Contrasting Cultural Psychology between the East Asian and the Western Part of the World
The different fear level for the super-ordinates and ordinates in Westerns and East Asians
Globalization is considered to be the phenomenon that owns a positive tendency to tame the behaviors of the individuals dwelling in all parts of the world in an accord of productivity and peace. It is for this reason that the inclination of the global economy is tilting towards the studies of cross cultures and its implications is a result of progressive development of the world towards a multicultural and cosmopolitan state of behavior- in individuals as well as in the nations. But yet the fast fact paced technological advancements and the tamed behavior does not guarantee the homogeneity of psychology (Shweder, 1999). Psychology as a matter of fact is a complex framework of individuals' perceptions, cognitions, apprehensions and emotional appeals. The parameter to assess an individual's psychology is its behavior, as it is the action in the way one beliefs and perceives.
Culture as a matter of fact is regarded to have a direct relationship with the behaviors an individual exhibits and the psychology it possess (Jung, 1994). It is for this reason that the cultural psychology comprises of a major portion of psychological ad cultural researches.
The distilled aim of the paper is to conduct an experimental research that distinguishes the cultural psychology of the two major domains of cultural dissimilarity, the West and the East Asia. Irrespective of friendly trade policies and healthy nations' relationship the psychological impact of the culture prevailing in the either of the two extremes of the world are different in one way or the other. The basis of differentiating the two cultures is laid on the proposition that the different fear level for the super-ordinates and sub-ordinates in Westerns and East Asians. The experimental and statistical analysis will be used to explain and prove the hypothesis right or wrong.
The reason for using this proposition to conduct experimental research that in the Asian part of the world particularly the East Asian part including china and Japan are considered to have a higher level of fear for the super ordinates examples bosses and managerial executives. On the other hand the westerns including those of America are more adapted towards a freedom and liberal approaches and are hereby less fearful from the managerial executives and the super ordinates.
H The trends of organizational behavior and the necessity of the command of chain have been the core determinants that define the nature of working conditions and the perceptions of the people. As per the current topic of study is concerned the fact needs to be established that there is a direct relationship between the performance of the organizational members and the managers that orchestrate the organizational culture within an organization (Berry, 2002).
The fear of the employees from the super ordinates can be translated in either of the two situations, first hat the turnover of the employees will increase hence leaving the economy of the country in an utter loss and second is that the employees will work more effectively under the fear of the super ordinates mainly the bosses in terms of being negatively evaluated, and as a consequence proving fruitful for the economic growth of the nation (Hui, 2000).
The difference can be understand by analyzing the on the job attitude of the westerners (European-Americans) and the East Asians (china). The key organizational inspirations that lead to the cultural differences between the westerners and the East Asians are bifurcated on the basis of the perception on self, the social hierarchy, the responsibility, the task orientations, the ethical values, the positioning of rules in the minds of the people, the time realization and the status (S.Howard, 1991).
The psychological bases that can be used to distinguish the psychology of the two cultural extremes under consideration are classified on the basis of seven parameters. The first parameter is the perception of self the East Asian culture is supposed to collectivist is nature whereas the Western culture impacting the cultural psychology of the inhabitants is individualist in nature. In the same way the East Asian culture believes in a formal chain of command and organized hierarchy in order to attain the goals and objectives in a systematic manner, whereas the Western culture are informal and feels more comfortable in working with the same levels of status rather than relying on the higher hierarchy for the effective attainment of goals and objectives (Lehman, 1995). The East Asian culture is more conducive in following the ethical guidelines in not just the business transactions but also in terms of social relationships as the circle of close associates is bounded to a small number, whereas the Western culture promotes the ethical guidelines in business transactions only as the circle of associates is larger as compared to the East Asian culture. The other difference that counts to the major cultural and psychological bifurcation is the task orientation of the both extremes. The Easy Asian culture is more oriented towards the maintenance of a relationship than the accomplishment of task whereas the Westerns are more oriented towards the attainment of task at hand rather than relationship management. The importance of personal relationships are further highlighted by the fact that the East Asian culture emphasizes more on the personal relationships as compared to the rules and regulations they are likely to encounter in executing personal and social communication. The degree of time management and the relative realization and utilization of time in various activities is reported to be long-term and future oriented in the East Asians as compared to the Westerners that are short-term planners.
Apart from the above discussion of the related literature, the center of focus can be elevated that is the importance of the fear factor in the either of the two extremes under consideration. The component of behavior that draws a clear depiction of the difference between the East Asians and the Westerners is the maintenance of hierarchal fear. The degree of freedom that the culture gives to fashion the psychology of the East Asians is considered with a limited concern over controversial issues in a way that they tend to avoid discussions even either the ordinates over the topics that may lead to a conflict among them, whereas on the other hand the Westerns are more open in discussing the controversies irrespective of the fear that the conflict may devastate the relationship with their friends and ordinates.
Apart from the cultural psychology the East Asians and the westerns also have a significant change in the behaviors and fear levels towards the super ordinates including mainly the bosses and immediate supervisors. The East Asian culture is prompted by the idea of having a fear from the supervisors on the basis of his or her status experience, and exposure along with the exercised control. But the nature of organizations and the degree of the fear the Westerners have for here supervisors is minimal as an open chain of command and democratic values are promoted in the organizations and they are less status oriented (McCusker, 1999).
In order to go about the experimental research a number of parameters needs to be analyzed. The fear factors among the ordinates as well as super ordinates and supervisors is the dependent variable and the people that is the sample size from either of the two extremes and there attributes will be treated as the independent variables that will define the degree of change in dependent variable.
The fear factors as classified under the two headers that is the fear from the supervisors and the fear from the ordinates. The relative parameters that are termed as the independent variable are the geographical location. The level of hierarchy in an organization the individual in the sample belongs to, the nature of fear level.
The method of the experimental research is divided in the following three parts.
In order to execute the research the sample size of 20 individuals, 10 from China (East Asia) and 10 European-Americans (Westerns) were selected. Each member was selected from the organizations where a proper and distinct hierarchy and chain of command exists. The participants were taken into full confidence that their personal views and ideas will be kept confidential from there ordinates as well as the bosses. The sample of China seek for formal contract to lift the trust level that the opinions and views stated or interpreted will be kept confidential. So as to maintain the similarity among the samples selected from two different parts of the world the entire individual (n=20) were ensured a high degree of confidentiality of their opinion.
Another important issue tackled with respect to the participants was elimination of the race. In order to minimize the impact of other cultural, social settings and phenomenon all the Chinese individuals were selected from the same race and these…