Lungs What Are the Lungs  Term Paper

  • Length: 9 pages
  • Sources: 5
  • Subject: Anatomy
  • Type: Term Paper
  • Paper: #31909477

Excerpt from Term Paper :

However, it was 1953 that the formation of serotonin was from the lungs was substantiated. It is also observed that detoxification of the blood takes place in the lungs. Later, it was observed that one of the important activities of the lung is to provide chemical filtration by shielding the regular circulation of blood from the attack of vasoactive mixtures and other exogenous compounds present in the arteries. The physiology of the lungs and its location makes the lung exclusively suitable to perform these activities. (Wet; Moss, 1998)

The total output from the cardiac system is obtained by the lungs whereas other organs acquire only a very small quantity of output. The blood that circulates the lungs is subject to the vast capillary endothelial plane of the body which is of seventy square meters. This aspect of output and circulation enable the lung to perform the efficient function of biochemical filtration. With a cardiac production of 5L/min and thirty percent elimination of materials, the rate of pulmonary cleansing is estimated at 1.5L/min. This is however against the presumption that most of the metabolic activities are performed by the liver. Hence most of the metabolic activity of the liver is completed with a proper hepatic blood flow, which is estimated at 1.6 L / min. Earlier research on 5-HT stated that the lungs were able to eliminate or inactivate poisonous materials that passed through the pulmonary movement. Further studies have stated that the lung has a more important role to play in the human body. (Wet; Moss, 1998)

Certain mixtures like the norepinephrine or the 5-HT are either removed completely, incompletely or they are deactivated in the pulmonary movement. There are some associated mixtures like histamine or epinephrine that travel through the lungs without any change. There are certain other hormones that are stimulated by the lungs or sent to the pulmonary movement. This action of the lungs to act differently on different substances proves that the function of the lungs is not restricted to a common filter. However, this leads to a question whether a wound in the lungs would lead to the metabolic inactivity of the lungs. Further, the metabolic activity of the lungs can be used to judge the depth of a wound in the lungs. Hence an image of the lung shows that it not only performs the function of a filter but also functions as a brisk administrator of xenobiotics and hormones. The metabolic activities of the lungs include clinically vital pharmacokinetic outcomes on huge components of exogenous and endogenous materials which are of curiosity to research anesthesiologists. (Wet; Moss, 1998)

5. How do the lungs affect other body systems?

Vigorous action of the body by any kind of exercise can lead to illness. These exercises can be either muscular exertion, rowing, trekking a high slope, running or any movement that leaves the blood to flow quickly to the heart. This quick movement interrupts the free flow of blood through the arteries by causing an abnormal pressure on the lungs, brain, heart and other organs. The effect of such a pressure in the event of heavy exercise will put pressure on the heart and disrupt its normal task and it may even lead to a change in the composition which then affects the great vessels of the body. The heart is more vulnerable to such action if the heart, valves or vessels has undergone a change in its physiology earlier. Another organ which is affected seriously by vigorous exertion of the body is the brain. The damage caused to the brain is severe if the brain is subject to a complex posture or if it is connected through a stooping. This is so because the brain and its vessels are not protected with a muscular layer to withstand heavy force of the blood and the pressure caused by the sudden flow. Hence this phenomenon can cause defective sight, apoplexy, noise in the ears, convulsion, giddiness, palsy and deadness due to the vigorous action of the body. (Williams; Clymer, 1853)

The lungs are also vulnerable to such an impact. The blood which moved into the brain with great force will return to the lungs at the same speed which is above the normal capacity of the arteries connected to the lungs. This leads to congestion in the lungs that causes inflammation of the lungs, dyspnoea, cough, haemoptysis and may even result in changes in the condition of the lungs. The lungs may also sustain wounds due to excessive pressure from deep breath. Excessive muscular exertion may also lead to the distortion of vessels in other organs of the body due to high blood pressure. This leads to haematuria, haemorrhoids, haematemesis and dislocation of the liver. Severe pain experienced while running at a high speed actually occurs due to the changes in the spleen or the liver. More exactly this pain comes out of spasms of the temporary colic in the intestine which arises from the varying pressure of blood in these organs. Certain type of muscular action usually affects a particular set of organs. For example, reading or speaking at a high voice or blowing instruments affects the organs in the respiratory system and the voice. This may result in inflammation, hemorrhage or illness of these internal organs. (Williams; Clymer, 1853)

6. What has research on the lungs taught us?

Of late there are several studies that have researched the anatomy of this organ. These studies have resulted in an idea which is in contrast to the existing theories. Earlier theories said the constitution and task of lungs are inseparable and that the pathology usually denotes a quantitative change from the rule. Mucus cells and glands in the respiratory tract have gained considerable notice only now. Various modern day researches have discovered that around 40 to 70% of water content can be taken from this tract if it undergoes a huge change. The ciliated cells and their role in releasing the mucus were also analyzed. It has resulted in various important observations like the constitution and function of the cilium. While the cilium is stable in several living creatures with its two central and nine lateral filaments, they move at a rate of 1,317 per minute in certain living beings. In this state, the flow of mucus is registered normally at 13.5 mm/minute however this rate changes in the presence of toxic agents. Mucus in the respiratory tract may cause hindrance in a postoperative patient by giving out atelectasis. This hindrance to the bronchial tree usually results in infection and the function of the pulmonary organs will change according to the characteristics of the mucus. (De Reuck; O'Connor, 1962)

These kinds of developments of the mucus lead to the formation of a fat membrane in the mucous gland which results in severe bronchiectasis and bronchitis. Other researches have found the aspect of mucoviscidosis which is a normal problem caused by the electrolyte discharge of the sweat glands. It has been observed that this electrolyte difference happens in a patient with pulmonary emphysema. The bronchi in the lungs function due to the firmness of the cartilaginous plates and the grip of the tissues around them. Recent research and analysis state that improper growth of the cartilage or hypoplais, in the early stages of a newborn baby can lead to the blockage of air in the bronchus. This condition of bronchus is called lobar emphysema. Several other studies on the bronchi state that these soft parts of the lungs are closed when exhalation takes place and the grip of the parenchyma is set on them. Chondromalacia is an illness caused by the iritis. Partial or repeated hindrance in the bronchial cartilage leads to the distortion of the bronchi with focal emphysema. Muscles in the lungs and its reaction are still a topic of research. The response of bronchial muscle to chemical and neural tests is also a topic of research though results on the presence of vasomotion are still not observed. (De Reuck; O'Connor, 1962)

It is a recognized fact that patients with asthma have bronchiole muscle that are hyperplastic and hypertrophied. It is not only that hyperplasia and hypertrophy results in a severe pulmonary illness but it also causes damage to the blood as well as lymphatic vessels that coexist in the lungs. This condition is more broadly known as muscular cirrhosis and this can happen in a patient with pulmonary emphysema. This condition is usually mistaken for neoplasia, hamartomas or congenital anomalies. When this condition takes place in the walls of abscesses or tuberculous chambers it is simply called congenital cystic illness. The well seen longitudinal bunches of flat muscles in the arteries of the bronchi are called Sperrarterien. This finding has been substantiated and accepted by several scientists. It is observed that these organs have the special ability to regulate the flow of blood in the body because these arteries are usually found as anastomosis with tiny pulmonary arteries. These organs subject to other observations…

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