Bradley, Curtis A. And Jack L. Goldsmith "Congressional Authorization and the War on Terrorism," Harvard Law Review 118.2047 (2004): 2047-2133. The author's theory is that the only way to combat terrorism is to understand it.
This article reviews the legal propriety of the United States actions in Iran and Afghanistan in response to the actions of the terrorists. It raises concerns whether the American actions were appropriate and whether actions against terrorist who are unaffiliated with any national authority are legally appropriate. The authors also consider to what extent the U.S. government has authority to detain and try terrorists. After setting the stage on these issues, however, the article goes on to justify the actions of the Bush administration and defend the right of the executive branch to assert the authority of the U.S. military without congressional authority when the circumstances demand it. Further, the authors defend the right of the United States to pursue terrorists in attempt to defend the nation's integrity and safety.
Cassese, Antonio "Terrorism is Also Disrupting Some Crucial Legal Categories of International
Law," European Journal of International Law 12.5 (2001): 993-1001.
Most articles published subsequent to 9/11 addressed the social implications of terrorists' acts and the reactions of governments to those acts. This article, however, addresses how the legal community should adjust to the terrorist acts both from the standpoint of international law and how the United States could legally take offensive actions against the terrorists specifically and the countries harboring the terrorists more generally. The author extensively reviews the legal development of the concept of terrorism and how terrorism has been redefined by changing conditions in the world. The United States' rationalization of self-defense as an explanation for its post 9/11 actions is analyzed from a legal point-of-view.
Crenshaw, Martha "The Psychology of Terrorism," Political Psychology 21.2 (2002): 405-420.
Despite its influence and effect very little study has been done by educated researchers into the concept of terrorism. The author of article theorizes that in order to fully understand the dynamics of terrorism research needs to be initiated that collects relative data and analyses the concept like any other social phenomena. The author is critical of those who view terrorism and terrorist as ...
Cronin, Audrey Kurth "Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism,"
International Security 27.3 (2002): 30-58.
The author of this article examines how globalization, political problems among the Arab nations, and terrorism are related. In doing so, the author theorizes that the United States failure in adjusting to the changes in the world due to globalization and its inconsistent political position in the Middle East has contributed to the growth and success of terrorism. Ms. Cronin theorizes that the American government and its elected and appointed leaders rely too heavily upon dated policies and attitudes that are largely ineffective against terrorism. She advocates that the United States government must develop new and enlightened ideas that balance the new ideas and approaches that are emanating throughout the developing nations. In order to combat terrorism the United States must find a way to connect with the nations responsible for harboring and supporting the terrorist groups. Cronin argues that unless the Unites States develops a new approach to dealing with terrorism and developing nations it is danger of losing its authority in the world.
Enders, Walter and Todd Sandler "Is Transnational Terrorism Becoming More Threatening? A
Time-Series Investigation" The Journal of Conflict Resolution 44.3 (2000): 307-332.
This article precedes the events of 9/11 and provides insight into how terrorism was viewed prior to 9/11. Interestingly, the author makes a point that transnational terrorism had actually decreased subsequent to the end of the cold war period but he also tellingly warns that it remained a significant threat. In the article the authors review three separate incidents of terrorism and analyzes that even though actual incidents have decreased the level of violence has increased. In performing their analysis they forecast that as transnational terrorism has decreased it…
The author's theory is that the only way to combat terrorism is to understand it.
Hezbollah's History, Ideology, Goals And Operational Capabilities The recent wave of anti-American demonstrations in Egypt and the murder of an American ambassador and three embassy staff workers in Libya makes it clear that America's global war on terrorism has simply fueled the growth of numerous terrorist organizations, including Lebanon's Hezbollah. Nevertheless, representatives of Hezbollah argue that they are not a terrorist organization but rather a political party with legitimate goals, while
Hezbollah Augustus Richard Norton's book Hezbollah: A Short History attempts to provide a balanced and nuanced view of the Shiite Islamic organization. Concerned primarily with the issue of self-rule and self-determination within Lebanon -- at least at the time of its founding -- Hezbollah has come to be labeled as a terrorist organization by many world governments, and Norton critically examines this identification and the events and perspectives that have led
Hezbollah is a political organization involved in government affairs in Lebanon. Hezbollah may be militant and violent, but it is a far cry from Al Qaeda because it is part of the establishment in Lebanon. Meanwhile, Al Qaeda is very loosely organized and has splinter groups and radical cells in a number of places around the world. It is not known whether Al Qaeda or Hezbollah have access to WMD,
The basis of this ideology was set by the leader of the Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. It basically strives to promote freedom of the Lebanese from both Israeli occupation, as well as the threat of the Western "imperialism." The most relevant excerpt in the ideology of Hezbollah is presented below: The solution to Lebanon's problems is the establishment of an Islamic republic as only this type of regime can
"In the case of arms trafficking," they advise, "there are arms dealers eager to sell AK-47s to conflict zones all over the world. There are shipping and air transport services willing and able to transport the weapons to warlords who are destabilizing much of West Africa. The warlords trade diamonds for guns, and the arms brokers and transporters in turn launder the diamonds with brokers in Antwerp and deposit
Overall Threat Assessment Literally “the party of God,” Hezbollah has transformed itself from a marginalized radical “clandestine militia” to a “mainstream political party,” (Harik 1). Hezbollah has cells on all inhabited continents, with a particularly sinister presence in Latin America (Byman; Noriega and Cárdenas). Before September 11, Hezbollah was responsible for “more American deaths than any other terrorist organization,” (Byman 54). Its global reach and history of attacks are not the