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Yemenite terrorism influences U.S. sentiments as regards terrorism, considering that Americans are greatly affected through knowing that the concept should not necessarily be related to particular countries or motives and that the authorities are virtually helpless in their struggle to eliminate it.
According to experts, Yemen is one of the countries that stand as a safe place for terrorists world-wide. However, experts have failed to observe that a terrorist does not necessarily need to receive training in the Arab Peninsula in order for him or her to represent a real threat to the U.S. One of the best examples regarding this is the fact that most of the terrorists involved in the 9/11 attacks were instructed in Europe and in the U.S. (Katulis, 2010).
Even with the fact that Yemen was not one of the central points in the Arab Peninsula considered to have connections to Al Qaeda, matters gradually…
Katulis, Brian. "Terrorism in Yemen Rediscovered." January 6, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2010, from the Center for American Progress Website: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/01/yemen_rediscovered.html
Randall, D. Johnson, A. "Yemen, the new crucible of global terrorism." October 31, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2010, from the Independent Website: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/yemen-the-new-crucible-of-global-terrorism-2121364.html
Spencer, R. "Flight 253: Shows Utter Failure of U.S. Counterterrorism Efforts." Human Events 4 Jan. 2010: 12.
Thackrah, J.R. (2004). Dictionary of Terrorism. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
ancient history of Yemen is filled with conflict and countless examples of conflict resolution, some successful but many disastrously unsuccessful. The country has been divided and reformed, the subject of colonization, the victim of several complete governmental takeovers and last but not least the victim of bloody civil war, in both North and South Yemen's as they were then recognized and in a unified Yemen, associated with an Arab League sponsored reunification and peace treaty. In this process of nation building and strife at least since its inception the Arab League, and most notably its moderate modern conception has been a foundational aspect of conflict resolution in Yemen, as well as many other Middle East and North African nations. The conflicts in Yemen, arising from a historically challenged social and political network are frequently addressed by the Arab League in an attempt to make the international community understand the unsuspecting…
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25.
Jessup, John. E.An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Fixing Economy Vital to Yemen; Lawlessness, Poverty Help Radicals Recruit." The Washington Times, August 25, 2004, A13.
Ghadbian, Najib. Democratization and the Islamist Challenge in the Arab World. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.
Middle East/ Africa Security Issue
The ends, ways and means strategy is a method of understanding what the objective is for a particular issue (ends), how that objective will be achieved (ways) and what resources will be required to make this happen (means). This methodology is commonly applied in military or international relations, where the issues can be complex, as this method simplifies strategy by focusing on the desired ends (Eikmeier, 2007).
Background on the Issue
There are several issues in the Middle East worthy of attention, one of which is the ongoing conflict in Yemen. While Yemen has commonly been engaged in conflict, this issue has become more pressing in recent months. Houthi rebels were engaged in conflict in the region near the Saudi border, drawing Saudi Arabia into the conflict. This became a front in the Saudi-Iran proxy war, as the Houthi rebels are predominantly Shia. Western…
U.S. Approach to Terrorism
U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.
President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11
After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…
Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.
Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.
Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.
Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
Execution of al-Awaki:
The Obama Administration has increased the use of killer drones in lieu of putting the country's boots on the ground. In one of the most debatable issues, the Obama Administration killed, Anwar al-Awaki, a suspected al-Qaeda member, in 2011. The suspected al-Qaeda member had been accused of being a significant organizer in various terrorist attacks, and was identified as one of the main al-Qaeda leaders. The controversy associated with this murder is attributed to whether the Obama Administration had the right to sanction the execution of the suspect without a court trial. This issue is further complicated with various set of factors that surround the case including the fact that al-Awaki was an American citizen before his death. As an American citizen, he was granted due process rights by the U.S. Constitution. According to the provisions of the due process, a suspect has the right to a…
Goldberg, Jonah. "Goldberg: Obama's Terrorist Dilemma," Los Angeles Times, April 4, 2013.
Gorman, Siobhan & Perez, Evan. "Obama Relents on Secret Drone Memo," The Wall Street
Journal, April 4, 2013. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324906004578288411143973612.html
Motivations for Pursuing a Career in Medicine
It is in my opinion that people strive and compensate for what they perceive they do not have: one tries to gain strength to overcome his or her weakness. My motivations for pursuing a career in medicine take root from my experience as a young adult in Yemen, my native country. Being an underdeveloped country, we were literally impoverished and not given the proper and basic social services that people should have, especially the women sector. In a country where female genital mutilation is practiced, I became witness to the harsh realities that women have to go through in their attempt to follow the society's norms and traditions, whether it adversely affects their lives and health or not.
Exposure to the needs of the people, especially those who cannot afford medical services provided for by hospitals in my country, made me realize that…
The Egyptian King Faud (1922-36) repeatedly disbanded popularly elected afd governments, despite huge majorities, due to their distinctly nationalist platform. The fickleness of the British position is exemplified by their later coercion of King Farouk (1936-52) to appoint an enfeebled afd government due to their need for a neutral Egypt during the Second orld ar. This intense irony does not detract from the fact that the monarchs in Egypt and Iraq were very powerful political actors but were 'so closely associated with the structures of colonialization that they did not outlast them' (Owen 1992, 19). The British imperialists exploited the constitutional power of the King to dismiss any elected government of nationalists 'that threatened to tear up or amend the arrangements…defining Britain's rights' (Owen 1992, 19). Hence, once again, diminishing the authority of the regime they installed and creating a lack of respect for lawfully elected governments.
Pan-Arabism Causes Conflict…
Anderson, L. "The State in the Middle East and North Africa." Comparative Politics 20, no. 1 (1987): 1-18.
Ayubi, N. Over-stating the Arab State. London: Tauris, 1995.
Batutu, H. "Of the Diversity of Iraqis, the Incohesiveness of their Society, and their Progress in the Monarchic Period toward a Consolidated Political Structure." In The Modern Middle East: A Reader, by A. Hourani. London: Tauris, 1993.
Beinin, J, and Z. Lockman. Workers on the Nile. London: Tauris, 1988.
"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."
This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.
Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.
There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of…
Abuza, Zachary. "Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25.2 (2003): 169+. Questia. 1 July 2005 http://www.questia.com/ .
AL QAEDA'S GRAND STRATEGY: SUPERPOWER BAITING. 2004. Accessed June 30, 2005. http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/05/al_qaedas_grand.html
AL-QAEDA: SOC. June 30, 2005. http://www.specialoperations.com/Terrorism/Terrorist_Groups/al_qaeda2.htm
Al Qa'ida: Terrorism Files. June 29, 2005. http://www.terrorismfiles.org/organisations/al_qaida.html
Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria
Shi'ism in the World
History, Objectives & General Outlook
Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).
The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…
Akhavi, S. (1983). The ideology and praxis of Shi'ism in the Iranian revolution. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 25(02), 195-221.
Campbell, J. (2015). "Massacre" of Shia in Northern Nigeria an Opening for Iran. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: http://blogs.cfr.org/campbell/2015/12/16/massacre-of-shia-in-northern-nigeria-an-opening-for-iran/
Cave, D. (2006). Telling Sunni from Shiite. The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2016 from:shttp://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/shiite_muslims/index.html
Center for Security Policy. (2014). Will Sunni-Shia tensions spread to Nigeria? Retrieved 5 January 2016 from: https://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/2014/11/03/will-sunni-shia-tensions-spread-to-nigeria/
They attempted several times to conquer Egypt and Sicily, among other places. In Yemen, rett describes a situation of internecine warfare between various sectors of Yemeni society. He writes, "Mahdism thus proved unable to transform the society of the Yemen into an enduring new state, as it did the society of ahrayn" (p. 78). Al-Fadl could not make headway with the southern tribesmen and nobility. In the end, Yemen proved too introverted a place to become a unifying imperial power as the community was fragmenting. To make matters worse, the twelfth imam has just disappeared (Mohammad Al-Mahdi in 941). What were they to do? No one knew, they believed, when he would come out of hiding. So there must be waiting and vigilance, and a strict adherence to the imam's religious and judicial authority in the community.
Another Shiite group expecting the Messiah's return was the Fatimids, who traced their…
Armstrong, Karen. (2000). Islam: a short history. New York: Modern Library.
Brett, Michael. (2001). The rise of the Fatimids: the world of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the tenth century. CE. Leiden: Brill.
Endress, G. (2002). Islam: an historical introduction. C. Hillenbrand (Trans.). New York: Columbia University.
Goldschmidt, Arthur, & Lawrence Davidson. (2005). A concise history of the middle east (8th Ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
This is a small step towards the improvement of opportunities for women in the Middle East. However, Turkey is considered a "soft" power in the Middle East (Altunisik, 2005), so this small step alone is unlikely to result in immediate sweeping change. However, this does represent a small step and demonstrates that the women's movement is gaining strength.
Middle Eastern culture centers on the village and the local conditions Societies within the Middle East developed in geographically isolated pockets. Historically, these pockets had little contact with each other and developed their own ideologies and traditions that made them unique. Among those traditions is how they define women's roles and treat them in regard to education and career opportunities.
One such example of this distinction due to locality is the case of India. Southern India follows a matrilineal family system, while a patrilineal system is followed in the North (Ghandi, 2003).…
References Bureau. Retrieved June 22, 2009 from http://www.prb.org/Publications/PolicyBriefs/EmpoweringWomenDevelopingSocietyFe
Zambelis, C. (2005). The Strategic Implications of Political Liberalization and Democratization
in the Middle East. Parameters. 35 (3): 87.
Many of their customs and rituals are too archaic, and many of their beliefs are, as well. It is a land where women are treated as second-class citizens, and that may be one of the biggest reasons Islam and the Arab world may never be completely modern. Belief systems have to change for a country or a religion to modernize. Other religions have done it, and they still remain viable. Other religions, such as the Shakers, have not modernized, and it has decimated and even eliminated their numbers. For example, the Catholic Church is far removed from its roots in many ways, even though it still retains the ritual and many of the belief systems it was founded upon. Catholicism has had to change with the times to remain viable, but sects of Islam still resemble medieval religions, at best.
However, the biggest impediment to change may be the people…
Brooks, Geraldine. Nine Parts of Desire: The Hidden World of Islamic Women. New York: Anchor Books, 1995.
Horwitz, Tony. Baghdad Without a Map: And Other Misadventures in Arabia. New York: Dutton, 1991.
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
Finally some sects command their followers to perform ziyara, or what they consider to be minor pilgrimages, to the tombs of Imams in addition to the pilgramage to Mecca ("Shiism," 2005).
hile recognizing the two Islamic holidays Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha, Shi'ites incorporated additional festivals into their system, some of which will be described here. The first major festival is the Festival of Muharram and Ashura, in which Shi'ites observe the martyrdom of Husayn, the son of Ali. This festival is supposed to fall upon the 10th of the Islamic month Muharram. Sunnis observe fasting on this day for reasons completely different from the Shi'ites.
The second major festival is known as Milad-un-Nabi, which is supposed to commemorate the birthday of Prophet Muhammad. Shi'ites consider the 17th of the month Rabi al-Awwal as being the prophet's birthday. Sunnis place the day to be 12th of Rabi al-Awwal; they do not place…
Fact Sheet: The Shi'ites of Iraq" Fox News.Com-U.S. & World. Nov 13, 2005:
Gezari, Vanessa. "Religious resentment feeds flames in Iraq." St. Petersburg Times. December 21, 2004. Nov. 13, 2005:
Weapons Proliferation, simply defined, is the rapid increase or spread of weapons in the context of global security. If we are to measure the weapons capabilities of the world, the United States retains the lion's share: in 2002 the Economist estimated that American military spending would exceed 379 billion in 2003 (Economist, 6/18/2002.) For comparison's sake, Russia, the world's second largest nuclear power, had a total GDP of merely 346.6 billion in 2002 (Economist, 7/22/2003.) However, the "balance of terror" that underscored the cold war era was in many ways much safer than the current situation. Whereas 'weapons proliferation' once referred to the number of weapons in existence, it has taken on a new meaning; it now is usually meant to reflect the number of political entities capable of using weapons of mass destruction. The number of such countries has increased beyond UN Security Council permanent members to include India,…
Be Afraid. Economist, September 4th, 2003
Lord Hutton's Eyebrows. Economist, September 4th, 2003
Brecher, Gary. Bezerkers with Red Stars: North Korean Scenarios. The Exile, June 2, 2003.
Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…
Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009
Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"
"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
Vebell was interested in art from a very early age and he attended the Harrison Art School at the age of 14 where he excelled at life drawings. When he graduated from high school, Vebell won three art scholarships and he attended all three schools -- moving from each throughout the day. He launched his professional illustration career in a busy Chicago agency and then enlisted in World War II. It was not long after this that he was recruited to create images for the Stars and Stripes, a military publication that had also featured Norman ockwell's drawings during World War I. In 1945, he participated in the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial as a courtroom artists, capturing the likenesses of Goering, Hess, Speer, and ibbentrop (now in the collections of the Museum of the Holocaust in Washington, D.C.). He created paintings and drawings for mass circulation magazines like eaders Digest,…
Arisman, Marshall. "Wilson McLean: 2010 Hall of Fame Inductee." Society of Illustrators. Accessed on November 17, 2010:
Fame/Current-Inductees/2010 -- Wilson-McLean.aspx
ArtNet. "Francis Livingston." 2010. Accessed on November 17, 2010:
Those countries who have developed their own WMD programs and have not signed various non-proliferation agreements, highlights this hypocrisy that is existing in the international community. Where, no one is willing to force new countries that develop their own WMD programs to commit to such standards. This is problematic, because it telling the world that those countries not committing to various non-proliferation efforts, can maintain their programs (in secrecy) despite the international standard that is in place. At which point, other nations will seek to start their own WMD programs, as they see this as a double standard. Where, you are not supposed to have these weapons, yet once you do they may not apply.
When you combine this with the fact, that those countries that have not signed various international accords are also not making such disclosures to the IAEA; will more than likely be inclined to pass this…
Cimbala, S. (2005). Nuclear Weapons and Strategy. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gardner, H. (2007). Risks of Nuclear Proliferation. American Global Strategy and the War on Terrorism. (pp. 81 -94) Aldershot, UA: Ashgate.
Heng, Y. (2009). The Proliferation Security Initiative. Risk, Global Governance and Security. (pp. 87 -- 95). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lia, B. (2004). Weapons of Mass Destruction. Globalization and the Future of Terrorism. (pp. 39 -- 48). New York, NY: Routeledge.
These technologies are key to sustaining economic growth and increase productivity within these countries.
Access to electricity remains far from adequate, specifically in sub-aharan Africa, where as much as 74% of the population remains without electricity. This is one area that needs urgent attention by means of a global partnership between the public and private sectors.
Clearly, there are many gaps that still need to be addressed between the Millennium Goals and reaching the established targets. With the current global economic recession, it is however very unlikely that the 2010 targets will be met, and at least unlikely that the goals for 2015 will be met. However, it is encouraging that an effort is made to improve the situation, despite the financial difficulties experienced across the world.
Despite the gloomy projections in terms of meeting the overall goals, the UN report also cites considerable success in terms of countries using…
UN Department of Public Information. (2008, Sept). End Poverty 2015: Millennium Development Goals.
MDG Monitor (2007). Develop a Global Partnership for Development: Success Stories. http://www.mdgmonitor.org/story.cfm?goal=8
According to both testimonials and statistics, educated people report higher levels of personal happiness and job satisfaction. In her book, Nickel and Dimed, comfortably wealthy author Barbara Ehrenreich reports being taken out for a "$30 lunch and some understated French country-style place" and discussing "future articles I might write for [the editor of Harpoer's] magazine" (1). It is lunching with this editor from Harpers that she decides to take on a monumental task: leaving her posh environment and working in a blue collar job in order to prove, or not prove, that such one can get by making so little.
It is not only her work, but also her ability to take on such a task that proves the importance of education in both personal happiness and job satisfaction. Here, in the first few lines of the introduction, Ehrenreich alludes to her education and the choices it has allowed her…
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 2002.
Gamoran, Adam. Standards-Based Reform and the Poverty Gap. Washington D.C.:
Brookings Institute Press, 2007.
In this report on the No Child Left Behind Act, author Adam Gamoran looks
In 1991 a short-lived coalition of opposition groups seized the capital Mogadishu and ousted aid Barre. By 1992 it is estimated that over half a million people had died through war or from starvation. Between 800,000-1.5m people fled the country to refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen and Djibouti. From there many moved to Nairobi or Addis Ababa before embarking on a journey to the 'West'.
In May 1991, the people of north-west omalia broke away to form the Republic of omaliland.
Although not recognised by the international community, its creation has resulted in relative political stability. Elsewhere, the ruling coalition collapsed resulting in a state of anarchy and civil war that exists today with rival warlords vying for power. ince 1991 most asylum seekers have come from these central and southern regions. In omaliland the voluntary repatriation of refugees from neighbouring countries is now taking place. Return visits to,…
Post-Conflict Identities: Practices and Affiliations of Somali Refugee Children - Briefing Notes, E.S.R.C Economic and Social Research Council, University of Leeds, the University of Sheffield; August 2005 http://www.identities.group.shef.ac.uk/pdfs/briefing%20'Somalia'%20and%20the%20Roots%20of%20the%20Diaspora.pdf
World Bank Org., 'Cry Havoc: Why Civil War Matters';
Causes and consequences of forced migration' http://www.forcedmigration.org/guides/fmo016/fmo016-6.htm
Air Cargo Security
Since the events of 911, airport security has been an important issue. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)" is responsible for ensuring the security of all modes of transportation, including cargo placed aboard airplaines and particularly focuses on passenger-carrying planes" (TSA). The TSA is part of the Department of Homeland Security. According to the latest information available, the TSA employs 620 Cargo Transportation Security Inspectors who are exclusively dedicated to the oversight of air cargo. One hundred twenty of these are canine teams. The numbers of security inspectors and canine teams has increased significantly since 2006 (TSA).
Obviously, no one wants to see another tragedy. Terrorism continues to be a threat and security measures must try to keep pace with ever-changing strategies that terrorists try to employ. There has been much in the news about passenger screening, x-ray technology, and rights to privacy. Passengers do not present the…
Beesley, A. (2010). Call for tighter security on air cargo worldwide. Irish Times 11/6/2010.
Dutton, G. (2010). Industry braces for 100% air cargo screening. World Trade 23(5), pp.
Harris, D. (2010). Air cargo security. Good Morning America (ABC), 10/31/2010.
U.S. National Strategy
What three United States national interests do you think will be at great risk over the next five years? Describe those interests and identify which instruments of national power can be leveraged to protect or advance those national interests and how those instruments can be used.
As President Obama stated in his addresses to Congress in February 2009, the most important problem that the country faced was the economy, which was in the worst recession since the 1930s. This affected both domestic and foreign policy, since the country would probably have to reduce military spending and its commitments overseas as it did during the Great Depression, so for the Obama administration economic recovery was the primary goal. He did promise that "the weight of this crisis will not determine the destiny of this nation" (Obama Address, 2009, p. 1). He promised that the government would deal with…
Address to Joint Session of Congress. Remarks of President Barack Obama, As Prepared for Delivery, Address to Joint Session of Congress, Tuesday, February 24th, 2009.
Comprehensive Regional Strategy on Somalia: A Strategy for U.S. Engagement Report to Congress, February 2007.
JP 3-0 Chapter I.
JP 3 Extract Chapter 2.
Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework
Terrorism has been the greatest threat to American soil since the end of the Cold ar, and the country has responded to these threats by creating an elaborate counterterrorism and intelligence framework. This counterterrorism strategy must use every possible tool in America's arsenal, and must meet the highest standards in excellence for the duty it is tasked to perform. The nature of terrorist threats in America in the 21st century is the fact that nobody knows where and why terrorism may appear.
Three agencies will form the core of the new counterterrorism and intelligence gather efforts coordinated by the Department of Homeland Security. (Homeland Security, 2012) These three agencies are the CIA, the FBI, and the DOD, and each already fulfills necessary functions in America's fight on terror. hile still operating within the legal framework that surrounds each agency, I look to improve the overall effectiveness…
Coker, M. (2012, March 6). U.S., Yemen Restart Training. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204276304577265321207513952.html
Homeland security. (2012, February 3). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/gc_1240598490142.shtm
Intelligence.gov. (2012). Seventeen Agencies and Organizations United Under One Goal. Retrieved from website: http://www.intelligence.gov/about-the-intelligence-community/
Lee Myers, S. (2012, March 22). www.nytimes.com. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/23/world/us-intelligence-report-warns-of-global-water-tensions.html
UN Security Council
Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…
AG/RES. 2333 (XXXVII-O/07) Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)," adopted at the fourth plenary session (June 5, 2007); ASEAN Regional Forum,
Charter of the United Nations, chp. VIII, art. 52.
Fawcett, p. 3; UN Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council debate on the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security New York, 6 November 2007.
Queen of Sheba
Makeda, also known as the Queen of Sheba was a monarch in the ancient kingdom of Sheba; she is refered to in the Habeshan history, the New Testament, the Hebrew Bible and also the Qur'an. Other than these four sources, there are no evidences of her existence. The current location of her kingdom now is assumed to be in Yemen (Korotayev).
She is known to the Ethiopian people now as Makeda or Maqueda; throughout different sources, her name varies and she is called different things by different people during different times. Most of Black history has been suppressed throughout time, it has also been widely distorted or ignored by the modern world (Korotayev). However, there are some African traditions are so persistent that all of the power and deception of the estern academic establishment have failed to stamp them out. One of these is the story which…
Comay, Joan and Ronald Brownrigg. Who's Who in the Bible:The Old Testament and the Apocrypha, The New Testament. (New York: Wing Books, 1993). pp. 351.
Jones, David E., Women Warriors: A History, Brasseys, Inc. (2000).
Hansberry, W.L. And Johnson, E.H. "Part V: Africa's Golden Past: Queen of Sheba's true identity confounds historical research," Ebony (magazine). 1965 p. 136.
Andrey Korotayev. Ancient Yemen. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
U.S. intelligence refers to some of the most formidable and top intelligence available in the world. The United States has long led the way in the practice of gathering the most up-to -- the minute and esoteric intelligence regarding the actions of other countries, other armies and the other enemies. The current modern age has demonstrated the steady advancement in this regard of a range of sound technological tools which America has harnessed consistently for the effective pursuit of the most current and hard to gather intelligence.
The use of combat drones has been something that America has long used to gather intelligence and to engage in warfare with enemies or suspected enemies. However, in the last 12 months, the usage of drones has steadily decreased. "The number of drone strikes approved by the Obama administration on suspected terrorists has fallen dramatically this year, as the war with al…
Aljazeera.com. (2013, October). U.S. 'drone strike' kills senior Shabab members. Retrieved from aljazeera.com: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/10/drone-strike-kills-senior-shabab-members-20131028184651994308.html
BBC. (2013, October). Pakistan says drones killed 67 civilians since 2008. Retrieved from BBC.co.uk: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-24742037
FAS.org. (n.d.). Military Intelligence Satellites. Retrieved from Fas.org: https://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Intro/Part2_26e.html
Galbraith, P. (2013, October). NSA spying on Europe gives the U.S. more intelligence, but not better. Retrieved from Theguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/29/nsa-spying-europe-us-intelligence
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact
Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.
Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights. Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors. Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. (IJRC, 2016). The historical facts of human rights started from the declaration of universal human right rights in 1948, and the expressions are referred as aggregate rights of humans. The UDHR ("Universal Declaration of Human Rights") (IJRC 2016 p 1) was ratified by 48 countries with some Muslim countries such as Iran, Iraq,…
The United States has leased 45 square miles of land and water at Guantanamo Bay from Cuba for more than a century. Commonly known as “Gitmo,” the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay has been the source of increasing calls for its closure as no longer necessary or appropriate in the 21st century. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning Guantanamo Bay to provide the background of the issue and an analysis of this issue to determine whether the U.S. interests in Guantanamo Bay justify its continued operations. A summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue are provided in the conclusion.
Background of Issue
The U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is 45 square miles in size and is located on the southeast end of Cuba (see map at Appendix A) (Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, 2014). The naval base at Guantanamo Bay…
Mobile surveillance is when officials are monitoring the cell phone communication of a suspect. A good example of this; is when federal agents are listening in on the cell phone conversations of suspected terrorist leaders. (rookes, 2001)
Camera surveillance is when video cameras are used to monitor what is occurring at a particular location. A good example would be when; surveillance cameras are used to monitor public infrastructure such as: the subway system for suspicious activity. (rookes, 2001)
Social networking analysis is when you are monitoring the overall activities of someone on the different social networking sites. During the course of a terrorist operation, this would be used to establish the overall personality of the suspect; and determine how they are connecting with the rest of the organization. (rookes, 2001)
iometric analysis is when you are using biological features to identify suspects, such as: finger prints or facial…
Multijurisdictional Drug Law Enforcement Strategies. (1993). Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing.
Brookes, P. (2001). Electronic Surveillance Devices. Woodburn, MA: Reid Educational and Publishing.
Dempsey, J. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.
Schmid, a. (2006). Political Terrorism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Conclusions -- Was TAP Necessary -- A five member Congressional committee echoed a number of criticisms regarding TAP that many consumers, academics, and fiscal analysts were considering. What exactly was the Treasury's strategy with the $700 billion dollars for the supposed bail out? How can Treasury explain the significant gaps in their ability to find hundreds of billions of taxpayer money? In a nutshell, it appears that the departments that control the money given by the Congress (from the American people) have no ability to ensure that the bailed out banks will do what was needed and lend money; have no real standards of measuring success of failure of the program; and for ignoring pointed and specific questions from Congress about their performance (M. Crittenden).
The fact that many of the institutions bailed out with TAP funds, funds from the American taxpayer, did not distribute these funds back into the…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
"2007 Public Company Bankruptcies Surpassed, According to BankruptcyData.com." 17 September 2008. AllBusiness.Com. 11 April 2010 http://www.allbusiness.com/company-activities-management/financial-performance/11564300-1.html
Andrews, E., et.al. "Fed's $85 Billion Loan Rescues Insurer." The New York Times 16 September 2008: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/17/business/17insure.html?_r=1&hp .
Bardeesy, Karim. "Bailout Baloney." 2 October 2008. The Big Money from Slate. 11 April 2010 http://www.thebigmoney.com/articles/juicy-bits/2008/10/02/bailout-baloney
Bucznski, Richard. "Economic Crisis: When Will It End?" 2010. IBIS World. 9 April 2010 http://www.ibisworld.com/recession2009/
Sunni Muslims argue that control of the community is not hereditary or a birthright, but a trust that must be earned and therefore can be given or taken away by the people themselves.
Another difference comes in the sanctity of religious texts. Shia Muslims have some resentment to some of the contemporaries of the Prophet Muhammad. This sprouts from their stands and deeds in the historical years of discord about leadership among the Muslim nations. It is said that Abu Bakr, Umar, Aisha, etc. (Sunnis) narrated much about the Prophet Muhammad's life and spiritual encounters, practice and journey. The Shia Muslims reject these Hadith do not take them as a basis for their religious practices. This accordingly informs divergence in religious practice between the Sunnis and Shias. The differences concern aspects of religious life: prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, and so on and so forth. For instance Shi'ites can condense the five…
Austine Cline. 'Sunni Islam vs. Shia Islam: Islam Cannot be Criticized as a Monolithic Faith.'
Web. 3 May 2010. http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/islam/blfaq_islam_sunni.htm
Huda. 'Introduction to Islam' About.Com. Web. 3 May 2010.
The main hazards related to LNG include:
upture due to Corrosion
upture while excavation
upture while excavation
upture during an earthquake
upture due to mechanical failure
upture at compressor
upture at inspection stations
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Blow-out of gas at head and subsequent fire
Gas leak from infrastructure
Fire involving combustible
LPG or Diesel
Diesel pump fire involving equipment brittle fracture valve Leaks
Welding failure welding casting failure
Mechanical overstressing of equipment Vibration
Failure due to external loading or impact
Underground pipe rupture of transmission pipeline
Pipe rupture at main line valve sites.
upture of adjacent gas pipeline
Uncontrolled detonation of explosives
Gas leak from pipeline infrastructure
Drop of pipe from pipe lifts
Accommodation fire involving combustible construction LPG or Diesel
Diesel fire involving mobile fuel tanker
Uncontrolled release of LNG
Uncontrolled release of refrigerant gas
Uncontrolled release of by- product…
Acutech Consulting (2009). The HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) Method
American Petroleum Institute (August 2009). Analysis of U.S. Oil Spillage. p26
This idea is also strengthen by the example of the inhabitants from the northern region. Yet, the idea is not completely tolerated. There are, of course, groups which benefit from the current context, like the elite groups that one would furthermore refer to when analyzing social stratification.
Along with the political context of Somalia, which is the principal factor of the economical failure of the country, another significant reason consists in Somalia's vulnerability and lack of defense in front of the world's biggest states which transformed it, at the beginning of the 1990s in a sort of testing ground for all the issues they confronted with.
For example, one knows the fact that a significant amount of the local economy before the 1990 stood in natives' activity of fishing, as both the Aden Gulf and the Indian Ocean are known as being rich in piscicultural resources. After becoming independent in…
Mubarak, Jamil Abdalla (1996). From Bad Policy to Chaos in Somalia: How an Economy Fell Apart. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press
Feldman, Stacy, Slattery, Brian (2003). Living without a Government in Somalia: An Interview with Mark Bradbury: Development Processes in Somalia Exist Not as a Result of Official Development Assistance, but in Spite of it. Journal of International Affairs, 57 (1), pag 1.
U.S Department of State- Bureau of African Affairs (2011). Background Note: Somalia [January 3, 2011]. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov /r/pa/ei/bgn/2863.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
**Expected outcomes of the project
**Budget and schedule
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
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Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010.
http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/27746 (accessed 12-10, 2010).
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Dershowitz, a 2003, the Case for Israel, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."
This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.
In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…
"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible," http://kenanderson.net/bible/html/african_heritage.html (accessed September 20, 2010).
BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,
http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A10-14&version=NIV (accessed September 20, 2010).
"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES," http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/hebrew.html , (accessed September 20, 2010).
The same argument could reasonably be made for the United States' even more egregious subsequent invasion of Iraq in 2003; the pubic, altruistic reason given was that weapons of mass destruction must be eradicated from this potentially dangerous rogue state. The terrorist attacks on the orld Trade Center in 2001 surely gave the U.S. more fodder for its defensive justification for invading. Iraq is, perhaps coincidentally, perhaps not, an oil-rich nation and curiously, to date, no weapons of mass destruction have ever been located within its borders.
One could argue that this unilateral action by the United States to protect its resource is no different that the colonial imperialistic power games of decades past. Kuniholm goes so far as to call this the "Great Game," and avers it is no different from that played by imperial powers in the past (546).
The preceding figure and facts make clear which states…
Energy. Who Consumes the Most Oil? Web. 23 July 2010.
Bartra, Valentin. "An Institutional Framework for a More Efficient Use of Natural Resources."
Minerals &; Energy - Raw Materials Report 22.1 (2007): 1-12 Print.
BPa. BP PIPELINES: An energy lifeline. UK: BP Publishing, 2009. Print.
This is why the "government must also continue to support and promote Muslim American community leaders who speak out against violence," and do all that it can to demonstrate that anti-terror does not mean being anti-Islam.
Americans travelling to terror havens a growing worry. (2010, May 22). The Daily Times.
etrieved June 14, 2010 at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010
Americans travelling to terror havens a growing worry. (2010, May 22). The Daily Times.
Retrieved June 14, 2010 at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010 522story_22-5-2010_pg7_13
Baldor, Lolita C. (2010, May 20). U.S. travelers to terror havens a growing worry. Associated Press. Retrieved June 14, 2010 at Eddy, R.P. (2010, May 10). Across the U.S., eyes wide shut: Smaller cities are ignoring homegrown terrorism. The New York Daily News. Retrieved June 14, 2010 at http://www.nydailynews.com/opinions/2010/05/10/2010-05-10__.html#ixzz0qsBYQsJW
Elliot, Justin. (2010, June 1). Obama Administration turns focus to homegrown terrorism
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
The Kurds were seen as either "proper Turkish citizens" by the way they conducted themselves with dignity, or they were seen as "outlaws characterized by tribalism, religious reactionism, or banditry" (Yegen, p. 599). In other words, the Turkish government tried to take away the Kurds' ethnic identities; the Turks attempted to "assimilate" the Kurds into the nation of Turkey by referring to them as Turkish citizens -- and many Kurds have simply agreed to become Turks over the last 80 years or so. Meanwhile in the 1950s Kurds in Turkey "…were no longer in a position to produce major trouble for the state," and Kurds began moving into big cities in the western sections of Turkey (Yegen, p. 604). The "assimilation" strategies of the Turkish government towards the Kurds lightened up from the 1950s regarding forcible settlement practices, but then when the Kurds began to resist Turkish authority in the…
Giraldi, Philip. "Turkey and the Threat of Kurdish Nationalism." Mediterranean Quarterly
19.1 (2008): 33-40.
Gorvett, Jon. "Turkish Prime Minister Says War Against Kurds Has Entered 'Very Critical
Stage'." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 27.1, (2008): 38-39.
Bush, the primary
strategy for U.S. engagement of partners revolved on the conditions
provoked by the ar on Terror. This is evident in the ends, ways and means
of addressing the situation in Somalia, where Bush cites as the primary
priority for all partners involved to end war. Indeed, the intended ends
of the strategy are the transformation of Somalia into a peaceful
democracy. The ways proposed have seen the formulation of a regional
alliance helmed by the United States, which such partners as Kenya,
Djibouti, Ethiopia and Yemen have come together to assist Somalia in
extracting the cause of its conflict. To the perception of the Bush
administration, this cause is the presence of terrorism, with the means of
strategy implementation centering on the need to "eliminate the terrorist
threat and promote political stability by supporting the establishment of a
functioning central government." (Bush, 7)
4. The strategy described…
Bush, G.W. (2007). Report on U.S. Strategy Toward Somalia. Report to
Gates, R.M. (2008). International Institute for Strategic Studies. U.S.
Department of Defense.
Additionally, not only that it operates in the same direction, it also operates in such a manner that supports the Group in reaching their overall objectives. Sammon VG is in itself a testimony of the great levels of diversification in terms of all products and services offered, as well as working locations.
4. McKinsey 7-S Model
Shared value -- a combination of high skills, commitment to customer satisfaction and the usage of the latest technologies to support the development of social infrastructure
Strategy -- the simple strategy of ensuring customer satisfaction through the offering of high quality products and services; this quality is ensured by the staff members and intense focus is being placed on strong H strategies
Structure -- Sammon VG is one of the two territorial components of the Sammon Group: Sammon Contracting and Sammon Woodcraft operates in Ireland, United Kingdom, Europea and Africa, whereas Sammon VG operates…
Clark, M., 2009, Global Economic Crisis Hits Dubai, VOA News, http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-05-voa28.cfm?CFID=289481300&CFTOKEN=72224326&jsessionid=003094f68e372b561d4c5f87a36642541467 last accessed on September 24, 2009
Long, D.E., Reich, B., 1980, the Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa, Westview Press
2009, McKinsey 7-S Model, Value-Based Management Net, http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_7S.html last accessed on September 24, 2009
2009, Website of Sammon Group, http://www.sammongroup.ie last accessed on September 24, 2009
The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior.
After the resignation of Tenet, who submitted as his official reason for departure the desire to spend more time with his family, his spokesman noted that "no one in the U.S. government was more aggressive in calling attention to and dealing with the threat of terrorism prior to 9/11 than was George Tenet.' The CIA's counterterrorism budget increased 50% between fiscal 1997 and fiscal 2001, while staffing went up 60%."
This ultimately resulted in an increased level of effectiveness during those years of assessing and averting terrorist plots, highlighted by the 1999 foiling of al Qaeda's millennium hijacking plan. Here, a carefully synchronized set of airliner takeovers was to strike at prominent and highly populated points within the U.S. Or utilize the…
Bowden, C. 2002. Closed Circuit Television for Inside Your Head: Blanket traffic data retention and the emergency anti-terrorism legislation. Duke Law & Technology Review.
Enderle, R. 2004) Fighting Terrorism Through Technology. TechNewsWorld. Online at http://www.technewsworld.com/story/33460.html?wlc=1243220640
Force Protection Equipment Demonstration (FPED). 2009. Demonstration Features Commercial Technology for Combating Terrorism. PR Newswire. Online at http://news.prnewswire.com/ViewContent.aspx?ACCT=109&STORY=/www/story/05-08-2009/0005022313&EDATE=
Ham, S. & Atkinson, R.D. 2002. Using Technology to Detect and Prevent Terrorism. Progressive Policy Institute. Online at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=124&subsecID=307&contentID=250070
The good thing about technology is that it is constantly evolving regardless to the circumstances in which people chose profit over efficiency. Technology is vital for humankind and without it there would almost be nothing with people not being able to support themselves and lead healthy lives without tools. It would be fair to say that technology is what makes the difference between a modern man and a savage.
There were cases in which people have attempted to leave technology behind and return to living in the forest. The most famous case is the Cambodian Red Khmer regime in which the communist leader Pol Pot attempted to take all of the Cambodians from the cities into the jungle where they were supposed to live honorably without the help of modern machinery. The action has disastrous effects and people died in horrible conditions.
There are a lot of people claiming…
Al-Homaidi, Mohammed. "Modern technology and mankind." Yemen Times 18 October 2004.
Derry, Thomas Kingston, and Williams, Trevor. A Short History of Technology: From the Earliest Times to a.D. 1900. Courier Dover Publications, 1993.
Fruchterman, Jim. "Technology Benefiting Humanity." Association for Computing Machinery. 2004. 17 Nov. 2008. http://www.acm.org/ubiquity/views/v5i5_fruchterman.html
Medwar, Peter. "Technology and Evolution." Center for the Study of Complex Systems. University of Michigan.1996. 17 Nov. 2008 http://www.cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/Medawar/technology-and-evolution/
These refer to the characteristics of the political and regulatory environment (P), the economic environment (E), the socio-cultural environment and finally, the technological environment. The analysis of the climate in which an organization activates is also known as the PEST analysis.
Starbucks offers a wide selection of coffee-based beverages, with both caffeine and without caffeine. Aside their coffee beverages, they also offer whole-bean coffees, food items and coffee-related products and hardware equipment. "Starbucks stores offered a choice of regular or decaffeinated coffee beverages, a special "coffee of the day," and a broad selection of Italian-style espresso drinks. In addition, customers could choose from a wide selection of fresh-roasted whole-bean coffees (which could be ground on the premises and carried home in distinctive packages), a selection of fresh pastries and other food items, sodas, juices, teas, and coffee-related hardware and equipment."
About 61% of the sold items…
2008, Starbucks Corporation, Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com/starbucks/--ID__15745 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtmllast accessed on September 12, 2008
Moon, Y., Quelch, J., July 10, 2006, Starbucks: Delivering Customer Service, Harvard Business School
2008, Analysis of Starbucks, KNOL Beta - a Unit of Knowledge, http://knol.google.com/k/-/analysis-of-starbucks/ow5jbvr76bz9/8#last accessed on September 11, 2008
Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.
Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council esolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of esolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." esolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…
Interview with Moshe Dayan by Rami Tal on November 22, 1976, Yediot Aharanot, April 27, 1997.
Anwar Sadat, in Search of Identity: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), P- 259;
Haim Herzog, the War of Atonement, October 1973: The Fateful Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), p. 51
Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992), p. 523.
Ancient seals containing signs and sometimes script recognized as Harappan have been found in more than a dozen places. But because there is no bilingual key, it is difficult for scholars to translate any of the ancient seals that have been found in various parts of the Indus Valley. The substrate language is unknown, as is the language family it belongs to. The seals contain very few signs each and there has yet to be found a "Rosetta Stone" giving scholars a parallel writing with more than one language, so that the "code" can be broken and the ancient scripts can be translated.
Describe the geographic extent of the Roman Empire when it was at its height.
The estern Roman Empire reached its apogee in 476 when Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed by Odoacer (the first Barbarian King), the Roman legions were withdrawn from Germanic lands in order to defend…
Encyclopedia Britannica. "Culture Areas in North America." 2008. Found online at http://student.britannica.com/comptons/article-202463/American-Indians-or-Native-Americans.
Gill, N.S., "Provinces of the Roman Empire." About.com: Ancient/Classical History. 2008. http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/romemaps/f/RomanProvinces.htm .
Subramanian, T.S. "Discovery of a century in Tamil Nadu" the Hindu, India's National Newspaper) 1 May 2006. Page 1. http://www.hindu.com/2006/05/01/stories/2006050112670100.htm .
Conciliation seems to be more to the purpose, if opposing bodies are expected to work together to govern a country. Humphrey said in his study on From Victim to Victimhood, "By contrast, trials have played a much smaller role during political transition and thus have addressed far fewer victims. They have, however, been very important in re-establishing the authority of law and the state" (2003 184)
hat division of labor among states, international institutions and non-governmental organizations is likely to prove most effective in meeting the challenges of the post-Cold ar era in the future?
George . Bush, President of the United States of America, appears to believe that the United States must police the world, leading other nations into controlling what he considers dangerous policies in other countries, while taking preemptive action against them on his own. hile Bush knows that the laws of war are different from the…
Bass, Gary J., "Milosevic in the Hague." Foreign Affairs, 00157120, May/Jun2003, Vol. 82, Issue 3.
Decision on the Establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Official Gazette of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, No. 15/2001. 30 March 2001.
Dickinson, Laura a. "The promise of hybrid courts." The American Journal of International Law, Vol 97(2) April 2003.
Freeman, Mark. "Case Study Series: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Selected Developments in Transitional Justice." International Center for Transitional Justice. Oct 2004.
In other words, up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no cases of note or significance that indicated that the executive branch of the UNITED STATES government had the authority to render suspects or criminals to foreign locations outside of the explicit authority granted through a signed treaty with a foreign government.
It was during the Civil War that the first major break with this established legal tradition was made. The incident involved the capture of a foreign citizen in New York City during wartime and performed by presidential authority alone. The man captured was Jose Augustin Arguelles, a Spanish subject, who captured illegal slave traders, claimed a reward, then sold the slaves to plantation owners. Under Spanish law he was a criminal, but the United States had no extradition treaty with Spain. Despite having no legal authority to do so, Lincoln authorized the capture of the…
Elsea, J.K. And Kim, J. (2007, January 23). Undisclosed UNITED STATES detention sites overseas: background and legal issues. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 29, 2007, at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33643.pdf
Grey, S. (2005, December 19). Torture's tipping point. New Statesman, pp. 24-25.
Grey, S. (2006, November 20). Missing presumed tortured. New Statesman, pp. 12-15.
Gutierrez, D. (2006, January-February). The extraordinary cruelty of "extraordinary rendition." The Humanist, pp. 11-15.
Middle East countries, and also former colonies around the world, struggled to find their freedom and independence from any imperial forces. Therefore, being once again in charge of their own natural resources became "paramount to the extent that dictators and human rights abusers were supported"(Shah, 2000). People were sensitive to radical messages and a violent, anti-foreigners speech. Dictators and terrorist groups speculated that "weak spot" and provided the right set of words. Concentrating their message on the fight for liberation and independence from the "invasive" West, cleverly giving it a religious and profound spiritual meaning, fundamentalist rulers became popular and managed to take control over countries like Iraq, Iran or Syria, sponsoring the planning and performing of terrorist acts against symbols of Western civilization. Terrorism cannot do without the help of dictatorial regimes in the region, or without the tacit approval of the people, explained by the common religious beliefs…
Global Connections -- the Middle East. (2002). Retrieved February 12, 2007, from PBS Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/resource/index.html
Levitt, M., a. (2002). The Political Economy of Middle East Terrorism. MERIA Journal, 6(4). Retrieved February 11, 2007, from MERIA Web site: http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2002/issue4/jv6n4a3.html
Middle East. (1993-2006). Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Web site: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579298/Middle_East.html
Shah, a. (2000). The Middle East. Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Global Issues Web site: http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast.asp
These are designed to be confusing for terrorists who attempt to circumvent them. The unpredictability is enhanced by varying them for location to location. What makes the threat especially insidious is the fact that current full body scanners used in airports across the world cannot detect items concealed inside the body with great accuracy. However, improving existing technology can change this capability for the better, according to aviation security experts.
The main likely reaction to the latest intelligence is to expand and improve security at airport checkpoints. As security measures after 9/11 have expanded and improved, terrorists have responded by creating innovative evasion measures to avoid common screening practices at airports.
The publication Today Online (2011) refers to the surgically implanted devices as "belly bombs." The report quotes Transport Security Administration spokesman Kawika iley in asserting that there has been a trend among terrorist groups to respond to increased security…
Center for HealthCare Emergency Readiness (2011). Homeland Security Presidential Directives. Retrieved from: http://www.chcer.org/Post_DHS_HSPDs.html
Homeland Security (2009, Feb 25). Homeland Security Presidential Directive 19: Combating Terrorist Use of Explosives in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/gc_1219260981698.shtm
Homeland Security.com (2011, Feb 11). Homeland Security Outlines Evolving Terrorist Threats. Retrieved from: http://www.homelandsecurity.com/2011/02/11/homeland-security-outlines-evolving-terrorist-threats/
Kress, J. And Grogger, S. (2008). The Domestic IED Threat. JFQ, Iss. 48, 1st quarter. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA518754
Management of Technology in Developing Countries Such as Iran
Technology management arrangements of developing countries vary from those of first world ones. The requirement for skill in these states is not growing from within, but somewhat cropping up from new wares imported from first world countries. Technological growth in addition does not consequence from inner data and research, but resulting upon the technology transmission from abroad. In these environments, technology management by customary way is barely effective. These are troubles facing the Islamic epublic of Iran these days and as a consequence organizations controlling the technology management endure non-compliance, then technological development does not trail an accurate trend (obertson, 2002).
Lack of distinctive management, vagueness of technological precedence's, misunderstanding of policy-making roles and inter-organization implementation and management, tremendous government involvement in all fields and lack of specialist manpower are amongst the vital troubles of the topic (Sveiby et. al 2001).…
(1.) Abou-Zeid, E.S. "A Knowledge Management Reference Model." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(5), 2002. pp. 486-499.
(2.) Bender S. And Fish A. "The Transfer of Knowledge and the Retention of Expertise: The Continuing Need for Global Assignments." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 2008. pp. 125-135.
(3.) Beveren, V.J. "A Model of Knowledge Acquisition that Refocuses Knowledge Management." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 2002. pp. 18-22.
(4.) Bhatt, G. "Organizing Knowledge in the Knowledge Development Cycle." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 2009. pp. 15-26.
Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).
Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…
Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com
Retrieved September 7, 2011, from http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .
Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International
Friedman also added that most of the countries which are least globalized don't trade in goods and services, pluralism or tolerance and ideas with other countries since they have no chance to interact freely or move freely without restrictions nor move their goods and services freely without being charged.
Friedman also argues that globalization has its advantages and disadvantages but for a country to succeed, it should approach it with the right institutions and governance so that it can get the best out of it .He also adds that those countries which have succeeded have globalized sensibly but steadily and they have ended up to open politically .
Friedman also added that in those countries that have globalized, some people prefer to go faster while some prefer to phase out currency controls and subsidize gradually leaving behind the west countries where some college students and academicians are still debating whether…
Thomas .L. Friedman, (2002). Globalization, Alive and Well. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2002/09/22/opinion/globalization-alive-and-well.html .
Jayan Nayar, (2007). People's Law: Decolonizing Legal Imagination. Retrieved November 8,
2011 from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/lgd/2007_1/nayar/
Stephen M. Walt (2010). Hawks, Doves and Realists. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from http://walt.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2010/07/28/hawks_doves_and_realists
Or, as Saletan points out, those three elements "by deduction, are the due process test" (2011).
But this ought to leave a bad taste in one's mouth because all three of these elements can be manipulated to violate one's due process right.
"hich leaves us with an awkward bottom line. If the target is a suspected terrorist, "imminence" can be redefined to justify killing him. If the weapon is a drone, feasibility of arrest has already been ruled out -- that's why the drone has been sent to do the job. So in any drone strike on a U.S. citizen suspected of terrorism, only one of the three questions we supposedly apply to such cases is really open: Has he been fighting alongside al-Qaida? If he has, we can kill him. That's the same rule we apply to foreigners. In effect, citizenship doesn't matter. The "due process" test is empty"…
Cornell University Law School. (n.d). Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law
School. Retrieved from:
Lithwick, D. (2011, July 14). Murder Conviction Most Foul: What Justin Wolfe's case in Virginia tells us about death row cases everywhere. Slate.com. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2011/07/murder_c
International Community's esponse to Somalian Piracy. To date, the primary response by the international community to maritime piracy off the coast of Somalia has been to employ combined international naval forces to protect commercial shipping (Maritime Piracy and elated Kidnapping for ansom, 2011). In addition, in January 2009, the international community launched a coordinated initiative targeted at stopping pirate attacks in Somali waters called the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (Counter Piracy and Maritime Security, 2011).
The Contact Group currently partners with the following: (a) EUNAVFO Operation Atalanta; (b) Combined Maritime Forces Combined Task Force 151; (c) NATO Operation Ocean Shield; and (d) National Counter-Piracy Missions (China, India, Japan, Malaysia, ussia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Yemen) (Counter Piracy and Maritime Security, 2011). The Contact Group could benefit from further collaborative efforts with the U.S., including the intelligence-sharing efforts described below.
Pursuant to the Piracy off the…
'Background note: Somalia.' 2011. . U.S. Department of State. [online] available: http://
'Counter Piracy and Maritime Security.' 2011. U.S. Department of State. [online] available:
http://www.state.gov /t/pm/ppa/piracy/index.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Marketing in a Less Developed Country
A less developed country is that country with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of less than 2% of global trade in goods relative to other countries. Less developed countries are characterized by little industry and sometimes a comparatively high dependence on foreign aid. These countries are grouped as the poorest and weakest market economies and consist of more than 880 million people. They rely heavily on exports of agricultural products whose prices keep on fluctuating fetching low price in the international market while they import most of the industrial and manufactured goods from developed countries a reason for continued balance of payment deficits, resulting into high debt burdens which have kept them as beggars' in the international community thus a continuous vicious cycle of poverty (UN-OHLLS, 2011).
Less developed countries are also characterized by low level of socio-economic development with weak human and institutional…
C. Samuel Craig and Susan P. Douglas, (1999).Conducting international Marketing Research in the 21st century. Retrieved on Nov 23, 2011 from http://people.stern.nyu.edu/sdouglas/rpubs/imr.html
Food and Agricultural Organization, (2011).Global agricultural marketing management.
Retrieved on Nov 23, 2011 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/W5973E/w5973e02.htm
Leslie M. Dawson, (2011). Marketing to Less Developed Countries. Retrieved on Nov 23, 2011
Each level of the counter-terrorism strategy present in the United States has its own flaws and its own weaknesses.
Law enforcement cannot be left behind in the pursuit for more professional counter-terrorist elite units. The New York Police Department sets the bar for what municipal police can put together in terms of counter-terrorism, NYPD Shield, as its known, has conducted several successful operations since its inception in the aftermath of the September 11th attacks. Naturally, New Yorkers feel a special need to create a strong counter-terrorism unit beyond that of the United States government, due to the nature that the city is under constant threat from attacks. (Economist, the 2009). London, too is under this threat, however the London Police are not as well prepared for counter-terrorism efforts as the NYPD has proven to be. (Brant, 2011). Law enforcement's participation is a necessary part of counter-terrorism work for three reasons.…
Alexander, J.B. (2010, July). Convergence: Special Operations Forces and Civilian Law Enforcement. Retrieved from, http://www.afio.com/publications/JSOU10-6alexanderConvergence_final1.pdf .
Amnesty International. (2010, March 17). Control of U.S. special forces in Afghanistan a step toward accountability. Retrieved from, http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/control-us-special-forces-afghanistan-step-toward-accountability-2010-03-17 .
Barrett, R. (2006, October 26). The broader impact of terrorism on financial stability. Retrieved from, http://www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2006/mfl/rb.pdf .
Brant, Robin (2011, November 23). Police Not Ready for New 'Counter-Terror Powers'. Retrieved from, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-15847349 .