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Role of Diminishing Marginal Return on Voter Turnout
This paper looks at the effects of diminishing marginal returns on voter turnout by comparing voter turnout in various countries. The paper will look at countries with both high and low voter turnout and attempt to explain the differences in the importance of the vote in explaining the differences.
Voter Turnout in Established and Less-Established Democracies
While the leaders in turnout during the past few decades have been mainly new democracies, when one looks at broader figures there does appear to be a difference in turnout between "established democracies" and "less-established democracies.
Political scientist Arend Lijphart, categorized established democracies as all countries that are democratic now, and have been democratic for the last 20 years, and which have a population of at least a quarter of a million people (International IDEA, 2000).
A. Discussion of Data from Established Democracies vs. Less-Established…
Anderson, D. (1999). Alternative Electoral Systems: An Answer to Our Governing Crisis in Paul Scheele (ed.), We Get What We Vote For... Or Do We? Westport, CN: Praeger Publishing.
Barber, K. (1995). A Right to Representation: Proportional Systems for the 21st Century.
Center for Voting and Democracy.
International IDEA (2000). International IDEA Voter Turnout. IDEA Newsletter, Vol. 4.
High turnouts also helped to determine several key local and state elections. The large numbers of Latino voters in California also helped secure the passage of Proposition 8, therefore revoking gay married couples of their rights. A majority of 53% of Latino voters supported Proposition 8 (Ferriss & Reese 1). This is also thought to be due to the higher association with religious institutions over white liberal voters in California
Young voters also flocked to the polls this election in record numbers. These voters represented a large liberal majority who voted primarily Democratic in most election decisions. Many sources have been labeling this 2008 election as the second largest youth turnout in the whole of American history, (Morgenstern 1). Unprecedented numbers of young voters showed up to the polls to make the voice of a young America heard. Somewhere within the ranges of 22 and 24 million young adults between…
Borenstein, Seth. "Voter Turnout Best in Generations, Maybe a Century." Associated
Press. 2008. Retrieved 18 Nov 2008 at http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5i34ao3tow5yhj2v7v24HM_wbT8JQD948LJRG0.
Farley, Robert. "Amendment 2 Fate Lies with Black Voter Turnout." St. Petersburg
Times. 2008. Retrieved 18 Nov 2008 at http://tampabay.com/news/politics/state/article868615.ece .
Bias in Voter Turnout and State Welfare Changes
The authors of the article are predominantly concerned with the welfare policies that were passed after 1996 when the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) was signed into law. Centrally, the article highlights the influences that the class bias in the voter turn-out had on the welfare changes especially in state welfare policies since the passing and signing into effect the TANF.
The widely held position that the low voter turn out in the disenfranchised sections of the population like the minority and the economically week regions contributes to the bad policies that have been passed since 1996 is the basic question the authors discuss. They try to evaluate and see whether it is true that the lower voter turn out in such regions as mentioned above do directly contribute to bad policies that do not care for the poor in the…
Voter turnout in the United States changes from state to state. An excellent example to show how this variation occurs is the 2012 presidential election, where there were 45% voter turnout in Hawaiians and 76% Minnesotans. Many different factors determine the number of people who cast ballots (Larocca & Klemanski, 2011). According to Brenna Center (2020), lawmakers in 29 states have proposed bills that would encourage more voting. The bills aim to streamline the voter registration process, facilitate absentee voting, allow people with past convictions to vote, and promote more early in-person voting. Something different is happening in 15 fifteen states with bills that make the voting process more complex being suggested. Some of the restrictions include reduced support to voters, limitations on voter ID, harsh punishment for electoral related crimes, and complicated processes for absentee voting. Legislators from the 15 states argue that their purpose is to secure…
Brenna Center, (2020). Voting Laws Roundup 2020. Retrieved from https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/voting-laws-roundup-2020
Citrin, J., Green, D. P., & Levy, M. (2014). The effects of voter ID notification on voter turnout: Results from a large-scale field experiment. Election Law Journal, 13(2), 228-242.
Gronke, P., Galanes-Rosenbaum, E., Miller, P. A., & Toffey, D. (2008). Convenience voting. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci., 11, 437-455.
Highton, B. (2017). Voter identification laws and turnout in the United States. Annual Review of Political Science, 20, 149-167.
Inbody, D. S. (2016). The soldier vote: War, politics, and the ballot in America. Springer.
Larocca, R., & Klemanski, J. S. (2011). US state election reform and turnout in presidential elections. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 11(1), 76-101.
Menger, A., Stein, R. M., & Vonnahme, G. (2015, June). Turnout Effects from vote by mail elections. In conference on election administration and reform.
Mycoff, J. D., Wagner, M. W., & Wilson, D. C. (2009). The empirical effects of voter-ID laws: Present or absent?. PS: Political Science and Politics, 42(1), 121-126.
Part II. Meta-Analysis: Critiquing hat You Have Done
Data thus far on negative campaigning has been mixed, with some research suggesting that it can be profoundly mobilizing to the party faithful of a generally dispirited American electorate (Jackson & Carsey 2006; Martin 2004), while other anecdotal studies suggest it can alienate the public. Polling individuals from a cross-section of elections allows for a wider array of demographic data, and reduces the possibility of independent variables affecting the results. For example, the area selected for the case study might have a generally low level of civic engagement, which could create low voter turnout that was correlated to a negative campaign by both candidates, but not caused by the candidate's advertisements. Examining different districts, with different kinds of hotly contested or lukewarm races, is more representational. However, a case study allows for greater specificity in conducting the research. The interviewers are able…
Do negative campaign ads work?" This Nation. 2005. 14 Jan 2008. http://www.thisnation.com/question/031.html
Jackson, Robert a. & Thomas a. Carsey. U.S. Senate campaigns, negative advertising, and voter mobilization in the 1998 midterm election. Electoral Studies. 26.1: 180-195. March 2007. 14 Jan 2008
Martin, Paul S. "Inside the Black Box of Negative Campaign Effects: Three Reasons
Why Negative Campaigns Mobilize." Political Psychology. 25.4: 545-562. Aug 2004.
Democracy and its Critics, Dahl outlines the modern incarnation of democracy. Democracy, he notes, requires the people participating in it to "possess all the capacities, resources and institutions they need in order to govern themselves" (p.1). The complexity of democracy grew with the expansion of the idea from city-state to nation-state. He then outlines the three types of critics of democracy, and their arguments.
One of the most fundamental concepts in democracy is the definition of the "people," that is, the ones who are participating in the democratic system. This definition was originally very narrow, but has grown to encompass most adults, in most modern democracies. They are supported by a wealth of institutions that facilitate the ability to vote, political parties that express particular ideologies, and means of acquiring information that allow the people to make informed choices. A democracy without informed choice is inherently weak, as some critics…
Dahl, R. (1989) Democracy and its critics. Yale University Press.
When elections are won or lost by a large majority, it can give people, particularly young people, the impression that their votes don’t matter. They see the situation as very simple: the outcome would be the same regardless or not if they had exercised their one vote or not. However, this attitude is not only damaging and cultivates a dangerous sense of apathy, it also is very incorrect. In states that are overwhelmingly red or blue, it really can feel like your vote is lost in a sea that is either with you or against you. And as one researcher recently pointed out, it is important to acknowledge that voting is onerous (McColl, 2016). It can be tedious to look up one’s polling place and make time before or after work to vote. Going before work means waking up earlier and going after work means being tired and putting…
Voting is one of the most important rights in a democratic society. In the United States, this right has been intermittently fought for by minority groups such as black people, women and others. It is a right that has been earned by pioneers and fighters, and one that is being taken for granted all too easily in today's society. According to a column by Hillary Clinton (2001) for example, young people between the ages of 18 and 24 are losing interest in voting. A survey conducted by the National Association of Secretaries of State concludes that this generation may become the first class of non-voters. This does not bode well for the United States of the future. The country's past is riddled with struggle in order to reach the state of democracy that everybody enjoys today. The right to vote is one of the most important privileges granted by this…
Center for Voting and Democracy. Title Voting & democracy report, 1995. Washington, D.C.: Center for Voting and Democracy, 1995.
Clinton, Hillary Rodham. "Talking it Over." The White House. November, 2001. http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/EOP/First_Lady/html/columns/2000/Tue_Nov_14_185710_2000.html
Hutton, Barbara. Voter education: manual for trainers. Bellville: Project Vote, 1993.
Leidy, Maureen. "Importance of Voting" PageWise.com, 2002. http://www.wallbuilders.com/resources/search/detail.php?ResourceID=22
Voting is a privilege and a right. A right that was denied for millions of people. Only until the passing of the Voting ights Act did minorities have a chance to not only vote, but change the face of the government. Before 1965, minorities, especially blacks, faced violent opposition in an attempt to stifle their voices and control the way the government nominates its officials.
Now that President Obama has shown what can happen when minorities are given a voice in politics, there have come some major setbacks. The nation in the next presidential election will adopt one of two sides, a far left or a far right. With the recent death of Head Justice Scalia and the refusal of Congress to allow the nomination of Merrick Garland, it is safe to say the nation is in turmoil in several ways. To understand how things became so unstable it is…
DeSilver, D. & DeSilver, D. (2015). U.S. voter turnout trails most developed countries. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/05/06/u-s-voter-turnout-trails-most-developed-countries/
Justice,. (2016). History Of Federal Voting Rights Laws -- CRT -- Department of Justice. Justice.gov. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from https://www.justice.gov/crt/history-federal-voting-rights-laws
Meko, T., Keating, D., Urhmacher, K., & Stamm, S. (2016). Everything you need to know about appointing a Supreme Court justice. Washington Post. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/politics/scotus-nominees/
Super PACs -- OpenSecrets. (2016). Opensecrets.org. Retrieved 24 May 2016, from https://www.opensecrets.org/pacs/superpacs.php
Voting isn't just important to Democracy. Voting is Democracy." I have long been proud of our country, and honored to participate in its electoral process, even if that process sometimes seems complicated and flawed. As a 38-year-old, I have voted in several different elections, all in the same voting precinct of Meigs, Georgia. My values, attitudes, and beliefs have been strongly shaped by my community. I am a person with strong and immutable values, dedication to faith and family, and to my country. hen I first registered to vote at the age of 18, I did not yet realize the power I had as an individual citizen. I still felt like a teenager, not quite a child anymore, but poised to be a fully functioning citizen of the United States. Yet it would be several more election cycles for me to recognize the potency of our democracy.
Registering to vote…
Brewster, Ben. "The Importance of Voting to a Democracy." Retrieved online: https://www.sec.state.vt.us/kids/contest/2005/9_12_winner_2005.htm
Osnos, Evan. "President Trump." The New Yorker. Sept 26, 2016.
Von Spakovsky, Hans A. "New State Voting Laws: Barriers to the Ballot?" Retrieved online: http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/2011/09/new-state-voting-laws-barriers-to-the-ballot
American Political Behavior Mid-Term and Discussion Chapter and Blog
Module 4/Discussion 1 -- Participation of Young Voters
Young voter participation has been lagging behind other age groups, which has been a major concern. It is a concern because majority of the population that is eligible to vote comprises of the youth. In a nation where 23% of the people are edible to vote, 17% comprises of the youth (Winograd & Hais, 2009). It is also notable that voter registration targets the college students thus a gap in voter turnout between people with collage experience and those without (Putnam, 2000). Young adults were able to vote after the ratification of the 26th amendment, which was in 1971. egardless of this right to vote, young adults do not exercise their civil responsibility to vote. The voter turnout by young adults is usually low over the last years. This is mainly due to…
Hendricks, J.A., & Denton, R.E. (2009). Communicator-in-chief: How Barack Obama used new media technology to win the white house. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books.
Rosenau, J.N., & Singh, J.P. (2002). Information technologies and global politics: The changing scope of power and governance. Albany (N.Y.: State university of New York press.
Putnam, R.D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN 10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
It is also possible that voters could change their attitudes after having completed the questionnaire. This could affect the validity of the results for the experimental group. To handle this eventuality, several questionnaires can be delivered over time for the whole group before the experimental group is selected. A mean can then be determined to most accurately divide the group into a similar experimental and control group.
After the experimental group is determined, negative advertisements can be displayed. In order increase the validity of this experiment, a number of survey questionnaires over time can also be delivered in order to minimize non-visible influences such as an extreme reaction to a particular person in a particular advertisement. At the same time, the same number of questionnaires can be delivered to the control group.
A mean of all the questionnaires over the determined time can then provide relatively accurate data regarding whether…
It appears then that the authors believe that democracy has taken a very different form from its position less than a century ago. Citizens and politicians no longer work together to achieve the democratic aim. Instead, both sectors use the means at their disposal to make the differences that they deem necessary on an individual rather than a collective level.
While this is a more contemporary argument than the one in Politics by Other Means, it nevertheless still does not address the issues from all sides. Still, the authors appear to assume the relative integrity of politicians in terms of achieving political rather than personal aims and the drive of citizens to participate, as well as their trust in the political process.
Knight and Lewis (in Ginsberg and Stone 176) address the feelings involved in political participation more fully, by means of the concept of ideological sentiment. The authors note…
Crenson, Matthew a. And Ginsberg, Benjamin. Downsizing democracy: ho America sidelined its citizens and privatized its public. JHU Press, 2004.
Crenson, Matthew a and Ginsberg, Benjamin. "Citizens to Customers: How America Downsized Citizenship and Privatized Its Public." In . Making government manageable: executive organization and management in the twenty-first century. Edited by Thomas H. Stanton and Benjamin Ginsberg JHU Press, 2004.
Ginsberg, Benjamin and Shefter, Martin. Politics by other means: the declining importance of elections in America. Basic Books, 1990.
Knight, Kathleen and Lewis, Carolyn V. "Does Ideology Matter?" In Do Elections Matter? Edited by Benjamin Ginsberg and Alan Stone. M.E. Sharpe, 1996.
bias, internal validity, external validity, and reliability.
There are several important issues with the research conducted by this anonymous female student that impacts the reliability and validity of her findings. Firstly, it appears that the researcher formulated her hypothesis before she had gathered all the facts available regarding the topic which is a major issue. She has an opinion that lower income people vote less than those with higher incomes and seems to have looked for data to support the hypothesis rather than forming a hypothesis which accounts for the data. In addition, in the question regarding this hypothetical research it is stated that she searched the internet and library, but there is no information as to the quality or reliability of the sources that she used in her research which also calls her findings into question. I would also be concerned with the world almanac she is using as…
A new "treaty" to reform the EU government was put forth in 2007, ratified by most countries, but rejected by Ireland in 2008. Efforts continue.
Why Low Voter Turnout in European Parliamentary Elections?
The past two European Parliament elections, in 2004 and 2009, have produced increasingly lower voter turnouts -- 45.5% in 2004, and 43% in 2009 -- both record lows (Xuequan, 2009).
This occurs because most of the European voters are still "nationals" rather than "internationals." They are often unaware of policies and debates about issues that are occuring at the "European" level. Their own individual countries of residence and its issues are more important to them. Secondly, there is an enormously deep-seated feeling among most Europeans that their vote won't make a difference. They don't vote because they don't see direct results in regards to common citizen influence in the EU government institutions.
Xuequan, M. (2009,…
Xuequan, M. (2009, June 6). Record low voter turnout in European Parliament elections. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from xinhuanet.com: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-06/08/content_11504890.htm
Concerning civil rights and liberties, the U.S. can consider itself to be a free country indeed. According to a Freedom Hose eport which took into consideration the evolution of the countries of the world since 2001, the United States is considered to be a free country, with the ranking of one, as the highest in this report (Freedom House, 2006). However, an important element in this sense is the fact that throughout the period under analysis, the ranking remains the same, an element which suggests the fact that its positive evolution was constant.
Overall, it is important to say that the U.S. is one of the most democratic countries in the world, from a scale of one to ten; ten being the undemocratic limit, the U.S. is ranked one. It is not only the conclusion drawn from this basic analysis but rather a general belief on the situation in the…
Freedom House. Report. 2006. 6 February 2008. http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=15
Presidential Pre-nomination campaign receipts through August 31. 2004. N. d.
Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 2, 2004. 2005. 6 February 2008. http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/2004election.pdf
U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Survey. November 2004.
e-voting, or voting through ATM-like electronic terminals. Specifically, it will discuss the pro and cons of the election process moving into an electronic age away from the "hanging chads." It will include issues of security such as hacking and vote count integrity. E-voting is a controversial new way for many people to cast their ballots, but it is not foolproof. E-voting faces challenges on many counts, and it will be interesting to see how the terminals work in the upcoming Presidential election in November. Voting electronically sounds like a good, workable idea, but is it really?
The 2000 Presidential election and the fiasco in Florida's vote count were just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to voting in America. Today, voters are faced with more than punch cards. They are faced with "e-voting." What is e-voting? E-voting is a more practical way of voting by using electronic touch-screens…
Author not Available. "E-Vote Critics Demand Paper Trail." Wired. 1 April 2004.
Author not Available. "E-Voting Terminals Face Super Tuesday Test." Reuters. 29 Feb. 2004.
Bonsor, Kevin. "How E-Voting Will Work." HowStuffWorks.com. 2000. 6 May 2004. http://computer.howstuffworks.com/e-voting.htm
Foley, Dennis. "E-Voting Errors Prompt Polling Changes in Orange County, Calif." The Miami Herald. 31 March 2004. http://www.miami.com/mid/miamiherald/business/national/8322313.htm
Local Elections in the City of York, UK
Many Western democracies are dealing with the problem of low voter turnout in elections. The United Kingdom is no different in this regard. Local elections seem to be particularly hard hit by an absence of voters participating in these elections. Political scientists everywhere have been studying the problem of low voter turnout for quite some time, though interviews and surveys with the voting population. Thus far, results of these studies have pointed to a variety of reasons why people may choose to not participate in voting in their local elections. This paper examines a May 2003 local election in the city of York in the United Kingdom, and looks at reasons why voter turnout in this election was relatively low.
In a local election in the city of York in May of 2003, the voter turnout was rather low. While it was…
Rallings, C. And Thrasher, M. (1997). Local Government Elections in Britain. London, Routledge.
Statistics About York." (2004). Neighborhood Statistics. Retrieved on January 12, 2004 at http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/AreaProfileFrames.
Strategic Use and Impact of Social Media in the 2012 Elections
The goal of the research is to find evidence of the use and impact of social media in U.S.'s 2012 presidential elections. This is because it was reported that President Obama won the elections because of the ground operation presented by volunteers of his elections' campaigns (CNN ire 1). I chose this topic since reports in state media indicated that the Republican Party was heading in the pre-election polls, but in the end, the Democratic Party won due to the use of technological innovation (Edsall 1). An in depth analysis of the research problem intends to reveal that the presidential contest favored President Obama, for using social media. Social media is increasingly an easy, fast, and effective way for people to have personal contact through technology. The intention is to prove the political premise that the most effective means…
"Changing Face of America Helps Assure Obama Victory." Pew Research Center for the People & The Press. People-Press. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.
"Election 2012: Barack Obama wins with 'Better Ground Game'." CNN Wire. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.
Blow, Charles M. "Election Data Dive." New York Times. Nov 9, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.
Edsall, Thomas, B. "Campaign Stops: What We Already Know." New York Times, The Opinion Pages. Nov 4, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.
United States operates as an indirect or representative democracy meaning that a select group is elected by the whole to serve as representatives while attending to public matters. This is in contrast to a direct democracy which holds that all eligible members of a society can personally direct public affairs. This distinction is often overlooked by most Americans who believe that the term democracy has no qualifications.
In order to fully grasp American government, it is essential to understand the Framers of the Constitution referred to it as republic in form. Their intention was to have representatives direct government operations. In other words, voters select representatives who in turn carry out government business. The reasons for this procedure are manifold. Most notably, the Framers foresaw the electorate making poor decisions based on transitory emotions thereby leading the country in an unwise direction. Given such predispositions, the Framers felt that minority…
Wilson, James Q. & Dilulio, John J. (1998). American Government. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Unintentional discrimination occurs when a company's policies uncritically reflect prejudicial stereotypes yet do not involve overt racial prejudices of its managers or executives. Does legislation to verify voter identification fall under the domain of unintentional or intentional discrimination? Explain your views.
The voter verification effects that are currently being proposed, predominately in Conservative lead states, are both unintentional and intentional discrimination. They are unintentional in their best case given that legislators have reasonable assumptions to make the passage of these verification requirements mandatory for all potential voters. Some analysts believe that voter fraud is a real threat to the political system. Although there have only been a handful of voter fraud cases ever prosecuted in the United States, there might be a seemingly legitimate argument to support voter identification initiatives. For example, J. Christian Adams, an election lawyer in Alexandria, Va., and advocate for voter-ID laws who…
Bialik, C. (2012, September 1). Counting Voter Fraud. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://blogs.wsj.com/numbersguy/counting-voter-fraud-1165/
Demby, G. (2012, August 16). Pennsylvania Voter ID Law: Mike Turzai Repeats Debunked Myth About Election Fraud. Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/16/pennsylvania-voter-id-law_n_1790844.html
Plunder, J. (2012, August 19). Ohio Republicans finally admit limited hours intended to suppress black voters. Retrieved from Plunderbund: http://www.plunderbund.com/2012/08/19/ohio-republicans-finally-admit-limited-hours-intended-to-suppress-black-voters/
In the 2016 U.S. presidential elections, the Democrats experienced significant losses in both the Senate and the House of Representatives in addition to losing the presidency. While the Democratic presidential candidate, Hillary Clinton, won the popular vote, Donald Trump won the electoral college votes to clinch the presidency. The Republicans not only won the presidency but also won the Senate and the House of Representatives. In the aftermath of the 2016 elections, the performance of the Democratic Party has been the subject of scrutiny among political analysts and experts in political matters. The media has remained puzzled with the outcome of the elections because they were so wrong in their predictions. One of the issues that has received considerable scrutiny by the media is why Democrats failed to capture more seats in the U.S. House and why they lost control of the Senate. This paper focuses on examining the reasons…
Other factors include those as follows:
1) Differences in social background characteristics - this accounted for half of the turnout gap between the youngest two cohorts in the study of lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet (2002) which is attributed to a "weaker sense of voting duty."
2) The voters conceived there was little or no actual competition in the political race. (lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet, 2002)
3) Low level of interest and information of those born after 1970. (lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet, 2002)
The authors, lais, Gidengil, Nadeau, & Nevittet (2002) conclude their work by stating that: "The decline in turnout since the 1988 election does not bode well for the country's democratic health." (Ibid) The work of Dietlind Stolle and Marc Hooghe (nd) hold that each civic generation which is replaced by cohorts of a younger age causes the social capital stock of American communities to slowly…
Catt, Dr. Helena (2005) Now or Never -Children as Young People as Citizens; Participation, Provision and Protection. 6th Child and Family Policy Conference. Paper presented at the symposium 'Citizenship: Learning by Doing." Online available at http://www.elections.org.nz/now-or-never-lit-review.html
Stolle, D. And Hooghe, M. (nd) Inaccurate, Exceptional, One-Sided or Irrelevant? The Debate about the Alleged Decline of Social Capital and Civic Engagement in Western Societies. Online available at: Cambridge Journals Online.
Keller, Douglas (nd) Habermas, the Public Sphere, and Democracy: A Critical Intervention Douglas Kellner
The 16th Amendment was the first to be passed in the 20th century. It allowed incomes to be taxed as a clear response to the Supreme Court decision in the Pollock v Farmers' Loan and Trust Company (Fonder and Shaffrey 2002). Congress previously passed an income tax law in 1894, which the Supreme Court found to be unconstitutional, not being divided among the states by population. efore the 16th Amendment, the Constitution protected citizens in Article 1, Section 9, which provided that no capitation, or other direct tax chall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration. This protection was eliminated with the passage and ratification of the 16th Amendment, which gave Congress the power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the States and without regard to census or enumeration. efore the 16th Amendment, taxation was based on consumption and…
Baker, J. (2000). United States (Government). MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia: Microsoft Corporation. http://encarta.msn.com/text_1741500781_44/United_Sttes_(government
Collins, R.A. (1993). Gibbon, D., ed. The History of America. New York: CLB Publishing.
Fonder, M. And Shaffrey, M. (2002). American Government. Pearson Education Company
Francese, P. (2002). The Exotic Travel Boom - Leisure Travel Market Will Benefit from Aging American Population. American Demographics: Media Central, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/mi_m4021/is_2002_June_1/a_8867
The incentives of engaging a meaningful and thorough campaign is thus reduced. The chances of influencing the results of elections are significantly reduced leading to the decrease in the level of voter turnout. The political campaigns are therefore less likely to devote resources towards the encouragement of voter turnout. The reduction in the level of competition leads to the candidate placing more efforts in the process of securing his or her party nomination for the given district as opposed to gaining of the approval of the electorate. In a state that has been gerrymandered, the contesting candidate is almost assured of an express win if nominated. An example in California is during the 2004 elections when the Californias 3rd congressional district was declared vacant subsequent to the running for the higher office by the Republican Congressman Doug Ose. The remaining three stronger republican congressional candidates then campaigned vigorously against each…
Post redistricting electoral processes can, in most cases, bring forth some new incumbents who will still enjoy the same level of undue advantage as the former incumbents and so redistricting will not entirely eradicate the negative effects of incumbency. Redistricting also raises the information costs since a lot of resources are spent to broadcast the new changes, moreover, it interferes with turn out as more voters are most likely to abstain from House elections having cast the presidential ballot.
There is a need for the state of California to adopt the 2011 redistricting framework in order to allow the electorate and the candidates to enjoy their democratic right of equal representation. Proper legislation must therefore be passed and implemented in order to reduce electoral vices like gerrymandering
Civil participation or civil engagement is defined as individual as well as collective actions that are designed for the identification and addressing of issues that concern the public. It is active citizenship whereby citizens have a direct input when it comes to the process of making policies and those that have direct experience of services or emerging social needs are given a voice when it comes to the determination of policy and practice. Civic participation has several elements but its most basic sense is that one of making decisions, or governance over who, how and by whom the resources of a community are allocated. The principle of civic participation underscores the basic principle of democratic governance, which means that sovereignty is found within the citizens. Civic participation is about the right of people to define what is good for the public, to determine policies which they will seek the good…
Reiss, D. (2012). Why teaching Civic Engagement is essential.
Sidney, V, Schlozman, K & Henry, B. (1997.).The big tilt: Participatory inequality in America
The American Prospect;pg. 74
Kanter, M. (2012). Civic Learning for Democracy's Future. Liberal Education Summer. Pg 23-27
Nationwide, those who attended graduate school were 11 percentage points more likely to vote for Kerry than those without a college education.
In other discoveries, Bush supporters believed overwhelmingly (72% to 26%) that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction (still). This is despite the fact that it was categorically established that Iraq had no such weapons.
Bush supporters also believed, in comparison to Kerry supporters, overwhelmingly that Iraq was tied to Al Queda, when again it was categorically established there existed no such ties.
This article continues to establish that Bush supporters voted for an image and a set of factual inconsistencies that they either mistakenly believed or wanted to believe, whereas Kerry's supporters voted on facts.
Despite Rhetoric, Bush, Kerry Agree on Many Issues. Washington Post: May 9, 2004.
Although many people felt the 2004 election was an epic clash between two completely opposing camps, in reality, both sides…
urthermore, voter turnout for election 2004 exceeded voter turnout for 2000 by approximately 8%. However, many of those voters can be attributed to efforts of special interest groups, which appealed to voters in the extremes of both parties. If the Democrats plan to win future elections, they have to capture undecided voters in the swing states. The Democrats are not going to win the votes of the undecided by appealing to the far left of the Democratic Party.
Perhaps the best recent example of a moderate Democrat is Bill Clinton. Clinton was the last successful Democratic Presidential. In addition to being a political moderate, and despite the fact that Clinton was also better-educated than the average American and less overtly religious than Kerry, Clinton was seen as more in-touch with the average person. Some Democratic Party centrists have complained that Kerry's loss was due to him straying from the winning…
Fineman, Howard and Weston Kosova. 2004. Wanted: Better Donkeys. Newsweek. 15 November, 26.
Zakaria, Fareed. 2004. Writing Prose for a New Team. Newsweek, 15 November, 33.
Will, George F. 2004. The Deflation of Politics. Newsweek, 8 November, 64.
In 2004, approximately 120.3 million people cast a ballot for president, which, in absolute numbers, are the most to have participated in any American election.
In the popular vote, President ush received 51% of the popular vote to Kerry's 48% and in the Electoral College the final outcome was 286 electoral votes for the President and 252 electoral votes for Kerry. Republicans not only won the White House, but they also expanded their Senate lead to 55 from 51.
In the House, Republicans added three seats and emerged with a 29-seat majority. Republican control of the White House, Senate and Congress truly mark the 2004. The 2004 is truly a transforming election marking significant Republican influence over morals, the economy, and Iraq war policies.
According to CNN, an evenly divided electorate split sharply, and in some states decisively, on age, gender, religious, racial and ideological lines.
Botelho, Greg. "Exit Polls: Electorate is Sharply Divided." CNN 3 Nov. 2004. 13 Dec. 2004. .
"Election, 2004 Update, November 4, 2004 - President George W. Bush Wins a Second Term; the GOP also Makes Gains in Congress." 4 Nov. 2004. Thomson Wadsworth. 13 Dec. 2004. .
Division of Political Power in New York City Since orld ar II
The Late 1940's and 1950's and agner
The 1960's and Lindsay
The 1970's and Financial Crisis
The 1980's and Koch
The 1990's to 2001 and Guiliani
Success in New York City politics is about building coalitions. Since orld ar II, the Democratic machine has been in decline. ithout an organized institution, politicians must find a way to appeal to multiple groups. Often this means alienating other groups. Politicians who can build a winning coalition find it difficult to maintain it because the ethnic and social dynamic of the city is constantly changing. The Jews are the single most important group today, but others groups are gaining increasing influence. Below is a summary of politics in New York since the machine went into decline.
The Late 1940's and 1950's and agner
Following orld ar II, the Tammany Hall political…
Arian, Asher, et al. Changing New York City Politics. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Cannato, Vincent, J. The Ungovernable City. New York: Basic Books, 2001.
Carter, Barbara. The Road to City Hall: How John Lindsay Became Mayor. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1967.
Connable, Alfred and Edward Silberfarb. Tigers of Tammany: Nine Men Who Ran New
The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…
A Fight for Democracy
There are many forms of government that exist in the world. From dictatorships to monarchies to democracies. However, the most challenging form of government by far is democracy. This is because it involves participation by the government and the people.
The word democracy has origins in the Greek language with the meaning 'rule by the people' (Patrick, 2006). ome and Athens represented the precursors to modern democracies and served as the first 'democracies' of antiquity. Democracies were made in order to control the abuse of power people witnessed see from rulers. While democracy has ancient roots, modern democracy was only formulated during the age of Enlightenment, specifically the 17th and 18th centuries.
In this age, philosophers designated fundamental elements of democracy. These are: basic human and civil rights, separation of powers, religious freedom, and separation of church and state (Ostrom, 1997). Modern democracies have…
Burns, K. (2015). The Civil War. The Film. Episode Descriptions. Episode One.Pbs.org. Retrieved 26 May 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/film/episode1.html
Jones, T. (2016). Could the South Have Won the War? Opinionator. Retrieved 26 May 2016, from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/16/could-the-south-have-won-the-war/
Kent, Z. (2011). The Civil War. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow.
Ostrom, V. (1997). The meaning of democracy and the vulnerability of democracies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Fresia's contention that the United States failed to live up to its revolutionary democratic promise and instead was captured by the powerful plutocratic elite has appeal, it oversimplifies the process by which the elite take and retain control over resources and governmental power. In reality, at the time of the American evolution, there was little dispute that the outcome of the evolution would be to give greater power and freedom to those leading the evolution; the founding fathers. While the promise of democracy was offered to common men, it was members of the ruling elite of the colonial Americas that made the decisions to declare America independent from England and drafted both the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. Therefore, it is unsurprising that the Constitution does not engage in the type of re-distribution of wealth that Fresia appears to believe is necessary in order to establish a…
Fresia, Jerry. 1988. Toward an American Revolution: Exposing the Constitution and other
Illusions. Boston: South End Press.
Former Soviet Satellites and the European Union
Recent decades have been decades of great change for the nations and peoples of Europe. The est has witnessed the gradual demise of interstate rivalries, the former system of wholly independent states being replaced by an increasingly close union of partner nations. Meanwhile, in the East, these same years saw nearly the whole of Europe from the Baltic to the Black Sea fall under the domination of the Soviet Union. However, with the collapse of communism in the early 1990s, these former Soviet satellites were transformed, almost overnight, into a collection of fledgling democracies. And though the nations of Eastern Europe, at least ostensibly, now share the same political values as their neighbors to the est, their transformation has not been without its problems. Years of Communist rule, has left these countries economically backward and underdeveloped. Yet each of these former Communist nations…
Grabbe, Heather. "Enlargement, Ready or Not?" Guardian Unlimited. 8 December 2002. URL: http://politics.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,9115,855941,00.html .
Gorobets, Alexander. "Russia Wants to See Ukraine Rich and Prosperous - President Putin." Pravda. Trans. Dmitry Sudakov. 14 December 2001. URL: http://english.pravda.ru/cis/2001/12/14/23674.html .
Patten, Chris. "EU's Relations with Ukraine: Overview." Europa, European Commission, European Union in the World. Directorate of International Relations: January, 2002. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/ukraine/intro/index.htm#top.
Prodi, Romano. "The Final Lap." Commission Press Room, European Parliament. Brussels, 9 October 2002. URL: http://europa.eu.int/rapid/start/cgi/guesten.ksh-p_action.gettxt=gt&doc=SPEECH/02/463|0|RAPID&lg=EN&display=.
Electoral ules and Socio-Economic Changes on Elections and Winners Thereof
One should never be deceived to think or imagine that electoral rules are mere formalities. These rules have a major influence on the choices that voters make during an election in a democratic set up. Electoral rules can be defined as a set of rules that determine who votes, who vies and how votes are cast for representation at the various levels and how such votes are translated to electoral seats in such assemblies. Therefore, it is clear from the definition that electoral rules and systems are only part of a wider structure commonly referred to as electoral regulations. Electoral systems discussions tend to exclude other aspects such as the right to vote, transparency and fairness elements (Vampa).
Voting behavior and attitudes are influenced by socio-economic factors. Therefore, social groups exhibit differences in voting patterns. Some patterns are age-old but…
Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. "Voting Behavior." 2012. https://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/instructors/setups2012/voting.jsp . Accessed 26 October 2016.
Htun, Mala and Powell, Bingham, G. Jr. "Task Force on Political Science, Electoral Rules, and Democratic Governance." September 2013. American Political Science Association. http://www.apsanet.org/electoralrules . Accessed 26 October 2016.
Vampa, Davide. "What impact, if any, does the electoral system have on the shape of the party system?" 2016. Academia. https://www.academia.edu/4137776/What_impact_if_any_does_the_electoral_system_have_on_the_shape_of_the_party_system . Accessed 26 October 2016.
In terms of outcomes and successes, it can be said that the small voter turnout, especially in the recent elections of 2004 when only 54% of the population with the right to vote actually exercised it (Pimbo, 2004) it is of little importance the actual result. The rule of Thabo Mbeki has been certified twice in the Presidential office in 1999 and 2004. Nonetheless, in both occasions, the fact that the ruling party, the African National Congress, has held an undisputed majority was obvious in the electoral results. u comparison, "the opposition share of the vote has declined since 1994" (Pimbo, 2004). Therefore, there is little evidence of an important opposition force, an aspect which limits the democratic process.
There are other issues which are relevant for the electoral system in South Africa. Given the historical background, representation of the minorities is a crucial matter. According to statistics, it may…
Klemann, Jurgen. A Critical Look at South Africa Politics and Economics. 2004. 23 April 2008 http://www.escapeartist.com/efam/56/South_Africa_Politics.html
Pearce, Justin. "How South Africa has changed." BBC News Online. 2004. 23 April 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3608149.stm
Piombo, Jessica. "Politics in a Stabilizing Democracy: South Africa's 2004 Elections." Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004). Center for Contemporary Conflict. 23 April 2008. http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/2004/may/piomboMay04.asp#references
Saaiman, Hurchele. "The Promotion of Women's rights in South Africa." ITCG Alberto Ceccherelli School, Italy. 18 February 2008.
Thereby we can conclude if their support or lack thereof for healthcare reform is based on understanding of facts, or is being shaped by other factors, ostensibly the information being made public by politically affiliated media and elected officials in support of one party or the other.
The Survey: Healthcare eform
I voted for President Obama
I support healthcare reform
I have health insurance or Government Program
I have Medicare
I have Medicaid
I have CHAMP/VA
I have TICAE
I have group benefit insurance
I have private health insurance
The Health Insurance Privacy
And Portability Act applies to me
The Employee etirement Income
Security Act applies to me
CNN (2009). Brown Wins Massachusetts Senate Race, CNN Politics, found online at http://www.cnn.com/2010/POLITICS/01/19/Massachusetts.senate/index.html, retrieved February 1, 2010.
Monette, D., Sullivan, T., and DeJong, C. (2008). Applied Social Research: A Tool for Human Services, Thomson Books, Belmont, CA.
.." And with that that party "controls the spoils of office" by appointing people friendly to the president's election to positions of influence and by keeping the party's masses happy by giving them what they asked for.
In defining HO and HY, and UNDER HAT CONDITIONS the CHANGE CAME on the national political scene that vaulted Andrew Jackson (a roughneck frontier and war hero with little sophistication vis-a-vis national politics and diplomatic elitism) - i.e., Jacksonian Democracy - into the hite House, University of Chicago social science professor Marvin Meyers writes in American Quarterly (Meyers 1953) that there are three distinct phases to examine. Put in the context of published volumes that would cover these three phases, Meyers lays it out: one, "the revolt of the urban masses against a business aristocracy"; two, "simple farming folk rise against the chicanery of capitalist slickers"; and three, "...tense with the struggle of…
Aldrich, John H. Why Parties? Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Brown, David. "Jeffersonian Ideology and the Second Party System." Historian 62.1 (1999):
Eldersveld, Samuel J.; & Walton, Hanes. Political Parties in American Society. Boston: Bedford/
acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts
A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.
In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).
esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.
Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.
Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.
Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.
1997 in the peer-reviewed journal the American Prospect. The authors (Sidney Verba, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E, Brady) focus their attention on the theme of political participation and the growing inequality within that participation (e.g., people with money are more involved, which has potentially dire consequences for democracy). An argument can be made that this research presents a prologue to what has become a huge issue and problem in 2014. That is, because of the Supreme Court's 2012 "Citizens United" decision, which allows those with untold millions of dollars to spend their cash on campaigns without any accountability as to who made those contributions, there is a huge participatory inequality in 2014. That said, the scholarly article by Verba, et al., presents an in-depth analysis of why some people get involved in politics -- related to their socioeconomic situations -- and why some people do not get involved in…
Confessore, Nicholas. "$122 million in 2012 Spending by Koch Group." The New York
Times. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2013.
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Brady, Henry E. "The Big Tilt: Participatory
Inequality in America." The American Prospect, Vol. 32, 74-80. 1996.
Fortune Affect Grand Master Flash's Political Message?
Music is one of the most powerful forms of communication. It utilizes different types of information networks to cut across linguistic and social boundaries. In several occasions music has the potential to relate to politics and power. From the songs of sorrow sung by slaves in the south, to the revolutionary nature of jazz, blues, and rhythym and blues (R&) during the activist days of the Civil Rights Movements, music has been an important part of many social and political changes. In the recent past the power of music has definitely been amplified by increasingly globalized communications such as social media. Nowadays more rapidly than ever, music links and influences people from all over the world (Malone and Martinez).
Hip-hop is considered by some to be one of the most important genres of music. It originated in the ronx, New York in the…
Allmusic.com. Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. n.d. 8 May 2015. Web
Bakala-ska, prace. Hip hop in American Culture. Thesis. Palackeho, 2012. Web
Bey, Alexander. "Hip-Hop's Musical Evolution of Rap." n.d. http://www.oneonta.edu . 8 May 2015.Web
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. About Hip Hop Youth Subculture. Los Angeles: Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, n.d. Web
Second orld ar, Japan was a traditional absolute monarchy but since the adoption of a new constitution in 1946, Japan has become a constitutional monarchy in which the emperor serves as symbolic head of state and the legislature or Diet is parliamentary in nature. The Constitution of Japan expressly outlines the role of the emperor as "symbol of the state and of the unity of the people," (cited by Michigan State University 1). The Emperor serves in ceremonial functions such as the awarding of special honors and providing the ceremonial appointments of the Prime Minister and Supreme Court judges. Emperor Akihito is the reigning monarch; successors are hereditary.
Therefore, Japan possesses a similar system to the one used by Britain and its commonwealth countries. The current system of Japanese government was actually established during the Allied occupation of Japan in 1946 ("Government" 1). According to the Consulate-General of Japan in…
"Background: Politics and Political Campaigns in Japan." PBS: POV. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/pov/campaign/campaign_background.php
Consulate-General of Japan in San Francisco. "Government/Political System." Retrieved online: http://www.sf.us.emb-japan.go.jp/en/e_m08_01_08.htm
Darlington, Roger. "A Short Guide to the Japanese Political System." 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Japanesepoliticalsystem.html
Goel, M. Lal. "Observations on Japanese Culture and Politics." Retrieved online: http://uwf.edu/lgoel/documents/AObservationsonJapaneseCulturePol.pdf
Of all ethnic groups classified as "Hispanic," Cuban Americans have been seen as a model minority. Compared to groups such as Mexican-Americans or Puerto Ricans, Cubans are seen as an economically-successful sub-group. Furthermore, Cuban Americans are generally regarded as a socially-homogenous group which has parlayed their population and economic might into political clout.
This paper examines the various cultural, political and economic factors that have contributed to the Cuban American success story. This paper argues that counter to popular belief, Cubans are far from a homogenous ethnic group. Rather, it was this group's shared sense of exile and its mobilization of large numbers of immigrants that paved the way for their socio-economic and political clout.
This paper takes a historical approach to the growth of economic and political power of Cuban Americans. It looks at how Cuban exiles slowly shifted focus from anticipating their return to the homeland…
Alvarez, Carlos et al. "Cuban Identity: A Preliminary Study." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Seattle, WA, April 10-14, 2001). Available from ERIC database.
Anton, Alex and Hernandez, Roger E. Cubans in America: A Vibrant History of a People in Exile. New York: Kensington, 2002
Azicri, Max. Reinventing Socialism. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2000.
Eckstein, Susan and Barberia, Lorena. "Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties." International Migration Review 36(3): 799-837
European Parliament, Democratic Legitimacy and the EU
The EU has three legislative aspects—the supranational aspect (the Commission), the intergovernmental aspect (the European Council and the Council of the EU), and the parliamentary aspects (the EP). Yet, only one of these bodies is directly elected in a democratic fashion (the EP), which means that the overwhelming majority of the EU’s legislative totality is specifically non-democratic in character. In other words, the only way the people of Europe can directly and democratically influence the shaping of EU policy is through the EP. This is undoubtedly why, as Ronald Holzhacker points out, “scholars, politicians and the public have bemoaned a lack of democratic legitimacy in the European Union (EU) for decades.”[footnoteRef:2] [2: Ronald Holzhacker, "Democratic legitimacy and the European Union." European Integration 29, no. 3 (2007), 257.]
The Central Question
The question this essay aims to answer is: To what extent does the…
4. Dr. Michael Hanchard. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Hanchard may be the most important contact in academia for any aspects of the study linked to race because Dr. Hanchard has done extensive work in both comparative politics and transnational politics. Furthermore, Dr. Hanchard may be able to provide insight into research methodology because he has done research on black political activists in various locales.
5. Dr. Wesley Skogan. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Skogan concentrates on citizens as consumers and creators of law, therefore he may have valuable insight on political involvement.
6. Dr. Dennis Chong. Political science professor at Northwestern University. Dr. Chong wrote Rational Lives: Norms and Values in Politics and Society, in which he examined the interrelationship between how people's individual choices effect their social and economic realms. Because choice of residence may be one of the most basic social choices, Dr.…
awls and the Just Society
Today's United States society is not just because it violates both principles of John awls' theory of justice based on the "original position." This paper will explain awls' principles and show how the U.S. violates those principles.
awls states that justice is fairness (MacKinnon, Fiala, 2015, p. 78) within the framework of the social contract, which stems back to ousseau (2012, p. 1), who ironically pointed out that "man is born free, yet everywhere is in chains" -- alluding to the fact that in a free society, man ought not to be a made a slave of institutions such as Church, aristocracy or government. This is the "original position" regarding man's natural state, what ousseau and the Enlightenment thinkers believe is not a "fallen state of human nature," but one that is free to assert the "rights of man." These rights were popular at the…
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. IN: St. Augustine's Press.
MacKinnon, B., Fiala, A. Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues. CT: Cengage.
Rousseau, J. (2012). Social Contract. NY: Courier.
Through a school-based project, students within the proposed COMA program would watch popular videos under supervision and then talk about the images afterwards, to assess different rapper's portraits of women, violence, crime, and sexuality. Students would also analyze rap lyrics in their English classes. This would encourage teens to not simply mindlessly listen to the music, without critically analyzing rappers' overt messages and rap lyrics' subtexts.
Bringing rap into the school would help to erase the 'us vs. them' divide that is part of much of rap's violent, negative, outsider appeal. It could also offer a springboard in which to discuss larger social issues about racism and sexism. Students would be asked to create their own rap music videos and rap songs to talk about issues that were important to them on a personal level. Incorporating rap as an expressive medium has been proven to be effective in many contexts.…
Iwamoto, Derek K. (2007). Feeling the beat: the meaning of rap music for ethnically diverse midwestern college students: A phenomenological study. Adolescence. Retrieved July
25, 2010 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_166_42/ai_n27343301/
King, Samantha (et al. 2009). Effects of rap and heavy metal music lyrics on adolescent
Behavior. Missouri Western State University. Retrieved July 25, 2010 at http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/325.php
Politically, they are an extremely strong force in Florida politics, and they have gained the sympathy of many other Americans because of the strong anti-Cuban (i.e. Castro) sentiment in the country. Socially, many early Cuban American immigrants have assimilated into the country. They have higher college education rates than other Hispanics, and they have moved up the ladder to own businesses and join the middle class in many areas. Economically, they have a higher median family income than other Hispanic groups, they contribute to the American economy, (since most cannot send money back to Cuba), and they have transformed Miami into what some call "little Cuba." Cubans are also primarily Catholic and continue their beliefs after they immigrate, and they tend to maintain close family relationships with extended family members in close proximity, like other Hispanic groups. What is different is that there can be decided differences between early Cuban…
Hayes-Bautista, D.E. (2004). La Nueva California: Latinos in the Golden State. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Lassiter, S.M. (1998). Cultures of color in America: A guide to family, religion, and health.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
The subject culture implies the relationship of the individual with the political authorities he is aware of. However, despite their existence, the subject may or may not agree to their legitimacy.
The participant political culture is the "one in which the members of the society tend to be explicitly oriented to the system as a whole and to both the political and administrative structures and processes." (Almond and Verba,1989, 18)
Overall, the classification proposed by the authors does not necessarily exclude one another, but rather complement each other. In this sense, although participant politics is advisable for current democracies, elements from a parochial and a subject political culture are also present and influence the polity.
The U.S. is a symbol of the democratic system. The political culture may be seen as participant because the citizen is, despite a serious fall in the voting turnout percentages, involved in their relation with…
Almond, Gabriel a., and Sidney Verba. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1989.
Heywood, Andrew. Key Concepts in Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2000.
United eform Church and allied religious institutions such as the Methodist Church in Britain have expressed concern over election results for the British National Party (BNP). In the June 2009 elections, the BNP garnered two European Parliament seats and three seats in local councils around the United Kingdom.
The Secretary for Church and Society for the United eformed Church, Frank Kantor remarked that "We must never become comfortable with the BNP using their position to promote racist policies. We will continue to their messages of hatred and fear. (United eform Church,)."
A lot of commentators predicted a BNP success largely due to the low voter turnout and political instability in the weeks leading up to the election. The results were however much lower that BNP estimates of the elections returns (ibid).
The Methodist Church's public issues policy adviser achel Lampard said that "The limited success of the BNP does not…
Taylor, Matthew. (2010). BNP leader Nick Griffin accused of lying over party's constitution. Available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/nov/08/nick-griffin-high-court-bnp . Last accessed 11th Nov 2010.
United Reform Church. (2009). Churches concern at BNP election gains. Available: http://www.urc.org.uk/news/2009/june/churches_concern_as_bnp_makes_election_gains .
Lijphart, a. (1991). Constitutional choices for new democracies. Journal of Democracy 2(1): 72-84.
In "Constitutional Choices for New Democracies," Lijphart argues that the parliamentary/proportional representational model offers clear advantages over the alternatives available to architects of a democratic system of government. he "architects of new democratic constitutions" should take into consideration variables like ethnic minority representation and the need for reductions in unemployment when crafting their political policies (Lijphart, 1991, p. 72). With regards to most of the meaningful variables impacting developing nations or those in need of dramatic political restructuring, the author argues that "the combination of parliamentarism with proportional representation should be an especially attractive one," (Lijphart, 1991, p. 72).
o prove the point, the author provides a great degree of theoretical background and uses ample examples. he author points out the importance of electoral procedures and how they affect proportional representation in government. Moreover, the author…
To evaluate the practical effects of presidential vs. parliamentary rule, Gerring, et al. (2008) use a complex global data set. The hypothesis of the research is that the type of executive governance used does have concrete and measurable effects on policy and policy outcomes. The researchers use 14 indicators to measure the dependent variables including those within the categories of political development, economic development, and human development. An analysis of the data reveals favoritism for parliamentary systems because of their association with general "good governance," (Gerring, et al., 2008, p. 328). The authors conclude that parliamentary systems are "a more reliable vehicle for good public policy," (p. 353).
The study has several methodological weaknesses that prevent it from being an authoritative source of data on the subject. Most of the findings reveal correlative, rather than causal, connections between the dependent variables and the type of executive structure in government. Moreover, the potential of intervening and extraneous variables has an adverse effect on internal and external validity. The authors go to great lengths, however, explaining each data set and set of correlative relationships. Assumptions are rooted in prior research or theory. A few more examples of exceptions to rules, and explanations of those exceptions would help bolster the overall impact of the Gerring et al. (2008) study.
Still, the research is ambitious and as thorough as possible under the circumstances. The dependent variables are meaningful, especially because the authors state the purpose and application of their research as being how to properly consult budding democracies on their constitutional development. Called "constitutional engineering," the process of determining whether a presidential or a parliamentary system is a critical issue. It would best benefit the budding nation to access hard, empirical evidence that points to the issues that are most pressing: whether those issues be humanitarian/social; economic; or political. Although the authors come to a definitive conclusion that parliamentary systems offer a superior means of creating good, flexible governance, the question of local or regional diversity remains salient.
Unions have been dropping members at an incredible rate. The trouble can't be resolved by individual unions dealing with great, monopolistic, international companies. Unions must stick together and work in the political ring to elect government officials who understand that the nation is here for the citizens, and not for business (the Decline of Unions -- Why, 2007).
In 2000 the Union Network Federation (UNI) was fashioned with the purpose of structuring a coalition that could represent employees across many nations. According to UNI, when businesses are local, unions can be local; when businesses are national, unions must be national; when businesses are international, unions must be international. Apart from UNI, there are quite a few other international trade unions that could have some pressure on the expansion of unions internationally in the future. There are presently ten Global Union Federations (GUF's), which are the global representatives of unions in…
7.6. Labor Unions. (n.d.). Retrieved March 11, 2011, from Web site:
http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/NC/B0/B66/060MB66.htmlThe Decline of Smith, Keith. (2011). Employees Continue to Not Join Labor Unions. Retrieved March 11, 2011,
The Decline of Unions -- Why? (2007). Retrieved March 11, 2011, from Web site:
Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.
What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?
The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:
"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America, Praeger Publishers, Westport,
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care, Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Uninsured Americans: Newly
" (Iraq Body Count). To begin to understand the extent of the problem, the media needs to address the following questions about civilian deaths: "ho is killing them? How are they being killed? ho is being killed? How do current patterns compare to earlier periods?" (Iraq Body Count). hile these questions can be answered for some of the civilian deaths, many of the murdered are targeted in anonymous killings, like bombings, while others are kidnapped and executed, making it virtually impossible to assign blame for the deaths. The highest numbers of deaths are linked to Coalition and anti-Coalition violence, but the underlying causes of those deaths are too complex to attribute to Coalition involvement in Iraq. The more insurmountable these problems became, the less press coverage they got, despite the fact that actual conditions were not improving. In fact, press coverage became so biased against Iraqis who complained about life…
Damon, Arwa. "Signs of Torture' You Can't Imagine." CNN.com. 2008. Turner
Broadcasting System, Inc. 25 Jan. 2009 http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/meast/03/12/iraq.women/index.html .
Iraq Body Count. "Post-Surge Violence: Its Extent and Nature." Iraq Body Count. 2008. Iraq
Body Count. 25 Jan. 2009 http://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/surge -
They might make good holiday spots but they do not make good political partners.
Because almost all of the countries that do not maintain a military have treaties with nations that do, few nations can be classified as being truly demilitarized. The nations with explicit pacifist clauses in their constitutions like Costa Rica would be unable to withstand invasion from a hostile nation and are therefore useless in terms of political coalitions. Although not despised per se, nations like Costa Rica would simply be obliterated at the hands of an aggressor.
No nation with meaningful economic or political assets has ever been unarmed. Like Machiavelli points out, wise leaders study the great societies of the past and model their states after them to ensure stability. Even nations with small populations and a reputation for non-interference like Canada have relatively strong militaries. Just as any wealthy person would want an alarm…
Countries without Armies." Army.com. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.army.com/countires_without_armies.html
Largest Military Expenditures, 2005." InfoPlease. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0904504.html
List of Countries by Size of Armed Forces." Wikipedia. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_size_of_armed_forces
List of Countries Without Armed Forces." Wikipedia. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_without_an_army
Urban sprawl is not something that too many people really seem to spend that much time thinking about. Despite this, however, many people do have to deal with it. Those that are faced with the problem are often unsure about what they should be doing about it, and those that work in the field of trying to control it often struggle between making sure that there are enough places for people to live and making sure that the environment is not destroyed by the new houses and other buildings that are being created. Sometimes, balancing this is very difficult, and this is at the heart of the problem. For this reason, this paper focuses on urban sprawl and the environmental impact that is often seen when it takes place.
Environmentalists have so many concerns that they often can overlook the problems that urban sprawl is causing when it comes to…
Garreau, J. (1991). Edge City. New York: Anchor Books.
Gordon, P. & Richardson, H. (1998). Prove it: The costs and benefits of sprawl. Brookings Review 16(3): 23-26.
Lomax, T. & Schrank, D. (1998). Urban Roadway Congestion, 1982 to 1996. College Station, Texas: Texas Transportation Institute.
Reid, A. (10 December 1996). Area traffic stuck in a costly jam. Washington Post, A1.
Realist Painting Style and Realism
The Realist style owes its existence to the Realist concept. "Realism is democracy in art," Courbet believed. (Nochlin, xiii) Taking that as the credo upon which the works of the artists were constructed, the style itself can be nothing if not anti-academic, anti-historical, anti-conservative. Indeed, whether brushstrokes or pen markings or etching into stone or metal form the image, the underlying attitude is one of freedom, attention to the gross characteristics of form, dismissal of mere decoration for its own sake, and obvious celebration of anything. The self-consciousness of the finely chosen brushstroke or marking is gone, in favor of a brushstroke or marking that favors expression of the interplay between what is seen and the seer. Gone is any demand from outside the artist to make things appear lovelier, grander, more stately than they perhaps really are. It is, in short, art with the…
Crook, Malcolm "French elections, 1789-1848." History Today, 1 March 1993.
Daumier, Honore. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 10 January 2004.
Dolan, Therese. Honore Daumier. (Review) The Art Bulletin. 1 March 1998.
Dorozynski, Alexander. "Audacity: 200 years of French innovation 1789-1989. (AMERICAN HERITAGE Magazine Special Report), Forbes, 24 July 1989.
alarm woke me up. Crawling from bed to bathroom and back to bed, I lay there wishing I didn't have to go to school or work. I crept to the desk and turned on my computer before even thinking about getting dressed, eyes still half shut and glazed from a lack of sleep. Internet Explorer launched, automatically loading the Yahoo! Portal, where I half-heartedly read a handful of top news headlines, a brief local weather report, and checked e-mail, as I liked to do first thing in the morning. I thought nothing much of the odd yet typically newsworthy photo of a plane hitting the first World Trade Center tower. Must be an accident, I thought. Some small private jet veered off-course, its pilot perhaps drunk. "Plane hits building,' the headline read. "Terrorism suspected." Nothing surprising there; terrorism was a household word far before September of 2001. Terrorists bomb boats…
Nigeria Election and Media Coverage
The Nigerian elections committee has postponed the national election until March 28, 2015. The election was scheduled to take place on February 14, but growing concerns about violence and security issues have triggered this cautionary response. Yet, there are some who believe that postponement will not substantially result in improved security, and instead will worsen conditions. Nigeria's security chiefs are not confident that they can keep voters in the northeastern region of the country safe from the extremist militant group Boko Haram. Hundreds of schoolgirls were abducted in the northeast Nigeria last spring, and Boko Haram fighters attacked a village in neighboring Chad in February.
President Goodluck Johnathan's decision to postpone the election until security improves does not align with his position for most of 2014 in which he attempted to diminish the militant threat. As Boko Haram's attacks have become more blatantly daring, the…
____. (2015, February 16). The Editorial Board. Nigeria's miserable choices. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2015/02/16/opinion/nigerias-miserable-choices.html?_r=0
____. (2015, February 19). Nigeria Ambassador Adefuye refutes New York Times editorial on election postponement. Sahara Reporters. Retrieved from http://saharareporters.com/2015/02/19/nigeria-ambassador-adefuye-refutes-new-york-times-editorial-election-postponement
____. (2015, February 8). Muhammadu Buhari: Nigeria "reduced to a failed state." Al Jazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/talktojazeera/2015/02/muhammadu-buhari-nigeria-reduced-failed-state-150208121316691.html
Democratic and Republican parties have been able to maintain their strength and their membership numbers since the Civil War for both structural and ideological reasons. The ideological reasons are the most obvious to an observer and to many members of the parties; indeed it is because of the ideological positions of the two parties that people align themselves by party. The ideologies of each party are complex; a better way of describing them might be that they are intricate combinations of different ideas and ideologies. The Republican Party has consistently championed economic systems that do not favor efficient distributions of wealth and has tended toward a low degree of government intervention and regulation in economic issues and a high degree of intervention and regular in social affairs (such as abortion and civil rights). The parties endure because these ideologies (which are tied to ongoing concerns and beliefs) endure.