Multiple Personality Disorder The First Term Paper

Length: 3 pages Sources: 5 Subject: Psychology Type: Term Paper Paper: #57887587 Related Topics: Dissociative Identity Disorder, Personality Disorders, Hypnosis, Personality
Excerpt from Term Paper :

In the whole history of the world less than 200 cases were reported. Beginning about 1980, however, a skyrocketing epidemic of multiple personality disorder occurred amounting to tens of thousands of cases. Psychologists such as Greaves (1980) and Bliss (1980) estimated as many as 10% of Americans were suffering from the disorder (newly named Dissociative Identity Disorder). The literature swelled with articles, for example, "Multiple Personalities: A report of 14 Cases with Implications for Schizophrenia and Hysteria" by Eugene L. Bliss (1980) in which he stated that when he started to seek "candidates" (people with MPD) he discovered "that these problems are not uncommon -- I had simply missed them in the past. In the last year, I have seen and studied 14 cases, and they continue to appear with remarkable frequency" (p. 1388).

In another article, "Multiple Personality 165 Years after Mary Reynolds" by George B. Greaves (1980), Greaves states, "...the alter selves in multiple personality first arise as dissociative defenses against trauma, under specific circumstances, followed by repression of the trauma. Following such dissociation(s), the individual is left to cope with his or her environment in an impaired way" (p. 583). A very lucrative and burgeoning industry built up around the illness. Treatment for it is lengthy and often involves long hospitalizations costing more than a million dollars sometimes (if the patient has good enough insurance).

In an article titled "Multiple Personality Disorder: Witchcraft Survives in the Twentieth Century," August Piper Jr. blows a whistle, so to speak. He points out some troubling questions. For example, early reports discussed the presence of one or two alternate personalities, while recent reports talk about hundreds (even thousands) of "alters." The alters of early cases were ordinary human beings, but in recent cases alters include animals, demons, Mr. Spock, and Mutant Teenage Ninja Turtles. Some clinicians believe the increased number of cases is due to improved assessment and diagnosis, but Piper (1998) believes...

...

Piper reasons that clinicians looking for multiple personalities are producing it through suggestive questioning ("Is there a side of you I haven't seen yet?"), prompting and hypnosis. Some practitioners, for example, hold "board meetings" under hypnosis, to which all the alters are invited to come and discuss the patient's problems.

Perhaps most compelling is the fact that patients don't present with symptoms of the disorder. Symptoms don't appear until after treatment begins. This points to an iatrogenic illness; that is, brought about by the treatment. This doesn't make it less real, but it does suggest that the epidemic has been created rather than discovered. Piper points out there is no consensus or definition of an "alter personality." MPD enthusiasts find multiple personalities in people whose closest relatives have never seen any evidence of it. They find them in patients who come for other psychiatric problems and have "no overt signs" of MPD. Piper also challenges the belief that MPD is caused by childhood abuse. Frequently the reports of abuse are highly improbable and unverified -- such as a patient who claimed to have seen a baby "barbecued alive at a family picnic in a city park" (p. 54) Another patient claimed repeated sexual assaults by "a lion, a baboon, and other zoo animals in her parents' back yard -- in broad daylight. (it should be mentioned that both therapists in these cases are prominent MPD adherents and neither appeared to have any difficulty believing these allegations)" (Piper, 1998, p. 54).

Something that seems to support Piper's argument is the fact that Mary Reynolds, who was not treated for her disorder, got better -- the happier, more witty, outgoing "second state" became her permanent self. How many "alters" might a modern psychotherapist have found? And would the outcome have been as good?

References

Bliss, E.L. (1980). Multiple personalities: A report of 14 cases with implications for schizophrenia and hysteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1 388-1398.

Greaves, G.B. (1980). Multiple personality 165 years after Mary Reynolds. The Journal of Nervous and Mental…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Bliss, E.L. (1980). Multiple personalities: A report of 14 cases with implications for schizophrenia and hysteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1 388-1398.

Greaves, G.B. (1980). Multiple personality 165 years after Mary Reynolds. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168 (1), 577-594.

Piper, a. (1998). Multiple personality disorder: Witchcraft survives in the twentieth century. Skeptical Inquirer, 22 (3), 44-65.

Taylor, W.S. And Martin, M.F. (1944). Multiple personality. Psychology Abnormal and Social, 39, 281-300.


Cite this Document:

"Multiple Personality Disorder The First" (2007, April 10) Retrieved July 31, 2021, from
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/multiple-personality-disorder-the-first-38694

"Multiple Personality Disorder The First" 10 April 2007. Web.31 July. 2021. <
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/multiple-personality-disorder-the-first-38694>

"Multiple Personality Disorder The First", 10 April 2007, Accessed.31 July. 2021,
https://www.paperdue.com/essay/multiple-personality-disorder-the-first-38694

Related Documents
Arguments for and Against Multiple Personality Disorders
Words: 2293 Length: 8 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 77942011

Multiple Personality Disorders Introduction Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) is a mysterious condition and remains controversial. Biological psychiatrists who use medication for treatment claim that MPD in most cases, is non-existent. However, it is iatrogenic, in cases where it does exist. In other words, they mean that the condition is created by therapists who train their patients to view their symptoms as though they carry a separate set of personalities. Nevertheless, specialized clinicians

Personality Disorders and Drug Disorders
Words: 1958 Length: 7 Pages Topic: Sports - Drugs Paper #: 58062029

Therefore, it is likely that "men who are highly comorbid for antisocial PD and alcohol and drug use disorders are more likely to die young or be incarcerated than women and thus less likely to be represented in general population surveys." (Grant et al., 2006, p. 128). However, because incarcerated or dead men do not present for treatment, these findings are still of use to the practitioner. Conclusion Both articles do

Pharmacological Treatment Multiple Personality or Dissociative Disorder...
Words: 1886 Length: 7 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 14430740

Pharmacological Treatment Multiple personality or dissociative disorder is an exceptionally uncommon mental disorder in which an individual has two or more different personalities. Each of these personalities has unique characteristics such as mind-set, emotions behavioral patterns. Frequently, the personalities are totally differing and take over the real individual at unusual times. This transition takes place in sudden switches when the patient is triggered by painful events or miserable reminiscences. Each personality

Borderline Personality Disorder Definitions and
Words: 12483 Length: 45 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 99227756

32) The overall diagnostic and symptomatic patterns described by these points indicate that BPD is a serious disorder and is "...classified as a major personality disorder involving dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior; intense, unstable moods and relationships; chronic anger; and substance abuse." (Boucher, 1999, p. 33) There are a number of criteria which, in line with DSM-IV, are used to identify and characterize this disorder. The first of these criteria refers

Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Words: 1449 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 97896399

Narcissistic Personality Disorder This is one of the very rare kinds of personality disorders that can be traced within the contemporary society. Indeed Philip W. Long (2011) pegs the prevalence to 1% of the total population. He further notes that the disorder is more prevalent in males than in females. People falling under this category generally have a weird feeling that the world generally revolves around them and their needs. These categories

Personality Assessment Instruments Millon, Rorschach
Words: 2270 Length: 7 Pages Topic: Psychology Paper #: 32945520

This 14-year-old male is currently in the ninth grade. In the demographic portion of the test, he identifies "restless/bored" as the problem that is troubling him the most. A tendency toward avoiding self-disclosure is evident in this adolescent's response style. This nondisclosure may signify characterological evasiveness or an unwillingness to divulge matters of a personal nature, problematic or not. Also possible are broad deficits in introspectiveness and psychological-mindedness, owing