Beliefs In Sikhism And Jainism Essay

Length: 2 pages Sources: 3 Subject: Theology Type: Essay Paper: #82149970 Related Topics: Caste System, Atom, Hinduism, Meditation
Excerpt from Essay :

Jainism Beliefs

Three tier universe

According to Jainism, the universe assumes three levels: lower, middle and upper. Jains regard the universe to be imperishable, unending, and with no Creator. However, certain elements of the universe may alter in due course. The upper level, or 'siddhasila', comprises pure, free souls residing in a permanent state of sheer peace and bliss. The middle level of the universe comprises embodied creatures like humans, animals, plants, and inanimate beings (things), bound by the Law of Karma. The third level (lower world) comprises beings undergoing different phases of punishments, on account of the sins committed by them in their earthly life. After completion of punishment, they go back to the middle world (Jain, 2015).

Jiva and Ajiva

According to Jainism, the entire universe has two independent, unending, imperishable and coexisting parts, namely, Ajiva and Jiva; these are, in some ways, similar to the Samakhya School's concepts of Prakriti and Purusha. Ajiva denotes the motionless and lifeless matter possessing paramanus or atoms and gunas or qualities. Jiva is inferred separately as being, conscious soul and embodied soul. In a living being, Ajiva represents material body, while Jiva represents the soul. Ajiva constitutes the passive element of a being or object, while Jiva constitutes the dynamic element or subject (Jain, 2015).

The souls

Jains envisage a world occupied by countless eternal souls which are in different stages of purity and perfection. Soul represents the fundamental component of consciousness that brings about all experience, as it has the ability ofexperiencing and...


Depending upon their degree of perfection, the religion categorizes the souls. The perpetually perfect and pure souls are labeled'Nityasuddhas', unaffected by karmic inflow. The liberated souls are termed'Muktas', and are released from the birth-death-birth cycle and the tribulations associated with embodiment (Jain, 2015).

Dharma, Adharma, Space & Time

There are two kinds of static matter (ajivadravya), arupa (formless) and rupa (having a form). These are classified further into pudgala, dharma, adharma, time, and space, out of which the first alone has a form that can be recognized via senses; the remaining have no form (Jain, 2015).

Pudgala and The Atomic Theory

Pudgala denotes matter that has form. Jivas' bodies and all planets are composed of pudgala. It possesses specific perceptible forms/shapes, properties and attributes. Jivas experience and perceive it via their senses. It is eternal, though subject to change (Jain, 2015).


In Jainism, Karma represents a sort of pudgalika or matter entering a jiva's body, in accordance with nature of its actions. The entire universe has karmic matter that is capable of altering a jiva's future by flowing into it, giving rise to effects of advantages and drawbacks. Karmic matter resides within a jiva until its cleansing via neutralizing activities (Jain, 2015).


In Jainism, liberation connotes one's soul from physical substance, including karmic substance. For man, it implies release from the birth-death-birth cycle and karmic impurity. Karma joins ajiva with jiva,…

Sources Used in Documents:


Jain, S. (2015).Major Beliefs of Jainism. Retrieved October 16, 2015 from

Library.(n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2015 from


Robinson, B. (2010). Sikhism: Its beliefs, practices, symbol, & names. Retrieved October 16,
2015 from
Study Notes (2012). Retrieved October 16, 2015 from

Cite this Document:

"Beliefs In Sikhism And Jainism" (2015, October 20) Retrieved January 16, 2022, from

"Beliefs In Sikhism And Jainism" 20 October 2015. Web.16 January. 2022. <>

"Beliefs In Sikhism And Jainism", 20 October 2015, Accessed.16 January. 2022,

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