Public Relations in Lebanon This Study Described Term Paper

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Public Relations in Lebanon

This study described and analyzed the perceptions and practices of public relations in Lebanon. It focused specifically on media relations and was based on Grunig's (1984) theoretical framework of four models of public relations: press agentry, public information, two-way asymmetrical, and two-way symmetrical.

A review of the literature was conducted that revealed a debate about whether public relations can be practiced the same way all over the world (Gruban, 1995) or if certain localized practices should be considered for each nation (Sharpe, 1992).

The research design was a triangulated method. Data were collected using a written survey questionnaire and telephone interviews with Lebanese public relations practitioners. The results showed that all four of the Grunig models were practiced in Lebanon, with the two-way symmetrical model the most popular. Evidence collected from this research supported the hypothesis of this study that public relations can be globalized despite cultural differences.




The Problem

Background of the Problem

Lebanon: General Overview

Communication Styles and Cultural Differences

Research Questions

Scope of the Study

Definition of Terms

Organization of the Remainder of the Study



Theoretical Perspective

Globalization vs. Localization

Advocates for Globalization

Advocates for Localization




Research Approach

Sample Population

Instrumentation 24

Survey 24


Qualitative Data Analysis




Quantitative Results

Qualitative Results

Answers to Research Questions

Chapter Summary



Public Relations Principles



Suggestions for Further Research





Practice of the Two-way Symmetrical Model

Average Score

Practice of the Two-way Asymmetrical Model

Average Score

Practice of the Public Information Model

Average Score

Practice of the Press Agentry Model

Average Score

Ranking of the Top Five Survey Statements

Average Score


1. Average Survey Statement Scores by Individual Gruning Models



Mucchielli, Buckley, and Cordell (1998) observed that people around the globe are more connected to each other than ever before. Information and money flow more quickly than ever. Goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly available in all parts of the world. International travel is more frequent. International communication is commonplace. This phenomenon has been titled "globalization."

According to Rao (1998), globalization, privatization and liberalization have become dominant forces shaping societies and economies the world over. Communication technologies have played a pivotal role in hastening the globalization process. Communication technologies like satellite broadcasting have made it possible for a tiny incident that took place in any part of the world to reach the entire world instantly and at the same time. The concept of "local news" no longer exists (McDowell, 1997; Rao, 1998).

As the world has grown smaller, the field of public relations has grown larger. More than 60 national and regional public relations associations emerged before 1989 (Kruckeberg, 1995). In the United States alone in 1989, there were 600 university departments offering graduate and undergraduate courses in public relations (Neff, 1989). In a telephone survey conducted by the Delahaye Group in 1996 of 100 randomly selected United States public relations executives, 87% of the respondents thought that international public relations would be most important during the next three to five years (Paine, 1996). Turk and Scanlon (1999) noted that "Public relations in one country is not necessarily public relations in another" (p. 7) and presented 15 case studies that illustrate the evolution of public relations in different countries and describes how public relations can be practiced in other social, political, and economic systems.

At the end of 2001, membership in the International Public Relations Association was over 900 members in more than 90 countries, representing a 20% growth from the previous year, according to IPRA President Jacques Dinan (2001 a year of sustained growth for IPRA, 2003).

Because of the increasing prominence of globalization and public relations in contemporary life, public relations practitioners and researchers are debating whether public relations can be practiced the same way allover the world (D'Jaen, 1998; Gruban, 1995; Grunig, Sriramesh, Huang, & Lyra, 1995; Hiebert, 1992; Hirsch, 1992; McCluhan & Powers, 1989; Murphy, 1996; Roth, Hunt, Stavropoulos, & Babik, 1996; Sharpe, 1992; Wilson, 1990) or…[continue]

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