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The research also showed that the international peacekeeping efforts to date have met with mixed results, with one of the major glaring issues being the perception of a lack of legitimacy on the part of the peacekeeping efforts. In order to improve this perception, the research was consistent in emphasizing the need to integrate more women into the peacekeeping effort and there are international legal precedents to support this effort.

Section 6: Relevance of the Proposed Topic:

In the wake of the ongoing global economic downturn, it is reasonable to posit that the number of failed states around the world will continue to increase in the years to come. Today, many states are on the verge of failing and it is only a matter of time before the dual pressures of rising energy costs and depleted resources cause these states to fail. In order to prepare for the violence that is characteristic of failed states in a timely and meaningful fashion, it is essential to identify effective interventions and to provide the peacekeepers that will be tasked with implementing them with the training they need to achieve their peacekeeping mission.

Section 7: Table of Contents

Final table of contents to be added during residency two.

Section 8: Sources of Information

In order to develop a comprehensive and informed series of case studies of the role of women as peacekeepers in failed states, the study proposed herein will consult resources from both public and university libraries, reliable online research sources such as EBCSOHost and Questia, as well as information provided by international organizations and agencies including the United Nations.

Section 9: Research Methodology

Methodological Approach and Design

In order to answer the above-stated research questions in an informed and complete fashion, this study will use a qualitative case study methodology to identify and examine the role played by women as peacekeepers in countries such as Rwanda as well as others that are considered to be failed states. According to Zikmund, the case study method is "an exploratory research technique that intensively investigates one or a few situations similar to the researcher's problem situation" (2000:722). One of the main advantages of using a qualitative case study approach is that a subject area can be investigated in depth and with great attention to detail (Leedy 1997).

Research Process

The research process will begin with an exploratory approach to develop the requisite background and information needed to identify salient issues and constraints that have been encountered in the past when all-male peacekeeping initiatives have been used and to determine what steps have been taken to integrate women into peacekeeping missions in recent years. Following the development of this information, further research will be conducted to determine what types of training are deemed essential and desirable for international peacekeepers in general and for women in particular. Finally, the research will focus on failed states that have been the recipient of international peacekeeping efforts by all-male and mixed-gender peacekeeping forces to identify opportunities for improving these efforts in the future.


For the purposes of the study proposed herein, it will be assumed that there will be no bias on the part of the author in the selection of resources and their interpolation concerning the foregoing issues. It will also be assumed that the material developed for the case studies is factual and accurate.

Section 10: Research ethics

Because the qualitative case study methodology will not involve primary research in the form of questionnaires or interviews, there are minimal ethical considerations involved in this study; however, in the event such primary research becomes necessary, approval will be received from the RRU Research Office and the School of Peace and Conflict Studies prior to any such research being conducted. To this end, the required RRU Ethics documents will be prepared and submitted after the Second Residency Program.

Section 11: Major Project timetable

The project timetable is to be added during residency two.

Section 12: Works Cited

Cockburn, Cynthia & Dubravka Zarkov. The Postwar Moment: Militaries, Masculinities and International Peacekeeping, Bosnia and the Netherlands. London: Lawrence & Wishart,


Jackson, Robert. The Global Covenant: Human Conduct in a World of States. Oxford, England:

Oxford University Press, 2003.

Kramarae, Cheris & Dale Spender. Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global

Women's Issues and Knowledge. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Leedy, Phillip D. Practical Research: Planning and Design (6th ed). Upper Saddle River,

NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1997.

Manwaring, Max G. & Anthony James Joes. Beyond Declaring Victory and Coming Home: The

Challenges of Peace and Stability Operations. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000.

Mazurana, E. Dyan & McKay, E. Susan. Women & Peacebuilding. Montreal: International

Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development, 1999.

Schoiswohl, Michael. Status and (Human Rights) Obligations of Non-Recognized de Facto

Regimes in International Law: The Case of 'Somaliland' TheResurrection of Somaliland


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