Hazard Awareness the Federal Government Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

Radio spots should be broadcast every five minutes in order to hit the maximum audience.

The characteristics that the messages contain differ in amount of material presented, the speed of the presentation, the number of arguments, the repetition, style, clarity, order of events, forcefulness, specificity, accuracy and extremity of the position advocated. Some characteristics can be measured objectively as to effectiveness.

Hazard awareness programs in a community can have different themes. Some programs are designed to attract the attention, others designed to give additional information may have an animal or cartoon mascot or utilize celebrity endorsements.

The content of the messages attract differing audiences. When one wants to address adults, scientific information programs may give technical data about a hazard. This information is processed only by those familiar with the terminology used. Practical instructions on exactly what to do in case of an approaching danger, may focus more on protective responses than on the hazard itself. The simplest instructions are a prompt, a sign that tells the reader or listener a simple action to take in case of danger ("Do not take elevator in case of fire.") These prompts are more likely to be noticed and are easier to remember than technical or detailed instructions. They are also remembered for future situations. Other message styles portray strategies, such as "Remain calm and stay in line for safety." These emphasize the advantages of recommended hazard adjustments and fear appeals. They attract attention and motivate action by describing the potential personal consequences of disaster (Mileti, p. 154).

Those who see hazard messages may miss their importance as they become used to signs in public or repetitious messages that never have to be followed up on. The "cry wolf" syndrome is common. People do not pay attention in airplanes when the stewardesses give detailed demonstrations of what to do in case of emergencies. But is easier and cheaper to simply post signs or use the same old message on the radio.

Researchers have emphasized the important of tailoring messages to the audience. Only a few hazard awareness programs have heeded this advice, and there are few guidelines as to how to do this. The Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Program, the Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Program of the California Office of Emergency Services and the American Red Cross have each published guides and manuals for special groups. Schools, hospitals, corporations, city managers, emergency personnel and the media are all special groups that would need individually tailored instructions on how to prepare for an emergency. Very few attempts to utilize individual treatments for individual groups have actually been done.

Much of the information available today about hazard awareness and preparedness is not scientifically originated or prepared. The problems facing communities and states on how to approach a major disaster has not been studied and lines of actions have not been standardized. When an actual disaster strikes, existing information is often useless in the face of actual circumstances. Future research is needed on how to look at the categories of disasters, how to react to the various kinds and to set out the characteristics of each type of disaster. Then a set of actions that need to be taken may be set up for each kind of disaster that may strike a community. The first course of action, however, for each community, is to get the information of an impending danger to the members of the community. How this is done and the methods to employ to implement information and instructions to community members is the problem that is addressed in this paper.


Effective Disaster Warnings." (November 2000). Report by the Working Group on Natural Disaster Information Systems Subcommittee on Natural Disaster Reduction, National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Rresources. Retrieved November 18, 2006 at http://www.sdr.gov/NDIS_rev_Oct27.pdf.

FEMA (2006) "Mapping Information Platform." Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved November 18, 2006 from FEMA website at https://hazards.fema.gov/femaportal/wps/portal/!ut/p/.cmd/cs/.ce/7_0_A/.s/7_0_CM9/_s.7_0_A/7_0_CM9.

Mileti, Dennis S. (2004). Disasters By Design, Washington D.C.: Joseph Henry Press. pp. 152-154.

OSHA (1999). "OSHA Software: Expert Systems." U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved November 18, 2006 at http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/oshasoft/hazexp.html.[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Hazard Awareness The Federal Government" (2006, November 18) Retrieved December 9, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/hazard-awareness-the-federal-government-41662

"Hazard Awareness The Federal Government" 18 November 2006. Web.9 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/hazard-awareness-the-federal-government-41662>

"Hazard Awareness The Federal Government", 18 November 2006, Accessed.9 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/hazard-awareness-the-federal-government-41662

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness

    Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness (U.S. Federal Programs: Advantages and Disadvantages) The confrontations and prospects for the reduction of hazards/disasters have never been greater than in the current period. In theory, the challenge is to do away with all disasters that cause the loss of life or injury to people along with the property and environment damage. On the other hand, such a goal is not possible to achieve practically. Although it

  • Hazard Assessment Development

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is a system that digitally creates and manipulates spatial areas. The system stores, edits analyses and shows topographic information that is critical in decision-making. GIS applications enable creation of interactive queries, analysis and editing and then present results. This is beneficial in management of disasters. Disaster management signifies preparedness involving a chain of measures incorporating disaster prevention, emergency response as well as reconstruction. Many organizations federal, state

  • Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

    Government The Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act Final Project / Dissertation Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized Major: Specialization: Constitutional Law Full Address: The Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need

  • Miami Gardens Hazard Mitigation Plan

    City of Miami Gardens is vulnerable to natural hazards, particularly flooding because of the location of the area and extreme weather events like heavy rain. One of the major reasons for these extreme weather events that increase the likelihood of heavy rain and subsequent flooding is global climate change. Global climate change contributes to unprecedented weather incidents through which the earth cools and warms over geologic time. While the

  • National Incident Management System

    National Incident Management System Theoretical Analysis of National Incident Management System (NIMS) The Federal Government established the National Incident Management System (NIMS) under the Homeland Security Presidential Directive number 5 in February 2003. The Secretary of Homeland Security played an important role of developing and administering national incident management system. NIMS provide a reliable and consistent approach to responding to all forms of incidents irrespective of size and scope (Walsh 2012). The

  • Planning Efforts to Reduce Future Disaster Impacts

    Planning Efforts to Reduce Future Disaster Impacts This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with

  • Greensburg KS F 5 Tornado

    convert it into "Green Town" Overall Analysis of the Rebuilding Process The region of Greensburg is an agricultural community, which is located in south-central Kansas. The day of May 4, 2007, marked a great tragedy in Greensburg, when it witnessed an EF-5 tornado. The study by FEMA (2007) states that according to the standard meteorological scale this was the most severe tornado in terms of wind speed. The consequence of the

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved