Nonverbal Communication Non-Verbal Communication in Research Paper

  • Length: 8 pages
  • Sources: 8
  • Subject: Sports
  • Type: Research Paper
  • Paper: #92029758

Excerpt from Research Paper :

If the pitcher does not agree, he shakes his head, jiggles his glove or makes some other sign. Then the catcher will make an additional sign and the procedure goes on until they both have the same opinion on the pitch to be thrown.

In the interim, the batter glances at the third base coach who goes through a sequence of signs from touching the nose to rasping his hand crossways on the letters of the uniform: Gestures intended to convey -- nonverbally -- what he desires the batter to do. All of these signals start off from the manager sitting in the dugout who gives signs to the third base coach who on the other hand sends them to the batter.

Body Language and Nonverbal Communication in Sporting Contests

Of the numerous types of nonverbal communication, body language is conceivably the most understandable means through which humans express judgments and emotions and so make depictions of their knowledge evident to others. It entails gestures, facial expressions, eye movement, breathing movements, skin color variations, muscle tone, interpersonal distance, and stance. Iain Greenlees and his contemporaries looked at all these together with clothing and reviewed their impact among table-tennis players.

Some players might trudge unenergetically across the arena, shoulders limp, head disposed downwards. The body language signals a reception of crushing. Different table-tennis players may stride out anxiously to the table ahead of their opponents, frequently tapping their racket heads against their legs and gazing attentively ahead. They are watchful, enthusiastic and impatient to compete; their excitement level is elevated. Other players move around their eyes darting, as they hang around for their opponent to straighten out. Their actions deceive lack of self-control. Those players who showed "positive body language" were spoken of as 'more self-confident, forceful, competitive, skilled, confident, optimistic, focused, comfortable, and fit than the models who showed negative body language (Sullivan & Short, 2001). Clothing did not make a great deal of differentiation. The insinuation is that before and during a contest, each athlete communicates facets of him or herself, occasionally purposely but more typically unintentionally. Body language often reveals a demonstration at odds with the athlete's express purpose. No participant wishes to exchange a few words nervousness, acceptance, apprehension, or any other form of pessimism; up till now they are frequently unable of suppressing the nonverbal signs that correspond exactly these. Body language, similar to other nonverbal communication, entails cryptogram and decoding. People, not just athletes, may knowingly program their body movements and signs in expectation that teammates, opponents, and viewers alike all interpret in accordance with their purpose. Otherwise, they may be uninformed that their actions are revealing more than they wanted (Pedhazur, 2002). Worse yet, they may program important information about themselves simply for others to decipher a totally unusual message. In sport, roughly all of the communicating is completed by means of the body. Precompetition body language has turned out to be very much part of the show. Players of practically every contact sport will try to communicate a sense of fierceness during the beginning of a game, keeping up an uncompromising facial expression, maintaining muscles loose and walking assertively. The study of Greenlees et al. shows the value of this method of body language on anticipation, which itself has an effect on performance. During a sporting contest, body language has more than a few tasks (Kneidinger, et al. 2009). For the most part explicit level, a greeting, a thumbs-up sign, or a clenched fist, might work as symbols communicating generally acknowledged meanings. There may also be nonverbal prompts that run, steer, or control the flow of a competition. Case in point, a basketball or soccer player may arch arms downwards and spin palms towards the outside to signify to a teammate that he or she should take ownership of the ball. Body language may intensify speech: Coaches time and again frown and point arms or punch the air as they issue orders; team players regularly gesture extravagantly as they give confidence to each other. In every one of these examples, the substance of the communication could have been displayed by speech (Sullivan, 2009). but, a. Kendon says, gesture has diverse characteristics and purposes to speech. As an unspoken but noticeable mode of communication, it can be practical in sport; for example, by being a focus for the attention of a teammate but not an opponent who may be looking in a different way, or by conveying a purposely vague piece of information concerning tactics; this may be functional in warning that something is going to occur and possibly provoke tension (Sullivan, 2009).

Seeing substantiation of an opponent's naked competitiveness may also make athletes cautious "Players like [Lleyton] Hewitt and Kobe Bryant are perceptibly very competitive because they thrust their fists," Pete Sampras once spoke of his tennis opponents, adding that his own body language divulges the same sporting spirit, though in 'a significantly understated way. People who are acquainted with him know when he is competing. You can observe it in his eyes and his look. He just does it in a more withdrawn way (Timmers et al., 2008). To turn our attention to Greenlees's work, contestants reported decreased self-assurance in their ability to conquer an opponent when they saw them portraying positive body language, suggestive of the intimidatory potential of body language. So, commemorating every moment of success in a competition might transmit this potential. Possibly the most fascinating features of body language are the signals, facial expressions, and body stances that adjust in the situation of a contest and happen without known consciousness (Timmers et al., 2008). Nothing like most areas of life, in which language and body movement go together each other in communication; sports show the prospect for contradiction. Nonverbal prompts can clash with speech. A person may reassure another, "I'm completely undisturbed," while dilated pupils may imply otherwise. Sincerely, it's the truth," may come with by what P. Ekman and W.V. Friesen, in the 1960s, showed "non-verbal leakage" in which information about a ruse is conveyed by means of body movements (people attempt to be in command of facial movements when trying to mislead others and are more probable to give themselves away with arm and torso activities) (Sullivan & Feltz, 2003). Sports competitors are never determined to confirm to an opponent that he or she has misplaced serenity and is prepared to accept to defeat. Up till now, their body language may do exactly that.


Kneidinger, L.M., Maple, T.L., & Tross, S.A. (2009). Touching behavior in sport: Functional components, analysis of sex differences, and ethological considerations. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25, 43-62.

Nunnaly, J.C. (1970). Introduction to psychological measurement. New York: McGraw Hill.

Pedhazur, E.J. (2002). Multiple regression in behavioral research (2nd ed.). New York: Holt.

Sullivan, P.J., & Feltz, 13. L. (2003). The preliminary development of the Scale for Effective Communication in Team Sports (SECTS). Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 1693-1715.

Sullivan, P.J., & Short, S.E. (2001). Furthering the construct of effective communication: A second version of the Scale for Effective Communication in Team Sports. Paper presented at the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA), St. Louis, MO.

Sullivan, P.J. (2009). The relationship between team communication and performance. Paper presented at the Canadian Society for Sport Psychology and Psychomotor Behavior (SCAPPS), Montreal, PQ.

Timmers. M, Fischer, a.H., & Manstead, a.S. (2008). Gender differences in motives for regulating…

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