HRM Organizational Behavior, Theories, Frameworks and the Links Between Individual and Organizational Performance
This work in writing conducts a critical evaluation of HRM Organizational Behavior Theories Frameworks that link performance.
Defining and measuring the effectiveness and performance of workers is a specific part of the HRM manager's work. The question presenting is one that asks how the skills, behaviors and attitudes that are needed by workers to successfully and effectively perform their roles is defined. One way of measuring this is linking the performance of individuals to the organizational goals. This is generally accomplished through use of competencies which are described as "the integrated knowledge, skills, judgment, and attributes that people need to perform a job effectively. By having a defined set of competencies for each role in the business, it shows workers the kinds of behaviors the organizational values…" (MindTools, 2011) Lawrence (1998) reports that people are "multifaceted and complex" and that organizations are "complex open social systems" that undergo adaptation in order to survive and be profitable. Schein (1990) holds that organizations develop a persistent "pattern of behavior" over time. Managers are reported in the work of Schneider (1994) to have a tendency to "attract and select people based on how similar they are to those already in the organization." Because organizational behavior is resistant to change human characteristics serve to drive the persistence of organizational policies and practices unless the organization develops new modes of inquiry. (Argyris and Schon, 1996) Beer (1980) holds that organizational behavior is "a product of the confluence of several forces whose interaction and mutual adaptation governs the evolution of the organization over time."
The Human Resources Management in the organization deals with management of people within the organization. Responsibilities that are inherent to HRM include responsibility for hiring staff members including attraction of employees and sustaining these individuals in their position with the organization. HRM is responsible for clarifying and setting the organization's goals and is responsible for organizational planning related to the future initiatives and objectives that involve individuals employed by the organization. (Handy, 1999, paraphrased) Research on HRM has demonstrated that the human element of organizational resources provides "approximately eight percent of the organization's value, which implies that employees when to property managed will result I the organization facing the potential result of breaking apart. The primary objective of HRM is to "bring out the best in their employees and thus contribute to the success" of the company. (Young HR Manager, 2011) The responsibility of making sure that the future of the organization is properly planned for in terms of organizational employees belongs to HRM. The work of (Liu, 2004) entitled "Perceived Organizational Support: Linking Human Resource Management Practices with Important Outcomes" reports the widely held belief that the "implementation of progressive HR practices that affect employee skills, motivation, and behaviors, and results in the creation of a strategic advantage for the organization." (Liu, 2004)
Organizational Behavior Theories
The 'Social Exchange theory is such that suggest that the "exchange relationship between two parties "often go beyond pure economic exchange and entails social exchange." (Liu, 2004) Additionally stated by Liu is that it has been n "…agreed upon between organizational researchers that "employers and employee exchange is not only inclusive of impersonal resources including "money, services and information, but also socio-emotional resources such as approval, respect and support."(Liu, 2004) It is reported that the social exchange theory specific of the motivation behind behaviors in organizations. It is reported that Eisenberger and colleagues utilized the concept of 'perceived organizational support" in their reference to the perceptions of employees concerning the "degree to which the organization. To describe the social exchange relationship between the organization and its employees." (Liu, 2004) Employees who have higher levels of POS are "more likely to repay the organization with positive attitudes and favorable work behaviors." (Liu, 2004) The effects of 'perceived organizational support' on various work outcomes has been examined in the research and most specifically by Eisenberger, et al. (1990), Settoon, et al. (1996) and Wayne, Shore and Liden (1997) who state findings that employees are "likely to develop higher levels of POS when the organizational cares about their well-being and values their contributions." (Liu, 2004) Liu states that while HRM "plays a key role in developing and maintaining the exchange relationship between the employee and the organization, extant research offers little insight on how the implementation of appropriate human resource (HR) practices can help build high levels of POS, which in turn, contribute to positive work attitudes and organizational behaviors." (2004) It has been posited by researchers stated Liu that the "implementation of progressive HR practices that affect employee skills, employee motivation, and structure of work can create strategic advantage for the organization." (2004) Two types of HR practices held to be of primary importance in developing higher POS include the following: (1) discretionary practices that imply organizational caring but are not mandated by company policy or union contract, and (2) HR practices that symbolize organizational recognition of the employee's contribution. " (Liu, 2004) It is indicated by this supposition that the HR practices that are representative of varying ways in which the organization expresses concern for their employees and that values the contribution of employees "may be particularly critical for the development of high POS.' (Liu, 2004) This proposition suggests that those HR practices that represent different ways that concern is shown for employees by the organization are likely specifically critical for high POS in the organization to be developed. Theories of motivation are important in directing the effort of HR to employ practices that demonstrate support for employees. The ERG theory proposed by Alderfer (1972) is useful in thinking about the motivation of employees in that Alderfer's theory "conceptualizes three elements of human needs that are relevant to organizational settings and which may operate simultaneously." (Liu, 2004) ERG theory is reported to hold that individuals "attempt to satisfy three levels of needs in organizations" include the following three: (1) physiological needs; (2) need of relatedness or of interpersonal relationships; and (3) growth needs. (Liu, 2004) It is reported that several HR practices are extremely important in showing support for employees of the organization to have those needs satisfied. It is stated that satisfactory pay is a requirement for meeting the physiological needs of the individual and that growth needs "can be met by sufficient career development opportunities that help employees extend their potential and expand their capabilities. Third, HR practices that provide social support, such as helping employees maintain good work and family relationships and develop positive leader-member exchange relationships, can be instrumental in fulfilling employees' need for relatedness." (Liu, 2004)
II. Organizational Behavior Frameworks
The work of Pfeffer (2007) reports in the study entitled "Human Resources from an Organizational Behavior Perspective: Some Paradoxes Explained" that American workplaces exhibit three facts when taken together "could constitute anomalous or paradoxical organizational behavior, especially when seen through the lens of the rationality and competitive market efficiency concepts so often used in economic theory." (2007) Pfeffer additionally states as follows: "Theories and empirical research in organizational behavior and social psychology offer insights and explanations about how these three facts can coexist and even persist. These explanations are built on the fundamental insights that both employees and organizations are embedded in a social context that provides taken-for-granted ways of thinking and doing things; social in-uence matters so that companies imitate others even if such imitation is maladaptive; and social relations in the workplace are important." (Pfeffer, 2007) Pfeffer relates that the view of organizational behavior is such that assists in the explanation of why these practices impact the "productivity and An organizational behavior perspective helps explain why these various practices affect the productivity and discretionary effort of employees and also how to understand and predict the effects of various human resource management policies."Three of the many components of organizational behavior are those stated as follows:
(1) people are social creatures and as such, are concerned with their relationships with others and as such are in-uenced by what others say and do. As a result, perceptions, preferences, and attitudes are at least partly endogenous (Salancik and Pfeffer, 1978), and people derive an important part of their social identity through their affiliations.
(2) Second, people are concerned about fairness and justice, both distributive outcomes and also the processes through which those outcomes get determined. Because of this interest in both processes and outcomes being equitable, people will, as economists increasingly have recognized (Fehr and Gachter, 2000), actually expend resources to "punish" individuals who violate norms of fairness. And third, organizations as institutions in their own right are also embedded in a social context and are in-uenced by and imitate other organizations, in part to achieve legitimacy by acting like or looking like others and in part to conform to social expectations and norms (Scott, 1995 cited in Pfeffer, 2007)
There are reported to be several "direct implications of these assumptions for understanding both the design and…