Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process. In particular, it is respectful of the client's time and ability to take charge of his own mental life.
Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics
To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics (NASW, 2008). NASW's ethical principles are based on its six core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The overriding purpose of cognitive therapy is service to the client -- helping her identify, challenge, and change the cognitive misconceptions that result in unhealthy emotions and dysfunctional behavior. Perhaps the most obvious congruence is between the values of dignity and worth of the person and social justice. The former is evidenced through being mindful of the client's time and believing in the client as his own change agent. The latter, social justice, is concerned with empowerment, and when the client takes over the job of being her own therapist, she has empowered herself.
The second of Beck's cognitive therapy principles concerns a sound therapeutic relationship. For this to occur requires integrity and competence on the helper's part. It also relates to the importance of human relationships, another of the NASW values. As Lantz writes, "When the ...
Can be used to treat a variety of conditions such as depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and personality disorders.
Can be used in a variety of treatment settings: individual counseling, group therapy, marital and family counseling.
Is a useful tool (e.g. Ellis' ABC analysis) for enhancing quality of life for one who has no diagnosed condition.
Some challenges to the approach are:
Knowing when the client is ready to leave treatment and become his own helper.
Knowing when to use certain cognitive therapy approaches or procedures and when to use an alternative. For example, Lantz recommends using dynamic reflection when problem solving is the goal and using existential reflection to gain a richer understanding of the meanings of human existence.
Lantz, J. (2007). Cognitive theory and social work treatment. In M. Mattaini & C. Lowery (Eds.), Foundations of social work practice: a graduate text (4th ed.), 94-115. Washington D.C. NASW Press.
National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from http://www.socialworkers.org/pub/code/code.asp.
In particular, it is respectful of the client's time and ability to take charge of his own mental life.
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences. Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages.
The individual component of personal identity is represented in the older, early acquired traits (Cerulo, 1997). In a given time and social situation, certain components of personality are mobilized in action, while other components are temporarily subordinated. With a change in time and group situation, a shift of emotional integration occurs with a corresponding shift of integration into another social role; that is, other components of the self are moved
Social Cognitive Theory First promoted by Albert Bandura, the principles of social-cognitive theory stemmed from the social learning theory, both of which can be blanketed under behaviorism. Based on the principle that people are motivated primarily by reward or punishment, social-cognitive theory builds upon the basic tenets of behaviorism by focusing on the ways individuals learn by observing others and modeling their behavior. Therefore, social-cognitive theory suggests that both human cognition
It thus becomes the concern of CBT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into
" (Szapocznik, nd) the therapeutic process is stated by Szapocznik to use techniques of: 1) Joining - forming a therapeutic alliance with all family members; 2) Diagnosis - identifying interactional patterns that allow or encourage problematic youth behavior; and 3) Restructuring - the process of changing the family interactions that are directly related to problem behaviors. (Szapocznik, nd) The Spanish Family Guidance Center in the Center for Family Studies at the University of
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls. It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort.