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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: Array
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Validity in psychological research involves a thoroughness and precision when drafting a research study, truly considering all the strengths and weaknesses of the study before engaging in it, and how previous studies have failed before. "Validity is important because it tells you if the measure actually measures what it's supposed to measure and not something else (Goodwin, 2010). When structuring and executing a given psychological study, one needs to take into account the fact that all people are individuals and given to a certain deviation and uniqueness of thought and behavior. At the same time the study should be designed to attempt to capture a certain amount of the universality and trends of human behavior. Validity in psychological research protects the anonymity and privacy of all participants, treats all participants with dignity and respect and discloses all the details and aspects of the study to participants so that they can…


Goodwin, C.J. (2010). Methods and design. Crawfordsville: John Wiley and Sons.

Jackson, S.L. (2010). Research methods: A modular approach. Belmont: Cengage Learning.

Xml Rels Word Document xml Definition and Description of Basic
Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83115439
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xml.rels word/Document.xml

Definition and Description of Basic Concepts Error of measurement Measuring devices make approximate measurement(s). If an object is measured twice at different times, the two obtained measurements may not be accurate. This difference between the measurements is called error of measurement. This error, however, is not considered a mistake or the incorrect measurement. In fact, the error in measurement is a numerical method for showing that measurements are not certain. In simple words, error of measurement is the variation between the measurement result and the correct value of the object that is being measured. According to recent studies, "the measurement error affects the repeatability of MMN" (Paukkunen, Leminen & Sepponen, 2011, p. 2195) (mismatch negativity). Test-retest eliability Test-retest reliability is the estimate between scores from the similar respondents tested at dissimilar times (MacQuarrie, Applegate & Lacefield, 2008). It demonstrates the reliability and evenness of an instrument's score in…

References Brazeau, J.N., Teatero, M.L., Rawana, E.P., & Blanchette, L.R. (2012). The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 21, 384-390. Chen, C., & Lo, L. (2007). Reliability and Validity of a Chinese Version of the Pediatric Asthma Symptoms Scale. Journal of Nursing Research, 15 (2), 99-105. Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2005). Psychological Testing: Principles (6 ed.). Canada: Wadsworth. MacQuarrie, D., Applegate, B., & Lacefield, W. (2008). Criterion Referenced Assessment: Establishing Content Validity of Complex Skills Related to Specific Tasks. Journal of Career and Technical Education, 24 (2), 6-29. Paukkunen, A.K., Leminen, M., & Sepponen, R. (2011). The Effect of Measurement Error on the Test -- Retest Reliability of Repeated Mismatch Negativity Measurements. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 2195-2202. Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice . Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

word/numbering.xml word/styles.xml [Content_Types].xml

Beck Depression Inventory-Ii Bdi-Ii Is a 21-Item
Words: 4152 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83941983
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Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a 21-item clinician administered and scored scale that is designed to measure a person's mood and symptoms related to depression. The BDI-II was designed to conform to the DSM-IV depression diagnostic criteria and represents a substantial improvement over its predecessor, the original Beck Depression Inventory. The BDI-II has been used both as a research measure (its primary intended use) and to assist with the clinical diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has been subject to numerous empirical studies designed to measure its internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion validity, and construct validity and the test demonstrates acceptable psychometric qualities, but there have been some concerns with its use. This paper reviews the development of the BDI-II, its psychometric properties, uses, strengths, and weaknesses. Advantages and disadvantages of using the BDI-II and recommendations for future research regarding its use are also discussed.

Title of paper


Participating in Post-Tenure Review One
Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86100862
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Predictive validity asks whether the variables in the instrument are associative of and predictive for the concepts with which they ought to be related. Concurrent validity measures whether the instrument allows for distinctions to be made between groups that should be separately identifiable. Convergent validity asks whether responses to items in the instrument which are conceptually related move in similar ways relative to each other. And divergent validity measures whether operationalized variables in the instrument are separately identifiable from other, unrelated concepts. The threats to construct validity include not clearly defining variables operationally before instrument construction, using a too-narrow concept for measurement or a too-narrow treatment for measurement that does not reflect the full nature of the concepts measured, improperly measuring the effects of multiple treatments related to the variable in ways that do not account for interaction of other variables, failure to account for the effects of such considerations…

Works Cited

Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches, 3rd Edition. London: Sage.

Trochim, W. (2008). Research methods: knowledge base. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from .

Wood, M.S. & Johnsrud, L.K. (2001, November). Post-tenure review: What matters to faculty. Refereed paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE), Richmond, VA.

Psychological Testing Psychological Tests Are an Important
Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31249734
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Psychological Testing

Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.

Definition of tests

A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…


Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from

Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from

Management and Adverse Impact
Words: 1821 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 13529325
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Solution for Adverse Impact

The case analysis of a Federal agency and their selection process provides ample examples of why selection processes need to be periodically reviewed and analyzed to ensure they are still in compliance. In this specific case there are several violations of more recent laws and statutes that the selection process is out of compliance to given their definition over three decades ago. The following is a detailed analysis of the case that shows how, over time, selection processes can become skewed to a specific type of applicant and how the entire process often needs to be audited and updated to make the hiring process more equitable.

Case Analysis

There is ample evidence that the selection procedures used throughout the hiring process at the Federal government agency favor white males despite their lower scores on testing and cognitive skills relative to women. Pass rates on the interviews…


Arthur, W., Bell, S.T., Villado, A.J., & Doverspike, D. (2006). The use of person-organization fit in employment decision making: An assessment of its criterion-related validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 786-786.

Carrier, M.R., Dalessio, A.T., & Brown, S.H. (1990). Correspondence between estimates of content and criterion-related validity values. Personnel Psychology, 43(1), 85-85.

Hagan, C.M., Konopaske, R., Bernardin, H.J., & Tyler, C.L. (2006). Predicting assessment center performance with 360-degree, top-down, and customer-based competency assessments. Human Resource Management, 45(3), 357-357.

Lawshe, C.H. (1983). A simplified approach to the evaluation of fairness in employee selection procedures. Personnel Psychology, 36(3), 601-601.

Population Identified and Described Are Eligibility Criteria
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40655635
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population identified and described? Are eligibility criteria specified? Are the sample selection procedures clearly delineated? Yes. The sample consisted of 350 college students at a Midwestern University. All the students were enrolled in a personal health class as a social science elective.

Do the sample and population specifications support an inference of construct validity with regard to the population construct? Of n=350, 86% were White, 5% African-American, 4% Asian-American, 3% Latino, and 2% Other. This is not representative of the collegiate population in general, nor is it representative of the baseline population breakdown for most of America. However, because the classes are a social science elective, the sample does serve as an adequate representation of a cross-section of this particular Midwestern University.

What type of sampling plan was used? Would an alternative sampling plan have been preferable? Was the sampling plan one that could be expected to yield a representative…

Adage Good Is the Enemy
Words: 2220 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68350479
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Their contributions might be as worthy if not worthier than the contributions of a stalwart organization that has survived decades of market vicissitudes but which has no concrete contributions or merit.

Not all is lost in the mire of Collins' masturbatory research, though. One of the most compelling sections of the book is the Hedgehog Concept, which can be applied to both personal and professional greatness. The Hedgehog Concept suggests that good to great organizations know what they are good at and cultivate a single unifying idea. Simplicity is the key. It is better to make the best widgets on the planet than to diversify for the sake of diversification. Simplifying a complex world means focusing, and focusing depends on the ability to be honest and self-aware. On an organizational level, this means evaluating core strengths and weaknesses, performing self-analysis and SWOT analyses regularly to understand what passions are driving…


Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great. New York: Harper Collins.

Kilmann, R.H. (2004). Beyond the Quick. Washington DC: Beard.

Maltz, a.C., Shenar, a.J. & Reilly, R.R. (2003). Beyond the Balanced Scorecard:: Refining the Search for Organizational Success Measures. Long-Range Planning 36(2): 187-204.

May, R. (2006). Why 'Good to Great' isn't very good. Business Pundit. Jan 31, 2006. Retrieved online:

Vitamin D In Controlling Urtis in Recent
Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 59808390
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Vitamin D in Controlling UTIs

In recent times, several experimental studies have been conducted in order to understand the impact of vitamin D on controlling Upper espiratory Tract Infections. This paper has selected by article "Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDAIS randomized controlled trial," a research study conducted by Murdoch (2012). The goal of the article critique is to thoroughly analyze the article and to determine its validity and reliability. Furthermore, the critique would help in understanding the impact of Vitamin D on UTIs in healthy adults.

Experimental studies have reported that the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and upper respiratory infections is inversely proportional. Murdoch (2012) has reported that results of these experimental studies have been found to be inconclusive. The goal of Murdoch (2012) was to study the impact of vitamin D on Upper respiratory…


Murdoch (2012). Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on upper respiratory tract infections in healthy adults: the VIDARIS randomized controlled trial.JAMA. 2012 Oct 3; 308(13):1333-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.12505.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Mmpi-Ii the MMPI-II
Words: 983 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55253221
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-II)

The MMPI-II Test is utilized in the assessment of the individual's personality characteristics that affect the individual's personal and social adjustment.

Test Publisher

The MMPI-II is authored by S.R. Hathaway and J.C. McKinely MMPI; J.N. utcher, J.R. Graham, W.G., Dahlstrom, A.M. Tellegren, and . Kaemmer and is published by the Psychological Corporation. (Fischer, 2001)

Cost of the Test

According to Lisa Rochford, Ph.D. The cost of having the MMPI-II administered is $150.00 which includes one to two hours hosting the client at the office with scoring and interpretation costs included. (2012)

Test Users Qualifications and Time To Administer the Test

Cherry (2012) states of the MMPI-II test that The MMPI-2 contains 567 test items and takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete. The MMPI should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a professional, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, who has received specific training…


Cherry, Kendra (2012) The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- MMPI-2: History and Use of the MMPI-2. Psychology. Retrieved from: 

Fischer, Jerry (2001) Portfolio Test Review Form. Retrieved from:

Karp, Cheryl L. And Karp, Leonard (2012) General Information on the MMPI. Retrieved from: 

Kaye, Dr. Jeff (2012) Introduction to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Retrieved from:

Sports Apparel
Words: 3353 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 98795890
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business world, many strategies have been devised to gain and retain customers. Phenomena such as globalization, market saturation, and better information technology have driven strategies such as customer awareness and long-term customer relationships to be favored above relatively short-term strategies to gain new customers, such as product price and quality (Kinuthai et al., 2012, p. 223). Indeed, creating brand loyalty in order to retain customers in the long-term has played a key role in long-term business success. To accomplish this, brands such as those operating within sportswear have emphasized strategies to appeal to consumers responding to products at the individual level. As such, customer loyalty is a significant determinant in the amount of product being bought and the frequency of repeat purchases.

On the basis of this, the dissertation will aim to examine brand loyalty among the youth of a developing country (Kenya) as compared to the same phenomenon in…


Aspara, J. (2009). Stock ownership as a motivation of brand-loyal and brand-supportive behaviors. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 26(6). Pp. 427-436. Retrieved from: 

Ayuk, A. And Nyaseda, C. (2008, Spring). CFC Model. The Appropriateness of Celebrity Endorsement in Developing African Nations: A study of Cameroon and Kenya. IBA 8010. Retrieved from:

Baker, M., Sterenberg, G., and Taylor, E. (n.d.) Managing Global Brands to Meet Consumer Expectations. Retrieved from:

Haig, M. (2004). Brand Royalty: How the World's Top 100 Brands Thrive and Survive. London and Sterling VA: Kogan Page Ltd. Retrieved from:

Wal Mart Stats Wal-Mart Survey Analysis in
Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37665223
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Wal Mart Stats

Wal-Mart Survey Analysis

In order to begin addressing two key research questions, how can Wal-Mart ensure decent quality products and simultaneously keep consumers happy with prices and how would Wal-Mart keep the costs of its products down, a survey of Wal-Mart customers was taken. Attitudes towards prices, quality of products, and overall shopping experiences were collected and analyzed via in-person questionnaires/surveys to consumers exiting Wal-Mart stores after shopping. All responses were recorded on a Likert scale of 1-5, with 5 representing high satisfaction or strong agreement and 1 representing extreme dissatisfaction or strong disagreement. The following paragraphs assess the quality of this survey and its results in terms of addressing the research question.

Validity and eliability

The research questions themselves as detailed above are very valid questions to be asked of Wal-Mart, a company that built its business model on the ability to offer low-priced goods to…


Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

McClave, J.T., Benson, P.G., & Sincich, T. (2011). Statistics for business and economics (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall

Walmart Co. (2012). About Us. Retrieved from

Group and the Nature of the Study
Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17567264
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group and the nature of the study population. Both may present limitations to the researcher that will be reflective in the study design. In a quasi-experimental study, for instance, the study design lacks a fundamental component of a customary experimental design, namely randomization of the participants into study groups. Geographic limitations or the specificity of the participation qualifications may hinder the researcher from randomizing the subjects. An ex post facto study investigates possible cause-and-effect relationships by observing an existing condition and looking back into the past for valid causal factors. A certain study bias, however, is inherent in this type of study design because the variables are separated by time. Meanwhile, a correlational study compares two or more variables concurrently in detailed bivariate regression analyses. A common objective of this type of study is to determine the correlation between certain defining characteristics of the subjects and the effectiveness of some…


Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16, 11, 658-663.

Hielkema, M., Winter de, A.F., Meer de, G., Reijneveld, S.A. (2011). Effectiveness of a family-centered method for the early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems in children: a quasi-experimental study. BioMed Central Public Health, 11, 636, 1-9.

Huang, C.Y., Perng, S.J., Chen, H.F., Lai, C.Y. (2008). The Impact of Learned Resourcefulness on Quality of Life in Type II Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Correlational Study. Journal of Nursing Research, 16, 4, 264-273.

Watson, D., Clark, L.A., Stasik, S.M. (2011). Emotions and emotional disorders: A quantitative hierarchical perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 11, 3, 429-442.

Child Obesity Which Has Become an Epidemic
Words: 1755 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4711973
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child obesity, which has become an epidemic in the current epoch of technological advancements and innovations. Since obesity is escalating at an unprecedented rate specifically amongst the teenagers and children; thus, thus research proposal intends to carry out a comprehensive research to identify its causes. This paper highlights the plan of the research process in detail that include the aims and objectives of the study, methodology, data collection techniques, risks involved in carrying out the research, ethical and legal considerations, and strategies that can ensure the validity and effectiveness of the research.

esearch Design and Data Collection Techniques

esearch Timeline

Strategies to Ensure Validity and Efficacy of the Study

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Barriers to carry out the esearch Study




By looking at the historical context, once can simply claim that being fat was considered a symbol of being healthy. However, this perception over time has changed…


Balnaves, M. & Caputi, P. 2001. Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods: An Investigative Approach. SAGE Publications: USA.

Cameron, N., Hastings, G., & Ellison, G. 2005. Childhood Obesity: Contemporary Issues. CRC Press: USA.

Merriam, S.B. 2009. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. John Wiley & Sons: USA.

Smith, J.C. 1999. Understanding Childhood Obesity. Univ. Press of Mississippi: USA.

Organization Business Strategy the Organization
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 57378499
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Guidelines on oral and written communication with job applicants

One important guideline is that the human resources department is solely responsible for setting the policies and procedures regarding staffing and management of all aspects of the staffing process. herefore any written or oral communication to job applicants should come from the human resources department except where the management team may need to reply to an item that they are formally delegated for.

he second guideline is that all oral and written communication with job applicants should be clearly stated and in a conspicuous manner in the appropriate document. his is in order to prevent any misunderstandings or misinformation that comes from the job applicant not receiving or comprehending the message. he members of the organization should require the job applicants to acknowledge receipt or the message being passed and they should be given an opportunity to ask for clarification where…

The best way to conduct the criterion-related validity test is to seal the results then review them after a period of between 3 to 6 months after the new hires have been with the company. This way, the staffing manager will be able to assess the work performance of the new hires and correlate the results of the general ability test to their work performance. The general ability test becomes the predictor while the work performance becomes the criterion.

As in the study conducted by Ispas, Iliescu, Ilie, and Johnson (2010)

Job performance can be measured using supervisor ratings of the employees which can be collected as a part of the employees' annual or monthly performance evaluations. The performance appraisal can be based on a 5-point scale with four dimensions being evaluated. The four dimensions to be evaluated are quality of work, professional

Royal Dutch Shell PLC and Its Edge
Words: 2602 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 76396691
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oyal Dutch Shell PLC and Its Edge on the Global Market

The concept of financial analysis is a core indicator of the actual financial health of a given organization. The development of an accurate and dependable conceptual framework to be employed in the analysis of the global and corporate financial system has for quite a long time been an important issue in corporate accounting (Bodie & Merton,1990). An appropriate conceptual framework must be able to meet two main objectives: to effectively address the differences that exists in the institutional structures as well as to explain the main changes in the institutional structures over time. A review of extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of financial analysis. Most of these studies have dwelt on financial ratios. A study by Nenide, Pricer & Camp (2008) indicated that extant literature in accounting as well as finance indicate that the application of…


Chemical Market Reporter (2001) Energy markets poised for dramatic change, Chemical Market Reporter, 260(17), p. 8.

Datamonitor (2006). Royal Dutch Shell PLC.

Duval, Y (2005). Primary Data Collection Methods: Survey Design. ARTNeTCapacity Building Workshop on Trade Research Bangkok, Thailand, 22-25 March 2005

Social World The Effects of Information Technology
Words: 2174 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83883196
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social world?

The effects of information technology on the society

The social capital framework

In this paper, we evaluate the validity of the statement that IT is radically changing the social world. We perform a critical analysis of the concept of social world and social capital and how it is influenced by information technology. This is carried against the backdrop of the concept of information technology as the conceptual framework. The paper concludes that indeed the statement that IT is radically changing the social world is true.

The contemporary society has witnessed a series of transformations which can directly be attributed to the concept of technological dynamism. Technological dynamism is a concept which was defined by Albu (2009) as the rate of exchange in the level of predictability of new technologies. The technological advancements that we witness today are largely as a result of the lack of knowledge that exists…

Veenstra, G. (2000). Social capital, SES and health: An individual-level analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 619-629.

Wellman, B.A., Quan-Haase, A., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? Social networks, participation, and community commitment. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(3), 437-456.

Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer, 15, 225-249.

Science if Conducting an Experiment
Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36325672
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It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments rigidly control for validity by attempting to isolate variables so that only a single independent variable is studies. The independent variable "is the variable that the experimenter manipulates in a study. It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable" (Woolf, 2012). Furthermore in true experiments, the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Finally, true experiments are double blind, which means that neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether the subjects are in the experimental or control groups (Woolf, 2012).

True experiments differ from experimental designs in the level of control that exists in each different type of research. An experimental design,…


Brogan, R. (Unk.). Single case design and small n research. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Psychometrics website:

Lund Research Ltd. (2012). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Laerd Statistics website: 

Woolf, L. (2012). Research methods. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Webster University


2006 Global Terrorism Nie Like Any Intelligence
Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801232
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2006 Global Terrorism NIE

Like any intelligence product, the declassified Key Judgments of the 2006 National Intelligence Estimate "Trends in Global Terrorism: Implications for the United States" relies on certain explicit and implicit assumptions as a part of its analysis. Identifying these assumptions is crucial for evaluating the accuracy of any piece of analysis, and intelligence products in particular. Explicit assumptions may be identified by looking out for key words, while implicit assumptions require more in-depth consideration.

The explicit assumptions in the 2006 NIE are identified by certain key words which inform the reader that the following information is not verified fact, but rather based on an assumption, which itself may or may not be based on specific evidence. These key words include terms like "probably," "likely," "could," and "would," because all of these words signify that the statements being made are conditional, rather than definitive. In other instances, the…


Office of the Director of National Intelligence. (2006) Declassified key judgments of the national intelligence estimate "trends in global terrorism: implications for the United States."

Consumer's Privacy Bill of Rights
Words: 1482 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74730529
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This is achieved by forcing them to maintain a list of individuals who do not wish to be conducted about purchasing a variety of products and services. Furthermore, these protections were enacted to ensure that businesses are not engaging in tactics that are abusive by limiting the times when they can call and what they can say. (Caudill, 2000)

In contrast with the Consumer Privacy Bill of ights, the proposed regulations are designed to enhance protections. This is occurring over the Internet vs. On the telephone. These differences are showing how there is a loop hole in existing regulations as to how these laws are applied. The new guidelines are building upon the provisions from the Telephone Consumer Protections Act of 1991 by establishing procedures as to the way confidential information is used and collected from firms. This is occurring is through placing limits on an organization's online activities. ("Consumer…


Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights. (2012). CNN Money. Retrieved from: 

Fact Sheet. (2012). White Retrieved from: 

Barlough, R. (2003). The Do Not Call Registry Model. Marshall Journal Computer and Information, 22, 79 -- 85.

Caudill, E. (2000). Consumer Online Privacy. Journal of Public Policy, 19 (1), 7 -- 19.