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One time or the other, these elected legislatures will find themselves in difficult situations that call for difficult ethical decisions in the processes of performing their duties just as public administrators and as some can mange such trying moments, others will fail to perform. These public administrators should ensure that they have proper interaction with the government/authorities so as to understand well how they function in the quest to establishing reliable solutions that are potential managers of public pressure to finally ensure that public action is not compromised (Stillman, 2009). For example, in the last twenty years, the pressure exerted on public administrators has been "more entrepreneurial, to find ways to do more things and new things with fewer resources, to be nimble in response to fluctuating problems and demands, has been acute" (Cook, 2007, p. 243). In addition, considering the pressure on public administration coupled by increasing global changes as well as intensity and lack of efficiency in responding, majority of governments have failed to reform their laws to match the ever changing demands in public administration hence affecting decision making and the eventual public action/response.
Role of regulatory agencies in public administration
Regulatory agencies as independent government agencies/commissions created by legislative law so as to manage standards in particular fields, undertakings within the private sector faction and implementing those set standards, are vital politic deeds and have various authorities in rule making, monitoring and power of controlling, judging as well as implementing approval on certain aspects. In addition, they start on domestic levels in implementing certain processes, taking part in pre-as well as extra-legislation consultations and being part of parliamentary debates (Stillman, 2009). Nevertheless, the role of regulatory agencies has for a considerate time being under researched irrespective of their freedom from executive scrutiny, as far as public administration is concerned. However, there exist varied views on the already done research on regulatory agencies. Some argue that extend of open-mindedness and privatization is limiting the freedom of political character while others insist on regulation change that regulatory agencies utilize (Encyclopedia Britannia, n.d.). For instance in Europe, especially the Western sides, the regulatory agencies are planning to incorporate all aspects in different countries to help in improving reputation in policy making.
From the great concern on performance of regulatory agencies, they have a significance task to perform in influencing political decision-making procedures with specific interest to particular sectors. It is thus the obligation of the regulatory authorities to have the appropriate technology and professionals so that they can willingly pass any necessary information to help in making viable policies. In addition, regulatory authorities as powerful institutions that have varied capabilities in performing, they should ensure that they meet their targets and then as they are independent agencies, they are able to offer good reputation in political procedures thus legitimizing certain political procedures. All in all, questions still erupt on extend to which these independent institutions influence policy making, at what points they have great influence, and the explanations of the potential tasks in policy-making. Recent studies indicate that majority of Western nations have started delegating political authority from government to other institutions that have no direct responsibility to the citizens. These institutions are regulatory authorities who form a crucial part in political decision-making ensuring that they remain authentic as they are under thorough scrutiny. They play a vital role in both the process of policy making especially during the initial stages as well as in the implementation processes. Therefore, regulatory agencies will compose a certain type of political character that helps in policy making processes with unique tasks. They are also influenced by the administration culture that exists outside statutory limitations and then association between the regulatory agency and the regulated sector can at sometimes affect the intended role in decision making (Maggetti, 2007).
Government personnel/program heads and budget procedures
For any governmental budget to be successful there has to be program heads who ensure that they express clearly and precisely the budget formulations and be on the look out for any deviations from the set spending. It all revolves around the fundamental aspect of consideration that governmental budgeting forms a vital component in decision making process and that this consideration gives motivation to government departments to participate in an organized operational structuring for some short-term in future in how best they can utilize the limited available financial abilities within all necessary and competing government projects (Kinnersley, and Magner, n.d.). Therefore, the resulting final budget that a government adopts seeks to allocate resources within various government units and gives authority to maximum utilization in all areas allocated. The budget thus relates the financial resources and personnel/staff character with a main goal of achieving the set unit policy overall goals.
There are two different factors in any government budget. These are the formal budget processes and budgetary processes in implementing fairness and these two affect significantly the budget personnel stakeholders in terms of their ways of thinking and acting (Kinnersley, and Magner, n.d.). As key players in government budgeting, program heads/personnel remain close accomplices in budgeting as well as in implementation and mostly concerned with the outcomes of budgets. This is because budget programs will significantly affect individual rewards, regardless whether material or not, different people will experience varying psychological challenges depending on the weight of the matter. For instance, program heads with huge allocations of the budgets have greater chances of realizing higher rewards and whenever there is a realization that more resources better performance, rewards then associate with performance. In addition, psychologically, huge budget allocations offer great motivation such that program heads/personnel can feel as achievers in an environment where there is competition for the limited financial resources. Moreover, they can enjoy esteem status from their subordinates as capable individuals in effective use of program resources. However, there are instances when program heads can experience psychological difficulties in accepting their budget allocation realities and this can lead to creation of negative modes of reasoning and characters. For instance, when there are extreme constraining factors that greatly challenge their status as budget maximizes, program heads will exhibit rebelling characters.
On the other hand, there are instances where a government can find itself in a compromising situation with limited financial resources ending up in less allocations that contradicts program heads' expectations, they end up being affected psychologically because they have a believe that they should receive the lion share of the budget. This is in addition created by the budgetary procedures which can end up raising unwanted responses from the program heads. With regard to this, majority of program heads will have great concern on whether allocation procedures and amounts were made fairly and in a transparent manner. To manage this, the formal budgetary procedures fairness will assist in ensuring that budget decision makers remain compelled within the expected consistent procedures with personnel standards of judgments remaining proper. That is, "people often have stronger reactions towards the fairness of decision making procedures that they do toward the favorability of the decision outcome" (Kinnersley, and Magner, n.d.).
To access whether governments formal budgetary procedures remain fair, program heads are compelled to establish whether there is voice, appeal, accuracy, and consistency in the allocations (Kinnersley, and Magner, n.d.). Their voice in the budget should allow program heads to present their suggestions to influence decision making. Appeal is also an opportunity for program heads to raise quarries about their programs. On its part, accuracy is vital as any reliable budget should consist of accurate information and finally consistency is an obligation for any formal government to ensure it cuts across all units of the government. In addition, budget decision makers should ensure that they have respect and be friendly to program heads hence there being interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, program head opinions should be considered as this greatly affects eventual performance. Therefore, there has to be proper and complete explanations as to why the budget allocation resulted the way it is and then there should be no bias in budget decision making so as to favor some groups.
Unique qualifications of a public administrator
The description of the task of a public administrator is to develop policies as well as implement and monitor the policies with a sole aim of bettering public institutions and services offered. However, as duties might vary from place to place, qualification can differ too (Business training schools, n.d.). Nevertheless, qualification should fulfill data collection and analysis demands, budget monitoring, draft legislation, policy development and implementations. These qualification should therefore assist a public administrator in possessing the capabilities of pursuing professional research as well as publications, ability to train in public administration, policy analysis, ability to perform comparative politics, human resource management and leadership, globalization and governance and last but not least comparative public administration (Dubai School of Government, 2010).
With regard to the above research, it is apparent…[continue]
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