Terrorism Influences Research Paper
- Length: 5 pages
- Sources: 4
- Subject: Terrorism
- Type: Research Paper
- Paper: #55499578
Excerpt from Research Paper :
Terrorism has no specific definition and its definition largely depends upon the viewpoint of an individual for example Samuel Adams (a well-known revolutionary fireband) or Thomas Gefferson would have been terrorist from British perspective but they have been Great heroes from American perspective. Take the case of George Washington who was previously fighting with British army against French and was loyalist of British crown but later on he sought American independence from British rule and became terrorist in the eyes of British (Kreamer).
But there is an accepted definition of terrorism as UN has reached on no consensus but generally crimes against humanity, war crimes, cleansing of ethnicity and genocide are included in definition of terrorism. Recent trial of Bosnian Serb army Chief Ratko Mladic on the charges of genocide has been included in the concept of terrorism by various circles. Similarly, act of genocide by Hitler has also been considered terrorism all around the world.
We can see that the there is changing definition of terrorism from the perspective of every nation that is the main reason of not agreeing on any definition of terrorism by UN. But still there are some crimes like genocide by Bosnian Serb army chief and war crimes by Hitler are generally regarded as terrorist acts.
Presently, terrorism has also changed its dimensions especially after 9/11. The killing of innocent Americans was certainly an act of terrorism but there are other some intellectuals who oppose American War on terrorism. For example Robert Fisc who is against killing of innocent civilians in Iraq, Afghanistan and in Pakistan. He regards these American policies as terrorism.
In our contemporary era Muslim world has its own perception which is certainly is against the American perception and they regard most of American present policies as an act of terrorism. However, America and its allies are of different viewpoint and they consider that Muslim world is harboring terrorism.
Effects of terrorism
Terrorism has left its ramifications all around the world. People are of the opinion that world has changed its dynamics after 9/11. It has engulfed governments, businesses, different communities and so on.
Foreign policy of every government has changed after 9/11. As America focuses, more on countering terrorism and every country has been made to follow United States as United States is superpower. Nato was forced to act, as constitution of Nato binds its members to defend collectively against the attack on any member state. Third world countries like Afghanistan, Iraq were attacked and Pakistan was threatened after 9/11 to include in War on Terror and was given the option by American officials "either are you with us or against us" forced Pakistani government to follow American policy on War on terror.
There are other several impacts of terrorism on governments of various countries. For according to OECD ( organization for economic cooperation and development) report of 2002 on the economic costs of 9/11, the immediate costs were the 14 billion dollar allocated to private enterprise and 1.5 dollar were allocated to state and government enterprise and 0.7 billion dollar to federal government. Moreover, 11 billion were spent for costs such as cleansing, rescuing and so on. This amount reached to 40 billion dollar of emergency spending ordered by congress on 14th September, 2001.
Incident of 9/11 also caused heavy losses to businesses especially insurance companies. According to OECD report the impacts of international terrorism on insurance market ranges from medium to long-term. As premiums for danger, places have raised and it becomes difficult to obtain insurance for insecure places. Report also claims that immediate impacts of terrorism on insurance market in U.S. were losses that range from 3o billion dollars to 58 billion dollars.
Terrorism also left remnants on individuals. There were much more psychological repercussions on individuals. According to Dr. Michael Williams, the main effect of terrorist attacks is change in spending pattern of population. After 9/11 the immediate response was decline of confidence of individuals and businesses. In the U.S.A. consumer and business surveys showed fall in overall confidence measures. Among other impacts were decrease in demand of tourism and decrease in demand of hotels, restaurants, travel agencies and so on. (Kurgel, 2011)
Impact of Russian revolution and tactics used by Irish army on terrorism
As we discussed earlier that heroes of one nation are terrorists of other nation. Irish republican army developed themselves as nationalist freedom fighters but they were terrorists in the eyes of UK forces. However, no doubt they used terroristic tactics to foster their campaign. The tactics used by Irish republican army had great influence on the nationalist groups in Europe.
Some critics are of the view that it is difficult to separate anarchist movements and nationalist movements of 20th century, as both used the same type of tactics of violence.
Richard Rubenstein says that by looking at anarchist and nationalistic movements, we can observe that both go through same stages of violence. Moreover, he says that moral justification for nationalist and anarchist movements are the same.
Similarly Russian revolution is linked with terrorism primarily use of violence in by the anarchist. People's will was one of the revolutionary groups who used violence to accomplish their tasks. According to Lanquer, the philosophy of anarchist terrorism in Russia was embodied by Sergey Nechaev and Mikhail Bankunin. Both of them spoke of revolt against ruler of that time against Czar. These policies guided the people's will (revolutionary organization) and they murdered the police chief of Moscow and went on a campaign of murder and bombing. Lanquer views that Russian revolution had great impact on later revolutionaries. They sparked violence and assassinations. This movement was copied in much of anarchist movements in Western Europe and created violence.
Ideological terrorism and religious terrorism
Both of the terrorism has basic common instinct of violence. Terrorism in whatever forms it is, it makes no difference between killing innocent people and the culprits. Example of ideological terrorism is Russian revolution, in which the revolutionary organization people's will kill Czar and use violent tactics to propagate their cause. Similarly, in religious terrorism like in today's world for example Al Qaida they don't feel hesitant in killing innocent people like they did on 9/11. Some researchers argue that ideology is important for both ideological terrorism and religious terrorism. Political scientist of University of Chicago Robert Pape argues that Islam has little to do with suicide bombing. He compares terrorism of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam with Islamist suicide bombing as both uses suicide bombing. He says both have common goal to end occupation and they use their desire as a motivational tool to fight against their enemy. Robert pape suggests that root causes should be address to counter terrorism. (fine, 2008)
Weapons of mass destruction and methodologies to protect against WMD
The U.S. has spent large sums in acquiring defenses against nuclear weapons attack. About 5 trillion dollars on deterrence, 1 trillion dollars on bomber and missile defense, and 20 billion dollars on civil defense as of 1996. (Kahn, 2004)
There has been much debate about carrying out preemptive strikes to prevent the development of WMD threats. In 1981, Israel did this against Iraq.
US fears that there are some states who can attack USA or can provide nuclear support to terrorist so USA also plans to do preemptive strikes as Clinton administration did against ALQEDA in Afghanistan and attack Iraq over same philosophy. But up to now most of Americans are of the view that attack on Iraq was USA mistake and similarly most of the Americans of the view that against Afghanistan has too much to USA.
"The Nonproliferation Treaty of 1970, under which approximately180 countries have committed not to get nuclear weapons and to accept International Atomic Energy
Agency investigation of their nuclear activities in exchange for commitments to nuclear disarmament by the U.S., Russia, Britain, France and China;
"The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) of 1993, under which all signatories have agreed to extinction of their chemical weapons by specified dates and to accept inspections of facilities which could produce or are suspected of producing CW; and "The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) of 1972, which put bans biological weapons but without any arrangements for verification and inspection.
Compliance with these commitments has been satisfactory but far from perfect. According to the DoD, in addition to the 8 known nuclear weapon countries, an additional 4 (all parties to the NPT) "have nuclear weapons programs," 13 "have biological weapons," and 16
"have chemical weapons." Attempts have therefore been underway to reinforce the WMD
regimes with agreements between the industrialized and some other countries possessing relevant technologies not to export technologies that could facilitate WMD or long-range missile programs in non-responsible countries. (Kahn, 2004)
The purpose of IAEA is to confirm that nuclear materials do not go out of the hands of declared nuclear states and mainly focuses to eliminate proliferation of nuclear weapons.
There is definitely more commitment is needed from countries all around the world and…