Development Of Probation And Parole In US Essay

Length: 2 pages Sources: 2 Subject: Criminal Justice Type: Essay Paper: #24598160 Related Topics: Probation, Parole, Augustus, Juvenile Probation
Excerpt from Essay :

History Of Probation and Parole

The modern day probation and parole has its roots in the English criminal law during the middle ages. During this time, harsh punishments were handed down to offenders indiscriminately; both adults and children were punished alike. There were cases of flogging, mutilation, branding, and even execution as forms of punishment. These were deemed too harsh punishments and created discontent hence other alternative methods like buying Royal pardon were introduced. Activist judges also started applying some of the most lenient punishments within the provision of the law as a way of giving the offenders reprieve. With time, the courts started using the method of 'binding over for good behavior' which was a temporary release during which the offenders were allowed to push for lesser sentences of pardon. At this point, though in a controversial environment, some courts began suspending the sentences.

The trend radically changed in 1841 when John Augustus, who is considered the...

...

Upon securing his bail, the drunkard was ordered to return for sentencing in three weeks time. Augustus worked with the drunkard and upon retuning for the sentencing, the judge was pleased at how transformed the common drunkard was. This started the 18-year career in probation volunteering by Augustus and he not only worked with drunkards but several other types of offenders. He provided bail for hundreds of offenders and worked with them to reform them, which proved a big success with only 10 offenders out of 1,946 forfeiting their bonds, a big success my any measure. Consequently, the first probation statute was enacted in Massachusetts in 1859. After this, probation spread gradually throughout the U.S. The establishment of the juvenile courts in 1899 in Chicago saw the establishment of probation as part of the correction efforts in all the juvenile courts hence increasing the popularity of the courts. This developed to the current provision of all courts having probation for both children and adults (NYC Department of Probation, 2015).

The trend of the current probation officers working closely with the offenders with the aim of helping tem reform out of the jails and integration into the community traces its history to 1870 when Frederick Reiner donated 5 shillings to the Church of England to help in breaking the cycle of offence after the other and subsequent sentencing after another.…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

NYC Department of Probation, (2015). History of Probation. Retrieved June 29, 2015 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/prob/html/about/history.shtml

Portland State University, (2015). Prison overcrowding is a growing concern in the U.S. Retrieved June 29, 2015 from http://online.ccj.pdx.edu/resources/news-articles/prison-overcrowding-is-a-growing-concern-in-the-u-s/

The Probation Association, (2014). History of Probation. Retrieved June 29, 2015 from http://www.probationassociation.co.uk/about-us/history-of-probation.aspx

Walshe S., (2015). Probation and parole: a study in criminal justice dysfunction. Retrieved June 29, 2015 from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/cifamerica/2012/apr/26/probation-parole-study-dysfunction


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