Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Research Paper:
The first few millennia BCE were transformative times throughout the Near East. Ugaritic (Caanite), Biblical (Israelite), Hittite, Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature reveal common themes, shared motifs, and similar cultural norms and values in spite of the differences that distinguish each region from the other. Core themes that ancient Near Eastern sacred and allegorical literature reveals include the role of monarch as either divine or semi-divine; the strict gender roles and social hierarchies; and the dynamic relationships formed between ruler and people; versus ruler and gods. The social and symbolic universes of the ancient Near East were also strongly and unapologetically patriarchal. In addition to social and moral themes, Ugaritic (Caanite), Biblical (Israelite), Hittite, Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature from the first and second millennia reveal the shift from a henotheistic worldview, cosmology, and theology, to a monotheistic one that would firmly take root.
Leadership remains one of the most critical issues in ancient Near Eastern societies, not least because of the continual threat of invasion, war, and tense encounters with neighboring societies. For example, the Hyskos had invaded Egypt and succeeded at infiltrating the society until the expulsion. The expulsion is described in ancient Egyptian texts as being a direct product of successful divine leadership by a series of pharaohs fighting against the "Asiatics." In the text translated as "The Expulsion of the Hyskos," the narrator describes the pharaohs unequivocally as gods, using the terminology and symbolism that appears throughout the region such as that of the Bull: "The Wild Bull…the time of the Lord of the Two Lands," (1st page). Likewise, the exploits and victories of Thut-mose III are described in "The Battle of Megiddo," which reveals an even stronger worldview of the divinely endowed ruler. Links to the divine realm help to legitimize earthly leadership, which serves a direct political, sociological, and psychological function in the community.
Imagery and symbolism of the Bull appears and reappears throughout the literature of the Ugaritic (Caanite), Biblical (Israelite), Hittite, Mesopotamian and Egyptian worlds. "The Battle of Megiddo" mentions the "Mighty Bull" that is Horus, who was not a god whose form took the shape of the Bull; this shows that the Bull was a symbol of masculine, patriarchal power in general. Bulls also convey imagery of male fertility and sexual potency, as well as patriarchal power. This is why the Father -- Son relationship is also a major theme running throughout Ugaritic (Caanite), Biblical (Israelite), Hittite, Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature. In "The Battle of Megiddo," Re is described as the Pharoah's father. The divine father usurps the worldly father, for the pharaoh. The divine and mundane worlds are interconnected, at least on the level of upper management.
Patriarchy is a theme as strong in Canaanite/Ugaritic and Biblical texts too. In the Baal text, the god El is also called "The Bull," and is the father of Baal (Part I). Like Pharoah Thut-mose III, the leader is not only patriarchal, he must also prove himself via a series of military conquests. Therefore, the political leader also becomes an allegorical hero, providing a role model of masculinity that prevails throughout ancient Near Eastern culture. The story of Kirta further underscores the importance of patriarchy in the divine and human realms.
There is a macrocosm/microcosm framework in the literature of the Ugaritic (Caanite), Biblical (Israelite), Hittite, Mesopotamian and Egyptian worlds. What happens above, happens below; the mundane realm is a parallel or reflection of the divine and spiritual universe. Yet also these two worlds intersect and connect via the Patriarch. These texts all omit the worldview of the common people; the worldview of the King is that of intermediary between the divine and human realms.
Thus, the relationship between father and son is projected onto the divine realm. El is the Canaanite Patriarch, but it is El's male progeny that are the Lords/Fathers/Patriarchs of their people. The literature also reveals that gods are both personal and transcendent. For example, in Kirta, El asks, "Why are you weeping, Kirta? / why does the Gracious One, the Lad of El, shed tears? / Does he want to rule like the Bull, his father, / or to have power like the Father of Men?" The tone and diction of this passage is tender and loving, much as a father would comfort his son. Because El belongs to the realm of the divine, and Kirta to the humans, the relationship is metaphysically complex. El is depicted as a personal god, at least for Kirta. As the editor/translator of the Kirta points out, the relationship of father and son is also expressed in Biblical texts including II Samuel 7:14; and Psalm 89:26.
In Egyptian literature, god (or God in the case of Amon), assumes more transcendent characteristics even when the deity is portrayed as a divine patriarch. Unlike the Ugaritic/Canaanite texts, the Egyptian texts lack the tender, sensitive father-son relationship theme. Similarly, deity is depicted as transcendent more than immanent. The relationship between a transcendent god and the mundane world is distant, which parallels the relationship between the pharaoh and his people. Moreover, Egyptian literature reveals a stronger divine element to the managerial position of Pharoah. Whereas the Canaanite kings like Kirta and Baal are certainly blessed and receive a sort of "godfather" in El, the pharaohs are depicted as being co-rulers with the gods they worship. The pharaoh takes care of the mundane world, and serves as a spiritual intermediary for the wishes of God. The close bond between the earthly pharaoh and the divine does not preclude the pharaoh's worship. In "The Hymn to the Aton," Amen-hotep IV starts with a vibrant "Praise of Re Ha-akhti, Rejoicing on the Horizon, in His Name…god as sun…" Moreover, the emphasis is more on transcendence than on immanence, more on divine but detached power than on the compassionate type of personal power ascribed to El. Amon is the "creator of seed in women / Thou who makest fluid into man."
Amon, like El, have become core gods in their respective pantheons. Their place in the literature is becoming central; their roles are stronger and they interact more with the pharaohs and kings. The shift from pure polytheism to pure monotheism, via henotheism, is taking place. When Amen-hotep IV worships the sun-disk, he does so with little if any room left open for lesser deities. "O sole god, like whom there is no other! / Thou didst create the world according to thy desire, / Whilst thou wert alone…" Amon is "sole" and "alone," clearly signifying a monotheistic status for the creator god. Whether Amen-hotep IV would have permitted other deities to intervene more directly in the affairs of humans as El does is not evident in the Egyptian texts. However, the Hittites remain squarely polytheistic while these theological changes are taking place in the Egyptian and Canaanite worlds. The Hittite text the "Telepinus Myth" contains a colorful cast of divine characters, some of which (like the Sun-God) may be more powerful than others in a divine hierarchy but none of which emerges as a supreme god. Even so, the father-son theme remains extant in the cosmological and theological structure of the Hittite universe.
The literature of the Ugaritic (Caanite), Biblical (Israelite), Hittite, Mesopotamian and Egyptian worlds depicts worship, rite, and ritual in remarkably similar ways, showing some cultural continuity. Animal sacrifices and incense burning are the means by which the divinely endowed rulers communicate with the gods. Rituals are reserved for the province of the elite, too, as it is only the pharaohs and kings who are shown to be engaged in direct communion with the realm of the deities via their sacrifices and incense burning. This is especially true in Egypt, where Thut-mose refers to burning incense in the inner sanctuary -- a sacred space that is physically…[continue]
"Ancient Religion The First Few Millennia BCE" (2012, December 04) Retrieved October 26, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/ancient-religion-the-first-few-millennia-106244
"Ancient Religion The First Few Millennia BCE" 04 December 2012. Web.26 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/ancient-religion-the-first-few-millennia-106244>
"Ancient Religion The First Few Millennia BCE", 04 December 2012, Accessed.26 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/ancient-religion-the-first-few-millennia-106244
their political systems were far less developed too, and although Egyptian religion had taken root in most of the communities of Upper and Lower Egypt temples had yet to reach their characteristic grandiose size until the pharaonic period. The rise of the great pharaohs meant an enormous boost in wealth and political power to the demigod/kings who could commission the large architectural projects that epitomize dynastic Egypt. During the
Horus History Of the Egyptian God, Horus Horus is one of the most important Egyptian gods and the Pharaoh was seen to be his earthly embodiment. At the same time, the Pharaohs were the followers of Ra and so Horus became associated with the sun as well and was seen as the son of the God, Osiris. In the common perception of Egyptian mythology, Horus is known as one of the
The organization of the five chapters in the study includes: Chapter I: Chapter I includes the design of the study, the study's research problem and three research questions, study objectives, the scope and limitations of the study, significance of the study of DNA, research methodology and philosophy of the studies from different related literature. Chapter II: During Chapter II, the researcher presents information to address the first research question; presented in
Daoism vs. Confucianism The author of this report is asked to compare and contrast Daoism (also commonly known as Taoism) with the focus being on the contrast. Indeed, the two belief and philosophy structures are quite different but they also have some strong similarities. Those facets and components that are the same will be enumerated throughout this text. The two writing styles follow common themes but are presented differently. Confucian writing
Creation Myth Analysis Case Study of the History of Biblical Creation Narratives What Is Myth? What Is History? Manetho Josephus Jeroboam Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth? Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History? Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Both Myth and History? An Analysis of the Biblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of
But everyone deserves their fate: 'It was with conscious knowledge that the people of this world sinned, and that is why torment awaits them'" (Nadler 54). The writer of Ezra even provides some specific guidance concerning what can be expected by on the day of judgment, with the just and righteous being guarded in silence by angels until they are presented to God but the souls of the wicked
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life "He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was