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Reclaiming Children and Youth.. Retrieved October 02, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-206794465.html Wester, K, MacDonald, C & Lewis, T. (2008). A glimpse into the lives of nine youths in a correctional facility: Insight into theories of delinquency.(Report). Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. American Counseling Association. 2008. Retrieved October 02,
2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-178713105.html
Gibbs, J., Potter, G.B., DiBiase, a.M. & Devlin, R. (2008). The EQUIP program: Helping youth to see -- really see -- the other person: Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-183982220.html
Harkwick, K. & Brannigan, a. (2008). Self-control, child effects, and informal social control: A
direct test of the primacy of sociogenic factors. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Canadian Criminal Justice Association. Retrieved October 02, 2009
from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-179205954.html
Hirschi, T. (N.d.) Social control theory. On the compatibility of rational choice and social control theories of crime. Retrieved October 2, 2009 from http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs/ReasoningCriminal/07_hirschi.pdf
Jensen, G.F. (2003). Social Control Theories. Encyclopedia of Criminology. Richard a. Wright
(Editor). Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. Retrieved October 2, 2009 from http://sitemason.vanderbilt.edu/files/l/l3Bguk/soccon.pdf
Self-Control Theory -- a general theory of crime and deviance. (N.d.). University of Kentucky.
Retrieved October 2, 2009 from www.uky.edu/~jkerr0/Lecture10_SELF_CONTROL_THEORY.ppt
The results of low self-control depict a critical test of informal social control theory. As this issue constitutes a critical contemporary concern in regard to the reported increasing number of youths involved with the legal system, this paper examines and compares components and considerations of self-control theory and social control theory, During this study, the researcher asserts that inefficacy and instability experienced in informal social control in the family model may contribute to negative measures of self-control in the individual. The researcher presents information from credible researched literature, complimented with information about James, a person the researcher has personal knowledge about and Cory, a participant in a study, noted in the reference list.
Jensen (2003) notes that according to social control theories of crime and delinquency, beliefs, commitments, norms, relationships and values related to the potential for law-breaking.
However, when social control theories "are taken to the extreme, social control theory can be an "amotivational" (Jensen, p. 1). In regard to self-control theory, two types of relevant research exist.
In one line of research, self-control is inferred to be the stable underlying factor that explains the continuity of deviant behavior or conformity over the life course. The correlations between childhood transgressions and more serious offenses later in life is taken as evidence of an underlying lack of self-control. In contrast, conformity at various ages is attributed to the early establishment of self-control.
The second line of research attempts to more directly test the theory by operationalizing "low self-control' and relating it to law-breaking with other criminogenic variables controlled. (Jensen, (Jensen, 2003, p. 14)
Individuals with low-self-control frequently engage in the following risky behaviors:
Using and abusing drugs
Having children out of wedlock
Thrill-seeking having extra-marital sex having sex with prostitutes having unprotected sex spending money unwisely. ("Self-Control Theory…, N.d., p.3 )
For a person to learn self-control, three minimum conditions must be met. These include a parent or guardian being present to:
1. Monitor the child's behavior.
2. recognize deviant behavior when it occurs and
3. punish the deviant behavior immediately ("Self-Control Theory…, N.d., p.5 )
Currently, according to Jensen (2003), self-control theory significantly relates to law-breaking, albeit, it may be challenged to constitute a general theory of crime. The researcher concurs with Gibbs, Potter, DiBiase and Devlin (2008) that low self-control constitutes a primary factor contributing to delinquency and crime over the person's life course . The literature also purports that family processes of informal social control serves as a primary component of low self-control. Nevertheless, ineffective informal social control, the researcher asserts, should not at any point in the life course be attributed as a substitute for self-control.[continue]
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Families, Delinquency & Crime The fundamental changes occurring to families in the 21st century can be classified into two different categories, depending on the internal or the external perspective that is used in the analysis. The external perspective proposes an analysis of the sociodemographic changes that have occurred to families under the impact of the external factors of the 21st century. The sociodemographic changes are characterized both by the numbers, by
What is most important, in my opinion, is that the study indicates the need for further research and examination of the various factors involved in crime and delinquency. The study is therefore important in various regards. Firstly, it is important in finding the specific offenses for which there is an interaction between age and peer interaction. This demonstrates not only age groups and activities for which targeted youth programs can
In fact, this theory does well to explain the prevalence of modern youth gangs. First, gang members oftentimes engage in behavior that is absolutely contrary to the norms and rules that they have learned at home, but, because of a lack of belief in society, at large, they allow themselves to discard those norms. Therefore, delinquents are "free to engage in virtually any opportunity for deviant behavior that presents itself."
It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the
11). Perhaps the most major and identifiable sociological theorist is Emile Durkheim. He literally helped formulate the ideas and theories of modern sociology, and many of the criminal justice theories are based on his ideas. Durkheim developed many of the modern theories of criminality, such as cultural disintegration, which can lead to an individual's gradual disassociation from society, with no bonds or commitments to a society that is dissolving around
In fact, many studies show that deviant or antisocial children may experience a strengthening of the bonds between parents and society in the process of their development. Therefore, while social control theory is one view, there are many alternative theories that take other findings and variables into account. In general, the view that a deviant child who does not change by a certain age is "condemned "to a life of
In terms of the theories that are put forward in the book by Simon et al. (2004), Gary's profile conforms to a number of theoretical perspectives. In general however this profile tends to concur with the point made by the authors that the criminal behavior is largely a result of lax or ineffective parenting. (Simon et al., 2004, p.15) as this book states, there are numerous studies that refer to