Varnava (2012) commented on the multifaceted intelligence attributes that went into making the construct of British Intelligence gathering in Cyprus, a successful vocation in World War II. This review aims to explore the implications of the role played by local, civil populace in thwarting attempts by military in allowing intelligence inputs through counter-espionage on British and Middle East territories. The review revisits some work on the First World War British efforts on counter espionage measures in Cyprus after 1916. The work will add to the literature on intelligence activities, attempted during the WW1 (Varnava, 2012).
According to Constantinou's (2013) paper, the role played by diplomatic strategies that extrapolates intelligence-gathering process makes it successful. Diplomacy is a means of making skilled, persistent advocacy towards obtaining solutions of complex situations. It fails to make most of its capabilities. The epistemology (of diplomacy) in the context of humanism, above the dimension of intelligence construct is explored in this paper in the backdrop of history and its functionalities. Diplomacy can be more than mere covenants of adopted policies and conveyances of strategies. Diplomacy can instead, be more proactive (by assimilating the currents and thoughts from the populace up to the echelons and making a case for the larger percepts that matter more immediately to the concerns of the common understanding) (Constantinou, 2013).
Giglio (2013) points out how America's CIA could be adopting self-defeating methods in their pursuit of intelligence gathering. He emphasizes on their folly of deploying only men in their ventures. In the article, he has brought out the fact that the rebels against Assad had started questioning the integrity of CIA to their cause. Similar to what had happened in Iraq, those putting their faith in American support felt betrayed. The meetings like those in Gaziantep do not go farther than using the rebels as tools for information. The turn of events in the intensified campaign against Assad needed the international community to help the rebels by supplying them with arms and ammunitions and no-fly zones. However, according to an article that appeared in The New York Times, the undeclared intention of the American government was to keep them (the rebels) out of the American Army's way in their fight against Assad. That posture was underlined by CIA's preference to help some selected rebel groups. Such posturing was in contradiction to the public stance taken by the U.S.- that of helping the rebels dethrone Assad's regime (Giglio, 2013).
Sepper (2010), opines that intelligence gathering requires efficient network formation as well as committed interpersonal relationship. According to him, mutual faith and trust play an important role in the process of gathering intelligence inputs. The article goes on to explain the building up of effective networks based on personal relationship with allies living in other nations in the construct of intelligence-gathering. The workings of the networks and inputs from counterparts and informants have been studied in this article. The factors and impact of such intelligence measures in the democratic societies can be understood only by studying the methodology adopted by such jointly operated networks amongst countries. The intelligence networks are informal and flexible, in addition to being secretive about their existence and actions. The networks are guided by unwritten codes of conduct and follow ethics of their own. Professionalism is the hallmark of such ethos. There are instances when such ethics are overridden by ruthless overtures and professionalism suffers. Such instances, where certain intelligence services act on their own, often put serious constraints on the liberty of an individual. In democracies that most of the world lives in today, such autonomous behavior can put a question mark on personal liberty. The author suggests certain legal enactments to control and make the intelligence services more accountable. That would make the functioning of the democracy more meaningful for the individuals in the intelligence network (Sepper, 2010).
Svendsen (2011) observes that nowadays intelligence gathering is using technology increasingly in contemporary times and that increasing number of women are taking to education. Intelligence gathering could hence deploy more women in the construct of intelligence services to make it more efficient. The campaigning for NATO is seen as a success of intelligence gathering process in Libya to gain functional and strategic success. The events and functions by intelligence agencies in these endeavors need to be analyzed to the subject of deployment of women and technology mix, and this forms the basis of the present work. To take the work forward in intelligence structure, this work in Libya, engaged by co-operation of intelligence services, makes for an important study. Such a study becomes all the more relevant as the variety of problems and parameters (present in the context of Libya) have been overcome to ensure the success of the well-coordinated intelligence operation amongst different agencies. Libya intelligence operation consists of both human (HUMINT) as well as technological (TECHINT) dimensions and the author analyses both these percepts in this article (Svendsen, 2011).
Mulley (2014) has provided information about the adventures of eight British spies (all females) in World War ll. They are not incognito anymore. The biographies of women (Pearl Witherington, Violette Szabo, Christine Granville and Eileen and Jacqueline Nearne, the sisters), in these activities, jointly the roles of British Special Operations Executive (SOE) and OSS, are available for public consumption. The work and life of Granville, Noor Inayat Khan have also been documented in the last few years. SOE Noreen Riols, a veteran, questioned the secondary status given to women agents in intelligence services. The observation was made in light of the fact that the male and female agents undergo same training in this field as opposed to any other profession. She stated that such discrimination is uncalled for, at the RAF, Tempsford memorial unveiling ceremony. In the treatise, there is bemusement about the agents chosen to introduce the world of women intelligence agents. Though the assorted collection of women in the espionage and intelligence domain is eclectic (ranging from famed Odette Sansom and Violette Szabo to the largely unknown Diana Rowden and Sonya Butt), the role of more recent women spies is not included (Mulley, 2014).
Zabecki (2008) has written an article exclusively to highlight the contribution of one of the most notable American women spies, Virginia Hall. Two women spies find special mention in the American spy history- Virginia Hall and Mary Edwards Walker, the latter decorated with the Medal of Honor, serving in her capacity as medical surgeon in the civil war and more widely known than the former. Though Virginia Hall was conferred with much more highly rated DSC (Distinguished Service Cross), it is not a household name. She served as an undercover agent in two capacities- first as an agent under SOE (the British Special Operations Executive, in France) and followed it up by working under OSS (U.S. Office of Strategic Services).
An interesting article by war veterans documents the effectiveness of women as spies during the WWII. The American Office of Strategic Services (OSS) (attached to the 36th Infantry division) was tasked with recruiting spies, with actually an open invitation to all who sought to volunteer as spies. There was no specific training that turned common citizenry into spies in those days. The adaptability and presence of mind was trusted to deal with the situation to extract information that would be useful to the army. The women volunteers were recruited, briefed, and expected to infiltrate enemy ranks. Most women came from the FFI (Free French Intelligence) as the Frenchmen were courageous and spirited. Their hate for the enemy made them take enormous risks. Also, women attracted less suspicion and, as such made excellent spies (Nelson, 1997).
Lake (2012), in an article writes about many woman spies that worked in WWII in different capacities, times and zones. In a first, "Jen" a 'revelation' by Mark Owen, one of the 'seals' that exterminated Osama bin Laden states that the intelligence analyst of the mission that undertook the whole operation was a woman. This article dwells on some of the female spies and their contributions (Lake, 2012).
Lownie (2013) revisits the remarkable life of Christine Granville. The passionate woman chose to forsake the safety and luxury afforded by being a diplomat's wife for trying to stop the advance of the Nazi army in Europe. The article traces her life right from a wild childhood to her violent execution. It is vivid in its details of the many paramours in her life, daring exploits, and its culmination in being stalked, discovered and murdered eventually. She was an SOE recruit and it is only recently that all her adventures have been made public (Lownie, 2013).
STEP 6: Organization of Evaluated Research
The post-9/11 counterterrorism methodology was driven by intelligence, and governed and supervised by networks of intelligence agencies. Such offices had always partnered with organizations across borders and the networking would only grow with many surprising elements in their quest. The range and mode of intelligence gathering has only increased, if anything. Even after a decade, the networking keeps…
Sources Used in Document:
Alfonso, K.L. (2010). Femme fatale 2010. AIR AND SPACE POWER JOURNAL MAXWELL AFB AL.
Blair, J. (2011). Hesitation kills: A female Marine officer's combat experience in Iraq. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Carreiras, H. (2006). Gender and the military: Women in the armed forces of western democracies. Routledge.