Eukaryotic Cells Essay

Download this Essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Essay:

Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:

There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.

Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:

The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the presence of mitochondria, chloroplasts, cell wall, and chromosomal DNA found in Eukaryotes distinguish them from the prokaryotes which do not have these features. (Diffen, 2013)

Of cells, and the evolution:

The fundamental unit of life is the cell. It was shown that the cells are of two types, based on whether they contain a nucleus or not. The prokaryotic cells (bacteria) lack a nuclear envelope. That means they are non-membranous and the only other type of cells are the eukaryotic cells that have a nucleus in which the genetic material is separated from the cytoplasm. The genomes of the prokaryotic cells are simple, and these cells have no cytoplasm organelles or a cytoskeleton and these difference making them two branches have similarities that are common to both. In other words both have the same basic molecular mechanisms that created the argument that "all present-day cells are descended from a single primordial ancestor." (Cooper, 2000)

The evolution of the present cell sand the steps that created the replication of cells and the membranes and organelles are important. So how did the cells come into being in a situation when Earth was at the least position for inhabitation by life as we know it? About 10 billion ears ago, the dates are set for evolution of life and the scientists of the previous century in the 1920's that argued that about 3.8 billion years ago in the atmosphere of the Earth some 7 million years ago simple organic molecules could form and spontaneously polymerize into macromolecules and the conditions of the earth being that it had little or no free oxygen, but lots of CO2 and N2. Laboratory experiments in the 1950s proved the spontaneous formation of organic molecules by Stanley Miller, who used the discharge of electric sparks into a mixture of H2, Chapter 4, and NH3, in the presence of water, demonstrated that this energy led to the formation of a variety of organic molecules, including several amino acids. (Cooper, 2000)

While these experiments proved that spontaneous formation of life was possible there was an important aspect that is yet to be proved. To sustain life the molecules must procreate themselves -- in modern day cells these are the nucleic acids and proteins and the nucleic acids are capable of directing their own self-replication. Nucleic acids can serve as templates for their own synthesis as a result of specific base pairing between complementary nucleotides" (Cooper, 2000) In 1980s, when it was discovered in the laboratories of Sid Altman and Tom Cech that RNA is capable of catalyzing a number of chemical reactions, including the polymerization of nucleotides.

The progress of life thus has been based on self-replicating RNA molecules and thus the first cell was formed by the enclosure of self-replicating RNA in a membrane composed of phospholipids and the phospholipids are the basic components of all present-day biological membranes, including the plasma membranes of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (Cooper, 2000) This important step in evolution has thus caused the entire living organisms to be classified into two major groups, and only these two groups of cells form the entire gamut of life as shown in the below figure: (Gregory, n. d.)

The life root path: Fig 1

Primarily since cells originated in a sea of organic molecules, they were able to obtain food and energy directly from their environment. For procreation an energy management system was necessary and thus a system was created where the cells use adenosine 5-triphosphate -- ATP as their source of metabolic…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Eukaryotic Cells" (2013, April 19) Retrieved December 10, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/eukaryotic-cells-89864

"Eukaryotic Cells" 19 April 2013. Web.10 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/eukaryotic-cells-89864>

"Eukaryotic Cells", 19 April 2013, Accessed.10 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/eukaryotic-cells-89864

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Can Be Divided

    Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Cells can be divided into two categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells. This size difference is due to the many contents inside a eukaryotic cell that prokaryotic cells do not have. To begin with, prokaryotic cells are always going to be unicellular, while eukaryotic cells can also be unicellular but are many times multicellular (Murray & Baron, 2007). Prokaryotic cells

  • Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Linked to the

    evolution of eukaryotic cells linked to the increase of atmospheric oxygen concentration during the Precambrian? Increase of atmospheric oxygen during the Precambrian period led to creatures which were more dependent on oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere increased from 1% to 15% of the modern level of oxygen. The increase in oxygen in the air led to the evolution of more expansive lungs which were capable of

  • Cell Structure and Function Enzymes

    Enzymes 1. How does temperature affect enzyme function? Every enzyme demonstrates maximum activity at a particular temperature known as its optimum temperature. Generally, all enzymes are inactivated at temperatures below 10°C and get denatured (lose its three-dimensional protein nature) above its optimum temperature (Seager & Slabaugh 2010). Experiments conclude that enzyme activity increases by almost ten percent coupled to each degree rise in temperature until it reaches its optimum state and declines beyond

  • Cell Plasma Cell Membrane The

    They are composed of a double membrane, one side of which separates it from the cytosol, and the other side of which contains the material that it is transporting. Their membranes can be joined with the plasma membrane to deliver material into and out of the cell, and can be fused with other organelles to gather material for digestion, storage, or transport. Cilia: Along with the flagella, the cilia are

  • Cell Growth Control

    ELL Cycle Control Cell Cycle Control The cell cycle involves a series of events that occur within a cell that results to the division of the cell and its duplication which leads to the production of two daughter cells. For prokaryotic cells-those that do not contain a nucleus the cell cycle occurs through a process known as binary fission. On the other hand for eukaryotic cells-those that contain a nucleus the process

  • Cell Metabolism Define Metabolism Anabolism and Catabolism

    Cell Metabolism Define metabolism, anabolism, and catabolism in full details The cell is a complex organisms in which many chemical reaction take place so as to maintain normal cellular function. Cell metabolism can be defined as the process through which cells manufacture ATP which provides energy to the cells. Cells have evolved to form highly efficient metabolic mechanisms which differ depending on the cell. Aerobic respiration is responsible for cellular energy needs

  • Organelle Functioning in the Human Cell

    a&P Lab Design Project -- A&P Lab Ammonia (NH3) is produced by cells located throughout the body; most of the production occurring in the intestines, liver, and the kidney, where it is used to produce urea. Ammonia is particularly toxic to brain cells, and high levels of blood ammonia can also lead to organ failure. The imaginary organelle referred to as a hydrosome functions in a manner that decreases the blood


Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved