Global Media Essay

Download this Essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Essay:

Censorship and Freedom of the Press

In 2009, Frank Bainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (ABC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by Bainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to Bainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace Bainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).

Bainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up in his offices with his full cabinet the next day (Puppet show, 2009). The abrogation of the constitution and dismissal of the judiciary allowed him to be immediately reappointed (Frank Bainimarama, 2010). He went on to make several speeches targeting all the measures of reform that he believed were necessary for Fiji, specifically related to freedoms, civil rights, social change, and leadership. Bainimarama's comments about the dangers freedom of speech in the press arise from his determination to pursue the ideal of promoting public truth and justice as a means of truly educating the public with true facts (Alley, 2010).

Bainimarama is confusing censorship with a valid means for making sure that citizens believe only what the government wants them to believe. It is not about truth and justice for the good of society and protection against a corrupt press but rather truth and justice to ensure that the government remains free of dissent and in absolute power and control over public discourse and political opinions. Bainimarama continues to serve as Prime Minister alongside current President, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau (Fiji's High Commission, 2011). Bainimarama also serves as Minister for Finance, Strategic Planning, National Development and Statistics; Minister for Information, along with other leadership positions within important divisions (Fiji's High Commission).

Since 2009, Fiji news editors have struggled consistently to get any stories past military and government censorship established, in large part, by Bainimarama (Field, 2009). According to one news editor, the military and government, (1) consider everything printed outside their control to be a potential threat to peace in the nation, (2) make and change press rules on a daily basis, and (3) require any story on government to reflect positive ideas only among other restrictions (Field). This editor also said that the press as a whole is "determined to break the culture of silence which so often surrounds our leaders-elected or otherwise" (Field).

Today, censorship is still thriving under the current regime in Fiji. Just a few days ago, censorship undermined the communication of important information between and from the Transport Workers Union in Fiji. Samoa Observer (2011) stated, "By only allowing government's side of the story to run, the people of Fiji are totally unaware that alternative solutions have been sought by Fiji's unions to the problems that plague the country's industries." This is only one example of many of the remaining powerful stronghold that censorship has on the nation and the oppressive environment that it continues to create.

Mediated Nationalism: Local or Global?

According to Dai (2010), the concepts of patriotism and nationalism have gradually become two of the main ideological guidelines in Chinese media. Nationalism is deemed a very significant force in the modern world as promoted through contemporary globalized media platforms, particularly in China. Nationalism is the expression of a political ideology, or strong identification as a particular group or subgroup of individuals with a political organization or entity that is defined in national terms and thus, in the modern world, nationalism leads to national identity (Kymlicka, 1995).

In the world, there are different definitions what constitutes a nation, different strands of nationalism depending on these definitions, and disagreements over how many different identities can exist (Kymlicka, 1995). Chinese nationalism is typically used synonymously with Chinese patriotism to define the collection of historiographical, cultural, political ideas, movements and belief systems, as one single national identity (Dikotter, 1996). Others believe that there is not single national identity or single nationalism but rather a collection of Chinese nationalisms.

In the creation of nationalism discourse within China, one must incorporate numerous dialogues as follows: the history of ideologies and practices in China, the national consciousness, ethnicities, religious traditions and practices, the history and political status of Taiwan with China, political oppositions and polarization, the history of Northern and Southern China, Chinese unification, Anti-manchuism, the Boxer Rebellion, the context of intellectualism and populism, and new issues in modern times like the role of the Internet, the media, natural disasters, among others. It is seemingly impossible to acknowledge and understand a single nationalism within China.

The media, though, plays an important role in the development of nationalism anywhere. In 2010, the Chinese media ranked very low in terms of the press freedom index (Hughes, 2011). Although, in a Chinese perspective, the media restrictions have gotten consistently more relaxed with a significant spurt of commercialization, competition, diversification in content, and increase in investigative freedom, over the years (Hassid, 2008).

Hughes (2011) suggests that a merging of nationalism and geopolitik thinking is currently happening in China, a reality that leads to an emerging form of nationalism that is better defined as geopolitik nationalism because of its enacts most of the themes that became evident in political ideologies of Germany and Japan before the two world wars. Hughes (2011) believes that exploring this emergence is a great way to gain insights into current practices in China by leaders. Thus, this type of insight helps to explain the current rhetoric and discourse as displayed by the media, which is still held tightly by the government.

Comaroff (1996) said that we live in an Age of Revolution where global communications have eroded nation-states' control over their own communications, economics, and so on. He insisted that single nations, at the local level, actually have very little control over global cultural flow. The global affront of globalization creates tensions for local people giving them the sense that they have to reassert their own sovereignty within their borders and claim a strong nationalism for their people. Thus, governments, like China, and many others, demand heavy restrictions on communications and discourse so as to maintain some sense of power and control over their people in a global context that is becoming more and more affected by globalization.

Thus, mediated nationalism is an interesting concept because in some places it is stifled because of the effect it has on other places. Chinese officials are concerned about losing a strong sense of singular nationalism or at least the facade that it exists. They believe their people need this to remain intact but in reality the officials need it to remain in tact. It could present a problem temporarily for the people to understand the reality of freedom but in the end the result is a better world for everyone. This is what happens when the global media is restricted from collaboration with the local media.

Conflict and Mediation

The media has for a long time been recognized as not simply an observer of conflicts but as a major player in understanding, addressing, and most importantly creating, conflicts both in local contexts and global contexts. It is known that there can be astounding effects on society through media in the midst of conflicts, particularly as it relates to the mediation processes that most contexts endure. In 1994, Radio Milles Collines of Rwanda incited genocide by employing metaphors and hate speech (Thompson, 2007). Many critics argue that the media was instrumental in the war breaking out in the former Yugoslavia (1998) as a tool for Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic (Perlez, 1997). The two most powerful elements of media in the context of creating and mediating conflict are discourse and imagery.

One current debate regarding the role of media in conflict and mediation is that of the Al-Jazeera network in the U.S./Al-Qaeda conflict. The U.S. criticizes the network for its biased coverage against the West as a means for aiding and abetting terrorists in their cause primarily through the use of terrorist language in Al-Jazeera Arabic while Al-Jazeera English is constantly changing, reorganizing, and omitting its communications (Fahmy & Emad, 2011). Fahmy and Emad (2011) found that the only significant difference between the two sources is that of story placement. Otherwise, they say that the overwhelming majority of attributed sources in the content are from the United States or its allies (Fahmy & Emad). It also shows that Al-Jazeera sources never shy away from negative coverage when appropriate no matter who it incites. One frequent criticism of media is that different sources express mixed messages and opposing ideas but in this study,…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Global Media" (2011, September 17) Retrieved December 4, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/global-media-117258

"Global Media" 17 September 2011. Web.4 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/global-media-117258>

"Global Media", 17 September 2011, Accessed.4 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/global-media-117258

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Global Media Impact of the

    One hundred thousand people packed into the Museumplein near the city's famous museums in Amsterdam, according to Jolly, et al., writing in The New York Times. In China, fans who decided to become vendors were profiting by the sale of vuvuzelas (those annoying horns that are blown throughout all the World Cup games) for $3 U.S. money. "They're all made in Zhejiang," the vendor said, working the rainy streets

  • Media as the Linguistic Discourse Analysis Object

    Media as the Linguistic Discourse Analysis Object Research in Discourse Analysis - Linguistics Discourse analysis' focus is noteworthy semiotic events. Discourse analysis aims to understand not only the nature of the semiotic event, but also the socio-psychological traits of the participants of the event. The proposed subject of research is media discourse analysis or media as the linguistic discourse analysis object. Media is highly relevant and almost fundamental to life in the

  • Media Censorship

    Media Censorship The maneuver of public opinion in America holds the absolute influence in the present world. Their strength is not isolated and uncongenial; it touches each household in America and executes its spirit approximately all through the day. It is the strength that influences and shapes the psyche of nearly all sections of the population, youthful or elderly, wealthy or deprived, naive or urbane. The mass media shapes our picture

  • Media Conglomeration A Monopoly While

    Thus, they set off a great deal of protest. Americans did not appreciate the fact that a small group of powerful corporations are given more control of the most important element of our democracy: our access to information. They are right to feel this way. The media monopoly allows a small amount of companies power over media outlets (independent and corporate alike, including on the Web). This is far

  • Media Society Book Section Summary Croteau

    Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate

  • Media Ownership

    Media Ownership It is very telling that mass media today is often referred to as a "media industry." This term implies that mass media is no longer concerned with merely relaying information to the general public. Instead, media is engaged in producing a product, akin to industries such as manufacturing. This paper examines the media industry from the production perspective. It looks at how news coverage is itself a manufactured product, a

  • Global Terrorisms Main Aim Is to Inflict Destruction

    Global Terrorism Terrorism is a systematic use of terror or violence as means of achieving purpose. Within the international community, the act of terrorism has no legal binding. Common definition of terrorism refers to a violent act intended to create act of terrors to achieve political, ideological and religious goals, typically, terrorists disregard the safety of non-combatant civilians. The concept terrorism is an emotional charged and politically loaded and has been


Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved