In this regard, the main fault can be attributed to the ruling elite because: "Primary responsibility for assisting and protecting internally displaced persons rests with their own governments. Should governments prove unable or unwilling to discharge this responsibility, however, governments are expected to invite or at least accept international assistance for ensuring the welfare and security of internally displaced persons" ('Internally displaced persons' 2012). Nevertheless, it is also clear that the international community has a moral obligation to stop this violence and assist the people who are already disaffected by its impact.
There have been some efforts to enlist the support of neighboring countries to help the SPLA consolidate its power, but the stated mission of this organization may make some neighboring countries headed by autocratic rulers nervous in the post-Arab Spring environment, but Nilsson reports that many have lined up in support of the SPLA anyway. In this regard Nilsson advises that, "In 1996 the SPLA joined the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), which is a coalition of political opposition groups. Ethiopia, Eritrea and Uganda supported this alliance, which has one unitary goal -- to overthrow the government of the Sudan" (2000, p. 8). Unfortunately, the complexity of these interethnic conflicts and the apparent invisibility of the problem on the international community's radar have contributed to a lack of the effectiveness of the measures used to address these problems which are discussed further below.
Effectiveness of the Measures to Date
The Sudan is certainly not unique in the Middle East/North Africa region by virtue of experiencing ongoing violence and social unrest, but it does appear to be unique in defying the limited efforts by the international community to date in addressing them. For example, U.S. government analysts emphasize that, "Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad [see Figure 1 above]. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations" (Sudan Introduction 2012, p. 2). Likewise, just as the U.S. has been struggling to formulate effective foreign policy responses to the Arab Spring in the Middle East and North Africa, the ruling elite in Sudan are using genocidal methods in a sovereign state that defy easy solutions. The fact that the ruling elite also head an Islamic country has complicated the American and international community's responses even further in the post-September 11, 2001 environment. In this regard, Nilsson advises that, "There is still no end in sight to the conflict and the search for a peaceful solution to the conflict will continue" (2000, p. 8). This peaceful solution could assume several forms, several of which are discussed further below.
Complex problems demand complex solutions and the problems that exist in the Sudan today required almost a half century to develop, and peaceful solutions will clearly require time. Nevertheless, the research made it clear that time is of the essence in formulating timely and informed alternative approaches to the regional and UN peacekeeping efforts must take one of several courses of action, including doing nothing, continuing the current minimal Wilsonian-based interventionist efforts or make the decision, once and for all, that enough is enough and apply sufficient military forces to dislodge the ruling elite from power and install a pro-Western democratic regime similar to the U.S. goal in Iraq and Afghanistan and in ways that are comparable to those used in Libya. This course of action would result in significant backlash from some parts of the international community, most especially the radicalized Islamic nations, but it should proceed anyway based on the enormity of the problem. Indeed, millions of women and children have already died and hundreds of thousands continue to suffer in this impoverished nation. .
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'Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.' (1954, April 22). Office of the United Nations
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'Internally displaced persons.' (2012). International Organization for Migration. [online]