-based laws were enacted against Japanese and Chinese nationalities, who were also immigrating in large numbers to abandon challenging circumstances at home. At the same time, however, massive numbers of white European immigrants were welcomed into Canada. White Canadians seemed to specifically fear that darker-skinned people would take their jobs, a fear that may remain today.
However, there is one example of white refugees who were refused entrance into Canada pursuant to anti-Semitic fear in the years leading up to World War II. Approximately 900 German Jews fleeing persecution on 1939 the ship, St. Louis, were forced to return to Europe, where most of the passengers were later killed in Nazi concentration camps.
Community/Organization of Interest:
Health and medical services in Bella Vista, PA, a South Philadelphia neighborhood
The cultural perspective
Bella Vista, PA, a South Philadelphia neighborhood, is a largely Italian-American ethnic enclave dominated by white, working-class residents. Although recent scholarly literature has focused upon the deficit of healthcare knowledge and services in lower-income nonwhite populations, deficits in knowledge and willingness and ability to access vital resources to improve their health still persist across population groups. For example, one study of non-Hispanic and Hispanics found that there were high levels of systemic barriers to obtain colorectal screening, including: scheduling and financial barriers; fear of diagnosis and pain; and lack of motivation amongst all study participants (Green et al. 2008). Culturally and psychologically in many communities, there is often an unwillingness to seek medical treatment in the form of screening. Even though Bella Vista is not a poor community cultural attitudes towards healthcare…
Breen, T. (2013). Overview of the 2013-2014 Medicaid payment increase for primary care services. The Advisory Board Company. Retrieved:
Brown, E.R. (et al2004). Effects of community factors on access to ambulatory care for lower-
income adults in large urban communities. Inquiry - Excellus Health Plan, 41(1), 39-56.
I set up my practice at once. So many maladies among citizens of this town were directly related to the spiritual imbalance in the forest. Little puk-wudgees caused much havoc among the townsfolk. Oh, at first the people of Freetown had little faith in my medicine, but over time they came to appreciate that I was perfect for their unique corner of the world.
Theirs was a land haunted. People came to me when the ghosts in their attic began to make noise; when they saw lights above the forest at night; when they saw a creature from the corner of their eye. This was life as normal in Freetown. Everybody who lived there simply accepted it, without becoming creepy like such a town would seem on television. But I helped them. I helped them learn the reasons why spirits acted the ways they did. I taught them how to…
But by doing so, Zia and ilson gained the most powerful ally one could want when it came to appropriations. ith Doc Long's support, ilson was able to obtain $40 million from the Defense Appropriations subcommittee; a group of eleven elected officials who meet behind closed doors and decide how to spend billions of dollars. And since the recommendations from the committee have to be voted on by the full House without the specifics of where the money is being sent, Charlie ilson was able to appropriate the money without any public knowledge. This was important because the participation of the United States in the arming of Afghan mujahideen had to be kept a secret or else it risked direct war with the Soviet Union.
Part of Charlie ilson's ability to convince the other members of the U.S. House of Representatives to vote for his appropriations was the fact that…
Crile, George. Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert
Operation in History. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2003. Print.
Grau, Lester, and Michael Gress. The Soviet Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, 2002. Print.
Sperling, Godfrey. "Mondale in '84, He May Run if Jimmy Carter Doesn't." the
strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…
Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web: http://sg.travel.yahoo.com/guide/europe/yugoslavia / history.html
Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12
Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)
Need reference for W.U.
These years would come to define the modern American woman as a counterpoint to her sheltered Victorian counterpart.
4. Looking at the number of immigrants by region of the world from 1925 to 1981 and 1982 to 2005, as noted in the 2005 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, and at the number of asylees and refugees arrived and granted asylum, and deported aliens. From which regions and countries in the world do most recent new Americans come from, and in what proportion? Quantify the changes? hat political and social reasons could be the reason for such changes? hat impact might these changes in immigrant origins have on American society and culture?
The first waves of immigration to sweep through the United States during the 20th century would be European in origin. At a time when much of Europe would be fractured by conflict, poverty and political strife, the United States would…
Diner, H.R. (1983). Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Gjerde, J. (1988). Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, Houghton Miflin Company.
Hooker, C. (2004). Ford's Sociology Department and the Americanization Campaign and the Manufacture of Popular Culture Among Assembly Line Workers c.1910 -- 1917. The Journal of American Culture, 20(1), 47-53.
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Back Bay Books.
" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.
The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…
Alberts S. Obama boosts hopes of climate deal. 24 November, 2009.
Balaam David N. And Veseth M. Introduction to International Political Economy.
London: Prentice Hall, 1995
Nevertheless, my passion for medicine remained which led to applying to the Technology Institute of Pharmacy at the university. Unfortunately, due to conditions beyond my control, I requested a transfer to the Nursing Institute at the university, yet because of my brother's failing health, I was forced to remain at home to care for him. Things changed in 2001, when I came to the U.S., knowing that I had a much better chance there to fulfill my dreams of becoming a medical specialist. Soon after, I registered at Northern Virginia Community College to major in science and after working full-time to pay for my studies, I am now in my last semester at NVCC, aiming for an Associate in Science which hopefully will open the door to pharmacy school. Overall, by obtaining a pharmacy degree, I could not only help people in the U.S. But also my own people in…
My initial interest in pursuing a degree in the medical field came about when my brother developed a very serious disease. This event prompted me to wonder about his medical future regarding treatment in the form of surgery or chemotherapy, and due to the fact that we were living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where I was born and raised, the prospects of my brother finding adequate treatment and care for his disease were rather poor. As a result, I decided to create the foundations for a career in medical science. Part of this required that I take the Ethiopian School Living Examination. In 1994, after competing against 167,000 other high school graduates, I received a passing score which made me eligible to attend Addis Ababa University; however, since Ethiopia follows the command economy, I ended up in social sciences rather than in my chosen field of medicine.
Nevertheless, my passion for medicine remained which led to applying to the Technology Institute of Pharmacy at the university. Unfortunately, due to conditions beyond my control, I requested a transfer to the Nursing Institute at the university, yet because of my brother's failing health, I was forced to remain at home to care for him. Things changed in 2001, when I came to the U.S., knowing that I had a much better chance there to fulfill my dreams of becoming a medical specialist. Soon after, I registered at Northern Virginia Community College to major in science and after working full-time to pay for my studies, I am now in my last semester at NVCC, aiming for an Associate in Science which hopefully will open the door to pharmacy school. Overall, by obtaining a pharmacy degree, I could not only help people in the U.S. But also my own people in Ethiopia. While a student at NVCC, I served the Ethiopian Community Development Council by providing outreach services for refugees seeking health assistance.
In conclusion, my personal desire is to expand and enhance my knowledge in the pharmacy field and thus be able to provide my services to communities in the U.S. And abroad, particularly in Ethiopia. Therefore, I am looking forward with much relish to participating in GWU's Sonography Bachelor's Program.
Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.
Platt, a.M., & Cooreman, J.L. (2001). A multicultural chronology of welfare policy and social work in the United States. Social Justice 28, 91-137.
Reisch, M. (1998). The sociopolitical context and social work method, 1890-1950. Social Service Review, June, 162-181.
Carlton-LaNey, I., & Hodges, V. (2004). African-American reformers' mission: Caring for our girls and women. Affilia, 19, 3, 257-272.
Gordan, L. (2002). If the Progressives were advising us today, should we listen? Journal of the Guilded Age and Progressive Era 1, 1-8.
Gordan, L. (1991). lack and white women's visions of welfare: Women's welfare activism, 1890-1955. Journal of American History, Sept. 559-590.
Williams, L.F. (2003). An assult on white privilege: civil rights and the…
Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror. In a different mirror: A history of multicultural America (pp 1-170. New York, NY: Little, Brown & Company.
Kilty, K., & Haymes, M. (2000). Racism, nativism, and exclusion: Public policy, immigration, and the Latino experience in the United States. Journal of Poverty 4, 1-25.
Shacknove, a. (January 1985). Who is Refugee? Ethics 95, 274-284.
Said, E. (1993) Culture and imperialism. www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/barsaid.htm.
Freedman's Bureau: The Freedmen's Bureau was founded by the U.S. Congress in 1865 and its purpose was to help African-Americans make the difficult transition from slavery to freedom (ormser, 2002, p. 1).[footnoteRef:1] Thesis: The Freedman's Bureau had enormous responsibilities which it carried out very well given the roadblocks and challenges it faced. Among those responsibilities was the supervision "and management of all abandoned lands, and the control of all subjects relating to refugees and freedmen…" (ormser, p. 1). [1: ormser, Richard. "The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow / Freedmen's Bureau (1865-72)." KCET. Retrieved December 30, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org. ]
The Freemen's Bureau was asked to accomplish some difficult tasks -- especially in the South, where most people did not want to give any rights to blacks -- to basically give a helping hand to freed blacks and ease them into society without rancor or violence. The Bureau was to…
KCET. 2008. Dred Scott's fight for freedom. KCET. Retrieved December 30, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org .
Wormser, Richard. 2002. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow / Freedmen's Bureau (1865-72). KCET.
Retrieved December 30, 2012, from
Inequalities Are Made and emade South Wales
The objective of this work is to examine the way that inequalities are made and remade in South Wales. As this study will relate, there are inherent inequalities in South Wales both historically and traditionally. The work of Winckler (2009) entitled "Equality Issues in Wales: A esearch eview" that statistics on equality in Wales is based on measurements relating to race, gender, disability, age, sexual orientation, and religion. The report states that there are 10,000 refugees and 2,500 asylum seeker in Wales, in addition to 2,000 Gypsy Travelers. Men are outnumbered by women. 29% of the population is 60 years old or older. An approximate 27% of the adult population is disabled.
Poverty and Social Exclusion
Winckler states that sufficient evidence exists to make the conclusion that ethnic minority groups along with individuals who are disabled and children and young people as well…
Moore, H. And Jorm, L. (nd) Measuring Health Inequalities in New South Wales. NSW Public Health Bulletin. Vol. 12 No. 4.
Regional Inequalities in Wales (2011) Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research. Data and Methods. WISERD. Retrieved from: http://www.wiserd.ac.uk/research/quantitative/regional-inequalities-in-wales/
Winckler, V. (2009) Equality Issues in Wales: A Research Review. Equality and Human Rights Commission. Spring 2009. Research Report 11. The Bevan Foundation.
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
eptember 11 on the Muslim population in Greater Toronto area
This is a paper that analyzes the effects of eptember 11 on the Muslim population of Toronto. It has sources.
The following is a study that reveals the effects of the terrorist attacks of eptember 11 on the Muslim population in Greater Toronto area. As there has been severe impact on western societies ever since the disaster, it is worth exploring the how Muslims are being treated in places like Toronto Canada. First of all, this area is an interesting one because it is an immediate neighbor of the United tates. econdly, Canadian society is based on democratic principles. Both these factors are strong influences on the manner in which citizens of Canada are treated in relation to the religious beliefs. It may be assumed through reports and accounts that come through the media that there are some individuals who…
Roach, Kent. September 11: consequences for Canada, 2003.
Kassam, Karim-Aly. Melnyk, George and Perras, Lynne. Canada and September 11: impact and responses, 2002.
Daniels, Ronald. The security of Freedom: Essays on Canada's anti-terrorism bill, 2001.
McGowan, Rima Berns. Muslims in the diaspora: the Somali communities of London andToronto. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.
Motivations for Pursuing a Career in Medicine
It is in my opinion that people strive and compensate for what they perceive they do not have: one tries to gain strength to overcome his or her weakness. My motivations for pursuing a career in medicine take root from my experience as a young adult in Yemen, my native country. Being an underdeveloped country, we were literally impoverished and not given the proper and basic social services that people should have, especially the women sector. In a country where female genital mutilation is practiced, I became witness to the harsh realities that women have to go through in their attempt to follow the society's norms and traditions, whether it adversely affects their lives and health or not.
Exposure to the needs of the people, especially those who cannot afford medical services provided for by hospitals in my country, made me realize that…
Not many things in recent history have brought as much controversy as the Trump Administration travel ban. Some have seen this ban as unfair and demonstrating the ugly side of the United States and its Government. There are reasons for this. The travel ban is cruel and inhumane, the Government should not support a travel ban because no one should be profiled due to race or religion, travel is a human right, and the U.S. is a safe place for refugees.
The travel ban provides much cause for concern because of the potential legality of such an extreme measure. Half a century ago, the American Government chose to outlaw the discrimination seen in the Trump travel ban. “More than 50 years ago, Congress outlawed such discrimination against immigrants based on national origin.” (Bier) Additionally the travel ban puts the United States in a bad light, as other countries may see…
Colic's (2005) argument is that there is a very strong correlation between porr housing and an individual's physical ill health. He goes further to point out that six out of every ten homeless individuals do suffer from a certain form of mental distress. About 20% of this lot have severe mental illness. In a nutshell, social exclusion gives rise to a direct form of social and economic consequences that include poor housing and limited financial resources.
Dunn (1999) studied the link between social exclusion and mental health. His concluded that the correlation was rather strong and was in congruence with what other authors have documented. It has been acknowledged that unemployment affects persons who have long-term mental disorders in a way that is far greater as compared to the other persons with disability. A total of only 13% are employed as opposed to the more than a third of individuals…
Burnett, R. (2004) To reoffend or not to reoffend? The ambivalence of convicted property offenders in Maruna and Immarigeon, After Crime and Punishment.
Burnett A and Peel M (2001) Health needs of asylum seekers and refugees British Medical
Journal 322:544-547 (link to www.bmj.com)
Colic, P., (2005). Refugees and Employment: The effects of visible difference on discrimination. Perth: Murdoch University Press.
life that what once may have been a derogatory word for something may have, over the years, come to mean something entirely different, and in a similar fashion, what was once a term of endearment or something commonplace may have evolved through the years, into something that would have derogatory connotations. (World Wide Words) For example, when one interviewer asked an American about the origin of the word 'Bozo', he had to refer to a Dictionary, and what he was about to discover amazed him. This was because of the fact that most Dictionaries tended to avoid the word Bozo for some reason or another, giving a vague and uncertain 'origin uncertain' as the explanation. As a matter of fact, the term Bozo seems to have initially appeared in the year 1916, and one of the first meanings for the word probably meant 'man' or a 'fellow'. Later on, it…
Is Refugee a Racist Term, Jesse Jackson seems to think so. 6 September, 2005. Retrieved
From http://www.metafilter.com/mefi/44884 Accessed 21 September, 2005
Morse, Caroll Andrew. No Refugees in America. 7 September, 2005. Retrieved From
http://www.techcentralstation.com/090705J.html Accessed 21 September, 2005
GAP stands for Guadalupe Alternative Programs and stands to serve St. Paul's Latino youth living on the West Side for the last fifty years. Programs like GAP have existed to promote the wellbeing of St. Paul's, Minnesota's Latino student population by offering services like counseling, educational programs, emergency resources, and job assistance (GAP, n.d.). While GAP still assists the Latino student population, times have changes and the Latino population has decreased, opening GAP services to diverse ethnic backgrounds. This has led to a recent issue of understanding the needs of the current population of GAP students.
The current population consists of English language learners, refugees (Karen refugees), and low income students. Social work interns at GAP recognized external factors that may affect GAP students. This has led to the desire to promote wellness among the current student GAP population. This research study is meant to provide an understanding of what…
Working Within the Community
Preparing My Department and The Community at Large for The Challenges That Will Be Caused by This esettlement. Actions and How to Would Carry Them Out
Intensifying efugee Protection, Assistance and Support to Host Communities
efugee Governance and Capacity Building
The police will be required to carry out the coordination and registration of fresh asylum-seekers; refugee status determination; refugee population and maintenance of data on asylum seeker; issuance of vital documents that confirm status; co-ordination and management of the refugee camps; and, provision of very secure arrangements for significant protection issues. Under certain circumstances where this is beyond what the police can handle, they can get the social service department involved.
It suggested that the Government, the police and every other relevant partner should make up their mind on coordination mechanisms for strengthening protection delivery. This should involve counseling process where refugee communities will be…
UNHCR. (1997, January 6). Social and economic impact of large refugee populations on host development countries. Retrieved from United Nations High Commission for Refugees:
UNHCR. (2005). Strengthening Refugee Protection, Assistance and Support to Host Communities in Kenya and Comprehensive Plan of Action for Somali Refugees. Nairobi: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Strengthening Protection Capacity Project.
The absolute deprivation of basic human liberties makes it abundantly clear that all people in Cuba are potential political prisoners, because they are either virtually imprisoned by the country's restrictive laws, or face the threat of real imprisonment by acting out against the country. Moreover, to encourage Cubans to evade U.S. military and police forces in order to gain access to U.S. political asylum only encourages human trafficking and other dangerous practices. Instead of deporting Cubans or forcing them to seek asylum in a third country, which may have more restrictive definitions of what it considers a refugee, the United States should grant asylum to Cubans fleeing political persecution.
Amnesty International. "Six Years in Prison in Cuba for 57 Activists: Supporters Face Ongoing
Harassment." Amnesty.org. 2009. Amnesty International. 23 Jun. 2009 .
Buckley, Cara. "Anti-Castro Pilots' Kin Meet." Cubanet.org. 2004. Cubanet. 23 Jun. 2009
Cubana. "Cuba Detains…
Amnesty International. "Six Years in Prison in Cuba for 57 Activists: Supporters Face Ongoing
Harassment." Amnesty.org. 2009. Amnesty International. 23 Jun. 2009 .
Buckley, Cara. "Anti-Castro Pilots' Kin Meet." Cubanet.org. 2004. Cubanet. 23 Jun. 2009
On the other hand, the International Rescue Committee focuses on promoting human rights as one of the core of every innovative programs carried out by the organization. This major focus on human rights through the restoration of safety, hope and dignity to millions of refugees is one of the major relations of this organization with the ISCOR major at San Diego University.
Finally, the third major relation of the organization with the ISCOR major is that it serves as an opportunity where graduates of the program can apply their knowledge in helping IRC to accomplish its mission. This is largely due to the fact that students completing the major are prepared for careers that relate to international security and conflict resolution. Since the International Rescue Committee hits the ground in places with conflicts across the globe, graduates of this program can be used to help provide a way from harm…
Graubart, Jonathan. "Program Information." San Diego State University: International Security and Conflict Resolution. San Diego State University, 27 Oct. 2010. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"History of the International Rescue Committee." International Rescue Committee: From Harm to Home. International Rescue Committee. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"International Rescue Committee." Idealist.org. Action Without Borders, Jan. 2011. Web. 15 May 2011. .
"International Security and Conflict Resolution." San Diego State University: SDSU 2011-2012 Catalog. San Diego State University. Web. 15 May 2011. .
Euromonitor.com. 17 May 2009 .
Chekalin, Alexander. "Press Service - Speech by First Deputy Minister of the Interior Militia." 8 August 2006. Ministry of the Interior, Russian Federation. 17 May 2009 .
Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt. "Russia's immigration challenge." 15 June 2007. Opendemocracy.net. 17 May 2009 .
Matthews, Owen and Anna Nemtsova. "The Kremlin Vigilantes." 14 February 2009. Newsweek. 17 May 2009 .
Monacelli, R. "Russia: Population, Immigration and the Economy." 19 February 2009. Institute for the Study of Conflict, Ideology, Policy. 17 May 2009 .
Schwirtz, M. "For Russia's Migrants, Economic Despair Douses Flickers of Hope." 9 February 2009. New York Times. 17 May 2009 .
Yasmann, V. "Russia: Immigration Likely to Increase, Mitigating Population Deficit." November 2005. Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. 16 May 2009 .
RUSSIAN IMMIGRATION STATS:
immigrant population > Immigrants as percentage of state population
immigrant population >…
Banjanovic, Adisa. "Russia's new immigration policy will boost the population." 14 June 2007. Euromonitor.com. 17 May 2009 .
Chekalin, Alexander. "Press Service - Speech by First Deputy Minister of the Interior Militia." 8 August 2006. Ministry of the Interior, Russian Federation. 17 May 2009 .
Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt. "Russia's immigration challenge." 15 June 2007. Opendemocracy.net. 17 May 2009 .
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005
In the event that the analysis of records of telephone, e-mail and internet use was considered to amount to an interference with respect for private life or correspondence, the Government contended that the interference was justified. First, it pursued the legitimate aim of protecting the rights and freedoms of others by ensuring that the facilities provided by a publicly funded employer were not abused. Secondly, the interference had a basis in domestic law in that the College, as a statutory body, whose powers enable it to provide further and higher education and to do anything necessary and expedient for those purposes, had the power to take reasonable control of its facilities to ensure that it was able to carry out its statutory functions. It was reasonably foreseeable that the facilities provided by a statutory body out of public funds could not be used excessively for personal purposes and that the…
ECHR Case Law - Copland vs. United Kingdom European Court of Human Rights - Council of Europe Copland vs. United Kingdom 3 April 2007 Violation of Art. 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Legile Inernetului (2009) Online available at http://www.legi-internet.ro/english/jurisprudenta-it-romania/decizii-cedo/copland-vs.-united-kingdom-echr-case-law.html
Vermeulen, Mathias (2009) UN Special Rapporteur Releases Report on the Role of Intelligence Agencies in the Fight Against Terrorism. 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://legalift.wordpress.com/2009/02/27/un-special-rapporteur-releases-report-on-the-role-of-intelligence-agencies-in-the-fight-against-terrorism/
Recent Case Law on Asylum and Immigration (2008) Migration Watch.
UK ASYLUM LAW and PROCESS in the human rights law [3.1.6] section of the guide: 3.1.6|1 the IMPACT of HUMAN RIGHTS LAW; and 3.1.6|2 USEFUL RESOURCES (ICAR) 2008. Online available at http://www.icar.org.uk/7013/31-law-and-process/316-human-rights-law.html
Advocacy groups, whether private or government-sponsored, ease transition from home to America but being uprooted poses severe psychological and sociological problems that are not easy to fix.
The United States remains one of the only nations to openly welcome immigrants as a national policy; Canada is another. For centuries the United States has relied on immigrant labor to fuel industry and add nuance to the nation's cultural fabric. The United States is no longer viewed as a melting pot because of the increased pride among immigrants in their native cultures and languages. Balancing assimilation with preservation of culture is still the most difficult task for immigrants, many of whom hope for a more stable life in the new world while still retaining the values and lifestyles of their ancestors.
Refugees continue to hold a unique social, economic and political status in the United States. As Tumulty notes, the Hmong assimilated…
Branigin, William. "Immigrants Shunning Idea of Assimilation." The Myth of the Melting Pot. Washington Post. May 25, 1998. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/meltingpot/melt0525a.htm
Clemetson, Lynette. "Bosnians in America: A Two-Sided Saga." The New York Times. April 29, 2007. Retrieved Jun 15, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/29/us/29youth.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&adxnnlx=1213585920-/U4w96yxQS4h7/bEHNl%20Ug
Federation for American Immigration Reform. "How Mass Immigration Impedes Assimilation." Retrieved Jun 15, 2008 at http://www.fairus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=iic_immigrationissuecenters641a
The Great Immigration Panic." The New York Times. June 3, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/03/opinion/03tue1.html
Treaties and Australian Law
A treaty is an agreement that takes place among States (countries) which is binding at international law. In some cases, international organisations can be parties to treaties. An agreement between an Australian State or Territory and a foreign Government will not, therefore, be a treaty. Even if a document is agreed between two or more sovereign countries, it will not be a treaty unless those countries intend the document to be binding at international law. With that said, this paper will discuss the statement in regards to Campbell JA in Samootin v. Shea  NSWCA 378 and will also give particular examples of treaties ratified by the Australian government which have become part of domestic or municipal law.
Just to give a little synopsis, the Campbell JA in Samootin v. Shea  NSWCA 378 was a judgement that occurred in 2010. It started in 2001,…
Anon., 2012. Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Appeal. [Online]
Available at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/nsw/NSWCA/2012/378.html
[Accessed 9 April 2016].
Australian Human Rights Commission, 2015. Australia's commitment to children's rights and reporting to the UN. [Online]
Social control can be maintained through proper guidelines and laws. If there will come a time that the multicultural society of Australia may be in need of change, there is always a room for social construction and re-construction as this is always part of the country's initiatives to develop and grow as a country for the people and by the people.
It appears that the Australian government is currently having an exaggerated moral panic over its asylum seekers. Based on a number of reports, this moral panic is just used as part of the propaganda of the new government to get the attention of the people. In fact, neither deviance nor lowering social control is not a problem and should not be considered as one.
Australia has been known for its humanitarian programs for asylum seekers from the very beginning. It was once the refuge of migrants wanting to…
Australian National Audit Office. (2001). Management Framework for Preventing Unlawful Entry into Australian Territory. Report No. 57.
Canberra: Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. (2001). Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia's response.
Jewkes, Y and Letherby G. (2002). Criminology: A Reader. SAGE Publications Ltd.McMaster, Don (2002). "Asylum Seekers: Australia's Response to Refugees." Melbourne; Melbourne University Press, pp 60
Picketing, Sharon. (2001). "Common Sense and Original Deviancy: News Discourses and Asylum Seekers in Australia," Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(2): 169-86.
Albendazole Therapy and Enteric Parasites in United States -- Bound efugees
Steven J. Swanson, M.D., Christina, . Phares, PhD., Blain Mamo, M.P.H., Kirk E. Smith, D.V.M., PhD., Martin S. Cetron, M.D., and William M. Stauffer, M.D.
New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 366: 1498-1507
This article details a review of data collected for refugees from Africa and Southeast Asia immigrating to the United States from 1993-2007. The data looks at parasites in refugees before and after a mandate by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1999 that all refugees bound for the United States receive a single dose of a drug called albendazole (600 mg) that targets and kills many intestinal parasites.
The article presents data in a figure labeled Figure 1 on page 1503. The chart is shown below:
The data in the chart in Figure 1 depicts graphically information contained within Table 3 on…
Swanson, S.J.; Phares, C.R.; Mamo, B.; Smith, K.E.; Cetron, M.S.; Stauffer, W.M. Albendazole Therapy and Enteric Parasites in United States -- Bound Refugees. (2012) New England Journal of Medicine 366: 1498-1507.
(1996) This separation of individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been perpetrated against them in the rhetoric and reality dehumanizes them to a degree and allows discourse on redress and resolution to falter.
Having discussed the main premises of these three, for lack of a better word, philosophers one must now look to Nyers, who discusses the political nature of the status of "refugee" and how in the modern, post 9-11 atmosphere many states have opted to lay a veil of security across international border crossing and refugee status. In the post 9-11 atmosphere it has become common place to "detain" and "deport" those who are seeking political asylum when they come from places of security risk. In short the current situation, cumulative of the highly political and state sponsored international humanitarian body that seeks to divorce individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been done to…
Campbell, David. 1998. Why Fight: Humanitarianism, Principles, and Post-structuralism. Millennium 27. 497-521.
Edkins, Jenny. 2003. Humanitarianism, humanity, human.. Journal of Human Rights. ( June) 2(2). 253-258.
Malkki, Liisa H. (1996) Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism, and Dehistoricization. (August) 11(3). 377- 404.
Nyers, Peter (2003) Abject Cosmopolitanism: The Politics of Protection in the Anti-Deportation Movement. Third World Quarterly. (December) 24(6). 1069-1093.
Afterward, the soldiers dismembered her father in front of her. In another case, a woman reported repeated rapes in front of her nine-month-old daughter. When the daughter cried, soldiers beat her with rifles (Bureau of Democracy, 2004).
While there is no question about the humanitarian crisis in Darfur, we must now examine whether that crisis amounts to state terrorism. According to Oliverio (1997), state terrorism is "associated with the issues of control of territory and resources and the construction of political and ideological domination (52). There are two essential elements that terrorism require to term it state terrorism. First, the state must reinforce the use of violence as an effectual, practical, and extenuating factor for managing conflict of ideas. Secondly, this view must be reinforced by a "culturally constructed and socially organized process" (Oliverio, 1997, 53).
Prendergast (2004) classified the situation in Darfur as state terrorism based on these factors.…
AP. (April 11, 2007). Hundreds killed in attacks in eastern Chad. Retrieved December 6, 2007 from Washington Post. Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/10/AR2007041001775.html .
British Broadcasting Company (BBC). (2007). Sudan's Darfur conflict. Retrieved December 6, 2007 from International Crisis Group. Website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3496731.stm .
Bureau of Democracy. (2004). Documenting Atrocities in Darfur, State Publlication 11182. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt Printing Office.
Gollust, D. (March 20, 2007). U.S. angry over Sudan leader's denial of role in Darfur atrocities. Voices of America. Retrieved December 6, 2007 from Voices of America News. Website: http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2007-03/2007-03-20-voa85.cfm?CFID=168052565&CFTOKEN=11639285 .
hich historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way:
At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes."
For the court to have found in the favor of Morocco based on "historic" claims, would have opened the door of a Pandora's box, and there was simply no way to legally deal with that situation. A finding in Morocco's favor would undo the modern world. Then, strangely enough, and because if he wanted to remain in the dynamics of the argument and struggle for control over estern Sahara, Morocco's King Hussan III interpreted the court's findings in favor of Morocco, and in accordance with Moroccan law. If the…
Borowiec, Andrew. 2003. Taming the Sahara: Tunisia Shows a Way While Others Falter. Westport, CT: Praeger. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107024757.Internet . Accessed 14 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002077928
Dela Rosa, Darrell. 2003. The UN Role in Western Sahara. UN Chronicle, September-November, 22+. Database online. Available from Questia,