human behavior to understand the range of behaviors that people show under the influence of emotions, parenting, culture, attitudes, values, ethics, force and genetics. It is understood through this research how the human behavior can be usual or unusual and acceptable or acceptable. The main focus is on the work of social scientists including Finn, Jacobson, and Payne. Finn and Jacobson wrote an article "Just practice: Steps toward a new practice paradigm" and Payne presented "Modern social work theory." The human behavior theories presented in these two articles are offered here for the purpose of analysis and understanding. There are different behavioral elements that a person can show for example respect, discrimination; cooperation and collaboration (Focus on social work, 2009). It is not possible to behave equally with all the human beings because, articles suggest, emotions play an important role in defining human behavior but at least there should be respect and empathy in human behavior towards all the people in order to justify the right behavior of a social worker. Following is the paper that will deeply discuss the human behavior theories and perspectives as presented by Finn, Jacobson, and Payne in their work.
Human Behavior perspective
There is a limitation of social work imagination that challenges human rights and social justice today. Finn and Jacobson (2003) present two strong perspectives in their article to help understand human behavior and the social environment. The system and strength are two perspectives that explain human behavior according to the article.
Systems Perspectives is a human behavior perspective that says that human beings are complex creatures. This perspective, also called the ecological perspective says that human behavior can only be understood if it is analyzed in the broad context of the human and environmental systems. Human relationships and his social work practice explain how people communicate and behavior differently at work place and at homes (Pagliarini, 2012). The human ecology is most helpful in explaining his behavior according to the systems perspective. The systems perspective had a great impact on social work practice in America after the 1980's. The effect of environment on human behavior is found to be very great. The system perspective can be considered and outward or external perspective to human behavior. The perspective explains the impact of external factors on human behavior. It does not find the role genetics plays on developing human behavior rather it explains how human behavior is shaped by systems he works in (Thyer, 1999). The human being, according to this perspective is influenced by externalities rather influencing the systems with his own behavior.
Another perspective that is described in the article is the Strengths Perspective. This perspective is considered as problem-focused method that says that people's capacity play an important role in the values of the profession. It argues that there should be a change of perspective from problem to the solution. This perspective encourages social workers to find out resource potential in the environments (Crombie, 1966). The approach guides people to search belonging, healing, and relationship building with the help of dialogue and teamwork. Thus the focus is on solutions not the problem. The strengths perspective is the optimistic approach that does not let a person lose hope in the time of crisis. Normally during emergencies and crisis, a person may show an unacceptable behavior but the strengths perspective tells that the focus should be on solving the problems rather than mourning and lettings problems grow. It can be said that this perspective offers strength to the individuals as well as communities. This perspective explains why a nation will try to rise from crisis and why someone will like to build castles from ashes- because they behave in power and strength of their behavior rather than the power of the problem.
Human behavior theories
Payne (2005) offered a detailed survey of main theories that explain the social work practice. The book includes two main theories including feminist theory and the spirituality. The human behavior theories affect the way person behaves in different work and life situations. Payne added the feminist theory in the book in the later additions that makes it known that the female workforce has a unique behavior that should be understood given their role and ration in population. The feminist behavioral theory talks in terms of the attributes of the behavior that is more womanly in nature (Ephross and Greene, 1993). The attributes of feminist theory are accepting dominance of others, putting value on collaboration and cooperation, valuing people more than tasks. The feminist behavior theory defines human behavior in terms of a soft image. Payne has also described the spiritual theory to human behavior in his book. He says that the spiritual human behavior leads to the response of people that is less aggressive and more subordinate to the natural circumstances. The spiritual human behavior theory makes people more adjusting to the situation and more accepting of what happens to them (Huitt, 2000). Both of these two theories avoid aggressive behavior. Payne says that while the human behavior can have different responses in different situations provided a range of emotions; the feministic behavior would avoid direct confrontation with problems and issues in any way. This behavior seeks peace and does not fight with the nature. The feministic behavior is more close to the spiritual behavior than all the other behaviors of a man. While there are many theories presented in the book and generally discussed in the literature, I like the feminist and spirituality theories more because these theories identify a behavior that is more inclined towards settling down with the environment rather that waging a war against nature. The feminist theory explains why a person would like to accept the behavior of others (Foster, 2013). This is so because the feminist theory believes in relationships and valuing human interaction above the fight for individual interests.
Both the feminist and spiritual human behavior theories are inclusive of the oppressed population. While the feminist theory would care about the feelings of oppressed groups and will encourage positive behavior towards poor, ethnically inferior individuals and people with controversial sex orientation, the spiritual behavior theory would respect the poor and will behave well with the ethnically inferior people but not the gays. These theories are discussed below with detail to find their orientation towards oppressed population.
Feminist Theory and Oppressed population
The feminist behavior theory explains the behavior attributes of people that are often considered more womanly. It is inclusive of the oppressed population. The communication, human interaction, cooperation, collaboration and dependence are a few of such attributes that explain the human feminist behavior. These behavioral attributes are inclusive of the consideration of members of society that are oppressed. These may include the people of opposite gender, minority race, different religion, socially and economically less privileged classes etc. The theory does not believe in the human behavior that seeks power and authority. Since these are also the common features of the oppressed population of an area, it can be said that the feminist theory explains behavior of oppressed population too. It does not provoke the suppressed population to raise voice against suppression necessarily but it helps them identify the power of feministic approach. The feminist human behavior theory suggests that being different from other humans does not necessarily mean to show an inferior behavior but this only results into a different behavior that is often considered more soft.
Spiritual Theory and oppressed population
The spiritual theory of human behavior explains the human behavior that is inclined towards the divine power and the compassion. It is inclusive of specific oppressed population segments but not the others with which there might be clash of ideas. The feelings of empathy are also explained by the spiritual human behavior that translates into the faith that God did not create different ethnic groups for the sake of discrimination but only for the identification purposes. Campesino and Schwartz (2006Show More
) believes that a human spiritual behavior leads to exclusion of hate and discrimination against the oppressed population groups. This behavior feels for the other groups and recognizes their right to life as much as they recognize their own. The discrimination of humans by the so called spiritual groups should not be mixed with heart of the theory. The theory believes in equality of man, genders, ethnic groups and social classes.
The spiritual behavior is not found equally among people of all the backgrounds. There is a certain level of spirituality that almost everyone experiences but the theory suggests that there are people that value spirituality more than others. The reasons for this might include an experience in childhood, parenting or the experience. While different levels of spirituality are connected to different intensity of behavior and compassion, the people need to be at least a little spiritual for it creates a bond of unity among people being the creation of the same God. Almost all the faiths believe that the people…