Specifically stated by Hasselbring and Glaser is that Characteristics of E-Learning
"...two general types of communication disorders qualify a student for special education services: speech disorders and language disorders. A speech disorder occurs when the speaker's articulation, voice quality, or fluency patterns impair the listener's ability to understand the intent of the speaker. A language disorder occurs when either the sender or the receiver of the message is unable to use the sounds, signs, or rules of the communication language. The U.S. Department of Education data indicate that more than 20% of all students with disabilities have speech or language disorders. Consequently, technology addressing the needs of students with communication disorders could assist a significant proportion of students with disabilities to interact more normally within the classroom." (2000)
Communication technology advances have resulted in specialized devices being created and specifically "augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices" that enable individuals with no or poor speech to overcome their problems with effective communication. AAC systems are quite varied in terms of their "portability, complexity, input method, vocabulary representation forma and means of output delivery." (Hasselbring and Glaser, 2000) The appropriate system may be selected through matching it with the student's needs and capabilities.
V. Benefits of Social Learning Derived from E-Learning
The work of Cilesiz (2009) entitled: "Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafe" states that computer use is "a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential." Cilesiz reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey for the purpose of understanding and describing "...the phenomenon in depth and arrive at the essence of adolescents' experiences with the phenomenon." (2009)
It is reported that data were collected through series of in-depth phenomenological interviews with six adolescents" and data analysis was conducted through use of phenomenal analysis. Stated results include "potential benefits of Internet cafes as specific social leisure contexts of educational computer use for ...
The work of Conole (2005) entitled: "E-Learning: Research Methodological Issues" states that the impact of e-learning takes place at the organizational level through virtual learning environments and with the use of interactive and engage materials. E-learning is characterized by:
(1) new forms of learning;
(2) pedagogical re-engneering;
(3) rich multimedia representation;
(4) materials for learning that are adaptable and personalized;
(5) learning anywhere at anytime; and (6) learning in a global and connected society. (Conole, 2005)
The negative aspects are stated to include those of:
(1) patch use of communication tools which stilts collaborations;
(2) VLEs for administration and as content repositories;
(3) information overload; and (4) lack of being pedagogically informed. (Conole, 2005)
The positive aspects of e-learning stated by Conole are those of:
(1) a critical mass of mediating tools and resources;
(2) a shift from individual to socially situated;
(3) learning in context or through problem-solving; and (4) new innovative uses of e-learning. (Conole, 2005)
Summary and Conclusion
This work has reviewed various sources that describe e-learning, e-learning models and the characteristics of e-learning. As well this work has reviewed the negative and positive aspects of e-learning. E-learning is a fairly new pedagogical tool and one that will require much research for the purpose of determining its effectiveness and efficacy in learning and instruction initiatives.
Cilesiz, S.. (2009). Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes. American Educational Research Journal, 46(1), 232-274. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1655851831).
Margie K. Shields, & Richard E. Behrman. (2000). Children and computer technology: Analysis and Recommendations. The Future of Children, 10(2), 4-30. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 71981209).
Margolis, L., Grediagin, A., Koenig, C., & Sanders, L.. (2009). Effectiveness and Acceptance of Web-Based Learning Compared to Traditional Face-to-Face Learning for Performance Nutrition Education. Military Medicine, 174(10), 1095-1099. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 1884841471).
Ted S. Hasselbring, & Candyce H. Williams Glaser. (2000). Use of computer technology to help students with special needs. The Future of Children, 10(2), 102-122. Retrieved November 6, 2009,…
Characteristics of E-Learning
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, & Pivec, M. (2003). A Multimedia Knowledge Module Virtual Tutor Fosters Interactive Learning. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 14(2), 231. This work demonstrates an example of how software can and has been developed to be interactive in the learning process, and especially good for tutoring individuals on concepts they have previously been challenged by. The authors are both international educators from Austria reviewing emerging developments in elearning technology through the
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462). The pattern of adjusting to the feelings and needs of the advisor rather than the advisor adjusting to meet the needs of the advisee is seen repeatedly in the different types of relationships between women who are pursuing doctoral studies on college campuses and their female advisors. One type of advisor was described as an iron maiden, while the advisee assumed the role of handmaiden. In this type of