In order to affect the formation and exercise of conscience, the church had to create, convince, and project an image of benevolence of itself to the world. This image, finely contructed, was then used to define its institutional mission in terms of some universal moral imperative that the church had assumed responsibility for serving..
The writer mentions the "doctrine of original sin" as a means to create this moral dilemma which provided the church the moral innitiative that it needed to fuel hysteria and therefore fear into the masses. The more fear the masses felt, the more susceptible they were to change that would benefit the church. This is much in the same way as the present day war on terror. The church however did not pretend to be able to provide people with grace itself, only the manner in which to achieve it. People could only achieve this goal through their subsequent participation in its regime. (59)
The current education system needs change. Corporations and the like as perceived in the article, are restructuring schooling and education systems across the world as part of the ideological and policy offensive to generate financial gain. The ongoing privatisation of public services, the capitalisation and commodification of humanity to meet global economic demands creates a problem that affects society and its ability to grow. These education markets are marked by selection, exclusion and are accompanied by and situated within the rampant growth of national and international inequalities.
The elimination of state subsidies to education and other public services are only a part of the educational and anti-public welfare strategy of the capitalist class. This as mentioned by Gabbard is a piece of the instrument to usurp control from the public and bring to the hands of the private. National and global capitalisms wish to cut public expenditure to therefore create reliance on the private sector. As Gabbard states, they have succeeded like the church did in the past.
Gabbard also unifies and dissects the large-scale impact of market values as they are enforced throughout the school system. Hence, "through the formation of a 'consumer conscience' individuals learn to judge their own degree of salvation according to market standards" (66). Analysis of the imperialist nature of the market ackens to the need for their to exist constant control and create a need within the population to obey certain rules set in place to safeguard from possible delineation. Education is a necessity in modern day life. To superimpose certain beliefs and stigmas to education creates a need within the population to adhere and practice certain beliefs.
The theme of compulsory schooling, as seen throughout the article coincides with his comparison of American education to the imperialistic nature of the market and concludes that "the market has never been an option for the colonized. It has been imposed on them by the developed nations who conquered them" (70). This form of colonialism, as mentioned by Gabbard, may very well still exist in the shape of the modern global economic order. Gabbard concludes by suggesting that "compulsory schools function to enforce a set of conditions where people have value only to the extent that they are useful and necessary to the market" (72).
Although this essay may at times appear concise, enriching and thought provoking, there, like the previous article, is no real concrete evidence that the cycle of control is exercised today. There's a lot of analysis but from a subjective point-of-view. Too much dependence on what happened, versus what is happening creates a convaluted assumption more than anything else.
What the article delivers in terms of analysis it fails to deliver in an alternatives to such enforcement at schools. It seems not to have been the author's main objective when writing this piece. Gabbard's contribution does accomplish it's primary goal: letting the reader see and realize the dark side of compulsory education and the possible detrimental effects it may have on society as a whole.
The third article from chapter 6: "Tased and Confused From Social Exclusion to Shock in the War on Youth" by Christopher G. Robbins elaborates on the issue of using force to discipline children in a school setting using tasers. Although a lot of what is happening in the article is geared towards possible racial discrimination. The article provides often instances in where not only is it wrong to exercise displinary force, but it's being based on income level and racial grouping.
"public schools reflect the society's ethical and civic commitments to current and future generations." And "the U.S. Transformed children and youth from being symbols of the future, a status ascribed...into collateral casualties." both quotes from page 114, expain the possible motives behind the change in education in regards to displinary action as well as the possible negative consequences. The description used not only illustrated in a very poignant way what's happening to the youth affected by these actions, but also the negative impact as a whole it has on the American education system presently. The American education system suffers from a lack of understanding in how to effectively create solutions to the multitude of problems it is facing currently.
"Are these policies too strigent? Have schools gone too far? Why don't administrators and teachers think? Th short answer: Zero tolerance as "zero tolerance" militates against discretion." this quote from page 115 is about an African-American boy who gets tased by security for resisting being taken to the office for talking on his cell phone. This concrete example of when displinary action goes to far and becomes excessive is a painful reminder of how unnecessary it is to create an outline of approach that could bring cases such as these where excessive force was unwarranted. Zero tolerance policies are just one way control is exercised in a manner that creates more conflict and lower student performance.
Also on page 115: "The war on youth operates indiscriminately...it generally deploys different tools of control and punishment on students of different racial and class backgrounds." And "it has been primarily about control." recites again the prevalent theme among all three articles/essays that control is the main reason for these actions. People feel the need to exercise control in order to create a society that benefits them and their goals by superimposing their beliefs on society. This creates as written by the author a means for ultimate control and eventual degradation.
On page 116: "the traditional hidden curriculum did more than socialize students into particular values and belief system; it also acted as "an agency of social control, one that functioned to provide differential forms of schooling to different classes and races of students." The introduction of possible allocation of colored students into service-based employment harkens to the past belief systems and rules set in place during the United States segregation laws that set up people of color to severely limit their job outlook. He provides examples. This would include gearing kids of color from poor economic backgrounds into lower aptitude vocational employment.
Also on page 116: "The U.S. Moved from blaming failing schools to blaming primarily "violent" youth in the early 1990's abdicating adults of their responsibility in producing wide social, politicl, and cultural changes that failed the modern commitment to youth and the promise of a democratic future. The traditional hidden curriculum of industrial capitalist relationships was thusly transformed in many schools." Youth were used a means of scape goating the overall problem of underfunding schools and increasing classroom sizes by placing the blame solely are largely in part to how kids react to displinary action and the student's role in school life. Not only was he able to convey with concrete instances, but with persuasive language the created a genuine doubt in the effectiveness of present day education in America.
On page 117: "zero tolerance policy against tobacco, and "violent" behavior...zero tolerance intensified a culture of fear in schools that merely reinforces ambient fears located in the wider society more generally." This quote makes the claim that zero tolerance policy is more of a detriment than a means of providing a solution. It generates problems more so than it fixes. Society as a whole tends to operate smoother when it presents a cohesive and connected approach. Zero tolerance policies implemented in schools seperates and creates disillusionment in youth, particularly students of color. Although the writer successfully establishes this, it does fail to mention specifically how deterimental it is. Although there are cases and instances scattered throughout, it doesn't mention how helpful it could be to present a more rounded approach.
"Making fear one of the central structuring elements of school relationships has not only redefined the teacher-student relationship and the construction and perception of teacher authority." is a quote also from page 117 that makes a claim that fear is apart of the relationship between students and teachers.…