Cosmic order Design "Our world result super-human intelligent ordering." Defend dispute reference: Bostrom,
Prior to determining an argument for whether or not the world at present is the result of some sort of super-human intelligence (which could take many forms and different manifestations), it is important to denote just what is indicated by the concept of a super-human intelligence. Namely, it is vital to indicate that such an intelligence does not refer to the ecclesiastical or to theology in any sort of way. Although virtually any layman might consider super human intelligence to be a synonym for God, this entity is generally referred to as a force and an eternal, omniscient being beyond human comprehension. The term intelligence, however, distinctly pertains to man and functions at the organism level, and may be used to refer to other species of creatures (such as chimpanzees, aliens, etc.). Once supernatural factors are omitted from the discussion, it becomes fairly clear that there is a plethora of evidence that indicates that the contemporary world (and the historical one, for that matter) is most assuredly not the result of the super-human intelligent ordering. Moreover, there are several works of literature by some of the most noted thinkers on this subject that can readily corroborate this fact.
One of the most popular of such contemporary pundits of the aforementioned thinkers is Nick Bostrom, a Sweidish philosopher. There are several different facets of Bostrom's work that supports the notion that a super-human intelligence is not responsible for the ordering of the world. Ironically, however, Bostrom does not rule out the possibility that such an intelligence can come into existence and can come to mold the planet earth to his, her, or its liking. The subsequent quotation readily confirms this fact. "This paper outlines the case for believing that we will have superhuman artificial intelligence within the first third of the next century" (Bostrom, 1998). What is of particular importance about this quotation is that Bostrom is referring to events that will take place in the future. Although this work of literature was written at the end of the last millennium, it was updated as of last decade. The author is still writing about things that will take place. As such, they have not taken place already, which indicates that at present, super-human intelligence is not ordering or structuring the world -- although the author believes that at some conceivable point in the future it can and will.
There is another very critical point that is readily implied by the supporting evidence mentioned in the subsequent paragraph. Bostrom believes that in the future that some form of a superintelligence can exert its influence over the world at large and many of the things in it. He also believes that it has not happened as of yet. However, there is a line of succession in the ideas and the advancements that take place throughout the world. One arrives at a conclusion only after coming up with evidence that is extremely suggestive of it. If Bostrom believed that in the late 1990's and in the latter years of the last decade that superintelligence was forthcoming, this means that it was also forthcoming during all of the years that preceded his prediction. This rationale is extremely difficult to counter when examined through Bostrom's prediction. If he thinks that superintelligence has yet to manifest, that means that it has not already manifested itself. Thus, the world in all of the years prior to his initial 1998 assertion -- which was re-asserted at the end of last decade -- bereft of the influence of some super-human intelligent ordering. Thus, the world up to these points in time was not structured according to some intelligent, superseding will.
It is important to realize that there is an inherent connection between things and events that hinges upon a temporal basis. What is taking place now, in 2014, is related to that which was planned previously and designed to take place in previous years. One can very easily pose the counterargument that all of a sudden in 2014, for instance, some superintelligence could have sprouted up and caused things to be the way that they are now. Such a supposition, however, is not taking into account the nature of time and of causal relationships. An excellent example of...
If one were to argue that a super-human intelligence had suddenly asserted itself in the few years since Bostrom said that a super-human intelligence was forthcoming and therefore not existent, he or she would have to deal with the fact that many of the events and occurrences taking place now are the natural results of the time period in which there was no super-human intelligence. The current president, for example, was elected in 2012 and is still president now not because of some external machinations, but because of occurrences that took place prior to presence of any superintellgience. There are myriad other examples that prove this fundamental point. It is possible that there is a super-human intelligence existent now, in the few years since Bostrom declared that there was not one. However, the present ordering and structuring of the world is not significantly influenced by it, because it is obviously still significantly influenced by the time period in which Bostrom said such a power was forthcoming.
One must realize the great deal of importance that Bostrom ascribes to nature and its influence on temporal elements as related to the dominion of some form of intelligence that is beyond that of humans ruling the world today. In doing so, the prudent reader will explore outside of the philosopher's writing a as expressly related to superintelligene and explore some of his notions related to human enhancement. Bostrom defines human enhancement as "self-improvement and human perfectibility through ethical application of science" (Sutherland, 2006). Self-improvement and human perfectibility largely occurs in a linear fashion. As such, mankind is still going forward in its desire to create the sort of intelligence that Bostrom believes will one day be able to subjugate the world or at least structure it to the former's liking. Furthermore, as late as 2012 the author believed that a super-human intelligence was still in the process of being developed (Bostrom, 2012, p. 1). As such, it is irrational to believe that this form of intelligence has suddenly usurped control over the earth in less than two years -- especially since many of the dominant powers and socio-economic powers that have a considerable amount of influence before those two years are still asserting their own influence and are arguably in control. There is even evidence that suggests the presence of a superintelligence would be less than beneficent (Danaher, 2012).
The reason that the development of human perfection along a linear time model is so important to understanding Bostrom's ideas which indicate that a super-human form of intelligence has yet to be created that will dominate the world is because the author believes that this creation would verifiably represent the summation of mankind's industrial and technological achievements. The subsequent quotation verifiably demonstrates this fact.
Whether abrupt and singular or more gradual and multipolar, the transition from human-level to superintelligence would be of pivotal significance. Super intelligence would be the last invention biological man would ever need to make, since, by definition, it would be much better at inventing than we are (Anissimov, 2009).
The most salient aspect of this quotation as it applies to the thesis of this paper is the fact that the author terms the creation of superintelligence as a terminal creation of mankind. The implication, of such a statement, of course, is that mankind would no longer make anything else because everything else would be made by this superintelligence. Clearly, such limitations on mankind's creativity have yet to occur, since people and corporations are still building things daily. Additionally, this quotation alludes to the sort of impact that Bostrom predicts such a superintelligence will have. It will be monumental, something that will change the lives of virtually everyone. That sort of change will not occur without people knowing about it, which is why it is safe to assume that it has not taken place yet. Finally, it is noteworthy that the author references "biological man," as though there were any other type. Such a quote suggests that there will be artificially created humans that could possibly result from this intelligence -- which has not happened as of yet.
Although Bostrom believes that mankind will soon be able to develop the technology which enables some sort of super-human intelligence to govern the world or to play a substantive role in the forming of that world and the processes that take place within it, there are other noted philosophers who appear to believe that mankind is limited in its ability to issue creations that can defy nature. In both esteems, then, it is not likely that the world is the…
Thus, counselors have a better idea of where to pinpoint there work within a population setting, if they can identify who exactly is doing what. The example that Gladwell provided of former Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's work in New York City in the mid-1990's also easily lends itself to working as a counselor. It may surprise those that visit the city now, but in the early 1990's New York was fairly