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Homeland Security and Preparedness, Response, Activities and Programs in Disaster Response or Disaster Recovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the consequences of such a disaster are great and require a great deal of intervention to regain normalcy in operation.
The research hypothesis in this study is one stating that the law enforcement in the United States is today better equipped to handle terrorist attacks and any terrorist threat than it was prior to the events of September 11, 2011.
The work of Warwick (2009) entitled "Drug Drones" reports that an evaluation of unmanned aircraft in anti-drug operations took place in Central American with the U.S. Navy flying a leased Israel Aerospace Industries Heron from El Salvador for the purpose of detecting and identifying maritime targets. The 100 flight-hour demonstration was reported to be funded by the U.S. counter-narcoterrorism budget. The heron medium-altitude long-endurance UAS is equipped with the "vessel automatic identification system. (AIS)." (Warwick, 2009, p.1)
This is not the only tool that law enforcement is using in crime prevention and arrest initiatives of those threatening national security. The Terrorist Screening Center (TSC) is reported as a "unified watch list of known or appropriately suspected terrorists that can be used by every official sworn to protect the United States -- from border patrol and transportation officials to Federal agents and local police officers working their beats." (Bowman, 2007, p.5) Director of TSC, Donna Bucella reported during a FBI headquarters briefing that the list is "not a stagnant list. We add, modify, and delete every day. The information that flows into the TSC comes from the FBI (domestic terrorist information) and the National Counter Terrorism Center (International terrorist information) which gets information from more than a dozen intelligence agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Homeland Security, under the umbrella of the Director of National Intelligence." (Bowman, 2007, p.5)
Edwards (2012) reports that police are greatly dependent on "information and communication. In today's world, youthful offenders communicate, network, socialize, boast and reveal their conduct on the Web via e-mail, smart phones and Blackberries. Communication is carried into a new theater of real-time availability and simple methods." (p.19) It is reported that current communication systems require a small investment but the result is stated to be "tremendous dividends." (Edwards, 2012, p.19) Federal agencies are reported as being reliant on "their frontline law environment partners. When an environment exists that allows all officers to possess knowledge and use it to cooperate, communicate, and coordinate, premier results can develop." (Edwards, 2012, p.20)
Intelligence led policing (ILP) is cited as being a great help in the area of information improvement as well as in intelligence sharing. It is reported that the present push for "state and regional fusion centers and the development of Law Enforcement Online (LEO) is a real0time controlled-access communications and information-sharing data repository…" (Edwards, 2012, p.20) It is reported that ILP believes that the notion that rural officers should have "access to current technology, such as smart phones and Blackberries, as a real-time conduit for relating past data to current intelligence information. Rural sheriffs and police chiefs working together to create one central clearinghouse for information collection, analysis, and dissemination constitutes another ILP concept. Innovative policies, procedures, protocols, and structures require collaboration between sheriffs and chiefs for common interest, shared gains, notoriety, credit, and productive results." (Edwards, 2012, p.21)
Intelligence Led Policing is reported as being based on a three-step process as follows:
(1) The first step is the incorporation of the Intelligence Led Policing Model, which involves incorporation of the ILP model, which maintains, 'Intelligence-led policing is a business model and managerial philosophy where data analysis and criminal intelligence are pivotal to an objective decision-making framework that facilitates crime and problem reduction, disruption, and prevention through both strategic management and effective enforcement tactics that target proli-c and serious offenders'." (Edwards, 2012, p.22)
(2) The second step is reported to be inclusive of "…incorporating guidelines for protecting privacy -- mandatory if the intelligence system is supported by federal funds. Intelligence gathering and the pooling of intelligence can lead to more effective policing. However, the collection and sharing of intelligence also can implicate signi-can't privacy concerns. Accordingly, if the intelligence system is supported by federal funds, the agency must employ within the Criminal Intelligence Systems Operating Policies at Title 28, Code of Federal Regulations, part 23." (Edwards, 2012, p.22)
(3) The third step involves stakeholder participation in "aggressive information gathering, speci-c analysis, and structured classi-cation of real-time communication paths, supporting actionable intelligence dissemination." (Edwards, 2012, p.22)
Specialized training is provided in Evans County, Georgia including training, equipment and information sharing policies and procedures for officers because knowledge of incidents that have occurred enables law enforcement agencies to "maintain situational awareness" which is reported to be greatly assistive in "identifying, preventing, disrupting, and solving crimes." (Edwards, 2012, p.22)
According to one report Michigan State Law Enforcement has equipped its officers with the AN-PVS-21 Low Profile Night Vision Goggle. The night vision technology combined with "its innovative heads-up display capability, will help enhance officers' safety and situational awareness and give officers greater response capability." (Business Wire, 2005, p.1) However, the most important thing that can be done according to the United States Department of Defense in a News Briefing is to develop a high level of cooperation and integration among law enforcement authorities and intelligence agencies." (2003, p.1) This is where intelligence led policing comes in and the process used is one that includes the following elements including system, process and result:
The system component is E-roll call and the process involves an intelligence analyst electronically sending all local, state and federal officers a list of calls from the night before and the result is that law enforcement becomes aware of all incidents and events. Secondly, a system component is the 'shift report' and the process involves deputies, dispatchers and jailors reading and initialing the calls for service report updates since their last shift. The result is that staff becomes aware of incidents and events that have occurred. The third system component cited is 'problem adoption' and is a process in which "deputies hear of problems from citizens, adopt these problems, identify strategies for solutions and proceed with tactics." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The results is that relationships are built that lead to trust and the production of intelligence information." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The fourth system components is stated to be that of 'Web Tips" which is a process involving citizen provided tips via a web site that are emailed to an intelligence analyst and investigator." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The results in "information analysis [that] provide intelligence." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The fifth system component is that of patrol alerts and open case alerts and is a process in which "flyers are produced and distributed by email, then posted in the operations center." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The result is 'total situational awareness'. (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The sixth system component is that of 'inmate information collection document' which is a process in which the investigator "regularly interviews local jail inmates regarding criminal information'. (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The result is that this resources "provide corroborative intelligence on histories, trends, patterns, and methods of criminal operation." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The seventh system component is that of deputies information binder which is a process involving A three-ring binder containing current intelligence, memos, and latest officer awareness and safety information." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The result is that the "binder enhances intelligence products and communication." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The eighth system component is that of the issue board and is a process in which "a white board is used to highlight important communications for all." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The result is that important information is "disseminated and shared." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The ninth system component is that of a 'status board' and is a process in which the board "gives status of pending state, local, and federal investigations." (Edwards, 2012, p.25) The result is that "pending case knowledge is shared." (Edwards, 2012, p.25)
The following are also system components, processes and results cited:
(1) Project Board A large white board is used for projection of presentations and real-time collective data mining. The board enhances intelligence…[continue]
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