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He proposed this technique as the solution to the problem of why some people do better than others in certain tasks, He likewise suggested cataloguing the differences in the size of the functional areas among individuals and correlating these with different talents and skills (Krotz 2001). Van Essen believed that his technique would ultimately lead to what makes people human or unique. Brain mapping charts and determines specific areas, such as areas devoted to hearing, emotions and memory.
Dr. Joy Hirsch of the neuroscience department of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center discovered that functional areas are not areas but intricate networks (Krotz 2001). Her findings and projections point to systems of remotely connected brain areas as fundamental units that govern cognition. She also concluded that this assumption would be the guiding principle in research a few years from now. Dr. Hirsch maintains a lab at the O'Hare Airport, which turns out approximately 300 fMRIs every year for pre-surgical and research purposes. In the conduct of her work, she realized that many cognitive tasks require many regions in the brain to function as a single system and found that one region plays a vastly different role in seemingly task-unrelated systems. She believed that understanding these cognitive systems could improve physicians in repairing neural breakdown. A loss of movement in an extremity, for example, may be connected with some activity in the thalamus, she illustrated (Krotz).
In five years or so, the physician of a stroke patient can do a functional scan and plug the information into a software-operated model in order to determine how other brai areas would respond in the next few months. This model uses the same super-computing capability as that used by meteorologists in predicting hurricanes. The physician can then "rewire" his patient through mental exercises that would stimulate new neural connections (Krotz 2001).
Looking back at the past, naturalists of the 19th century catalogued life through a system called taxonomy. Charles Darwin roamed the world for five years and returned home to write the Origin of Species. With the same vigor and dedication, neurologists have been imaging brain conditions and actions for more than 20 years (Krotz 2001) and a lot have been known about the functions of many areas of the brain but the whole meaning of these discoveries remains unknown. Dr. Gregory V. Simpson of the neuro-imaging laboratory of the University of California in San Francisco believed that this generation is only a little beyond taxonomy and that it is time these raw data gathered be used in understanding the rules that govern the operations of these networks in the brain. Then the next step would be to learn these neural laws and which can be used to develop predictive models of brain function (Krotz). He suggested the use of every imaging equipment or technique available and not typically associated with clinical radiology. Valuable techniques include electroencephalography or EEG, which measures electrical activity from neural pulses and the magneto-encephalography or MEG, which measures the faint magnetic field around the brain. These two directly detect the brain's electrophysiological activities or engagements and provide split-second temporal resolution (Krotz). They not only establish when the neuron is stimulated but also points to where the stimulation happens. Dr. Simpson said that these two modalities track down the very nature of neural activity, the surface measurement of the occurrences deep in the brain, but as such, they come up with imperfect calculations. Dr. Simpson suggested fusing these temporal data with MRI's excellent spatial resolution (Krotz). Dr. Richard M. Leahy of the University of Southern California's neuro-imaging research group expressed the view that the combination is still in its early stages. Instead, he suggested that MEG's spatial resolution be improved by means of developing algorithms that would better correlate with the magnetic field on the brain surface.
Other contributions include Carnegie Mellon University Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging Director Marcel Just's computer model of sentence comprehension based on fMRI data and the Pittsburgh Compound B. As a breakthrough in research on Alzheimer's. The compound enables researchers to see and examine brain plaques found in living Alzheimer sufferers (Romain 2004). Alzheimer's is a leading cause of dementia among the elderly and is a brain disorder of the memory and cognitive function that controls thought, memory and language (Romain).
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Very near the beginning of World War II, Karl Dussik began exploring ultrasound technology for diagnostic purposes by "attempted to locate brain tumors and the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull" (Woo 7). This experiment produced disappointing results, and the development of this apparatus was not pursued further because of the elaborate set-up, and lack of clear visual representations of the brain. However, at about
Radiology and Cyberspace The creation of 'cyberspace,' or the sharing of information through email, on the Internet and on websites, has had a profound impact on nearly every field of human endeavor. Medical science, and particularly Radiology, has been particularly affected and enhanced by new technology. Radiology, by its very nature, has always been a leader in the use of emerging technology in the medical field. Now, new technology developed during
Under conventional radiology, excessive exposure outputs a "black" film. In case of digital systems, good images are got from a large range of doses. With the help of digital fluoroscopy systems, it is extremely simple to get as well as delete images. There might be an inclination to get more images than what is required. In case of digital radiology, higher patient dosage implies improved image quality and therefore
Others focus more on diagnostics rather than on direct medical treatment. In that regard, breast imaging involves diagnosing diseases of the breast through mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and tissue biopsies. Cardiovascular radiology is the radiology specialty that uses X-rays, computer axial tomography (CAT scans), MRIs, and ultrasound to diagnose problems with the heart and circulatory system. Chest radiology employs many of the same technologies and tools to diagnose
Harnessing Unstructured Data in Radiology The harnessing of unstructured data is vital to moving the field of radiology forward. There are methods used for the mining of unstructured data, with one of the most common being Natural Language Processing (NLP). However, there are some difficulties with the use of NLP in the radiology field, because NLP lacks the capacity to analyze free-text radiology reports and images. There is too much uncertainty
disease (Scoliosis ) (name, location, pathophysiology) Scoliosis is actually a derivative of the ancient Greek term skoliosis "obliquity, bending" (Online Etymology Dictionary) Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine looking somewhat like the letter C. Or S. And affects approximately 7 million people in the United States (Scoliosis Research Society website). It is most common during childhood and particularly in girls. Scoliosis is called different names depending on the stage of
Though there are state laws and federal laws that militate against discrimination at any levels, the application of this law is a challenge and the patients end up being discriminated against anyway. The victims will most likely end up in nursing homes where they will receive treatment but this separates them from the family life. The other factor is the cost that weighs down the concerned people in terms of