¶ … child refuses to take a nap, punishment is one option of creating the desired behavior. A parent may rely on several classical behavioral learning techniques to gradually encourage the child to nap. The technique of punishment is one of many methods of reinforcement, based on basic operant conditioning and behaviorism. Other forms of punishment that do not involve physical spankings or other types of physical torment include verbal admonishments.
With punishment, an aversive stimulus is added to decrease the behavior (Heffner, n.d.). The idea is that the subject associates the undesirable behavior with negative consequences and therefore avoids that behavior in the future. If it is applied immediately and directly after the behavior is exhibited, and applied consistently and clearly after each instance, punishment may be effective.
However, punishment can also lead to suppressed emotions like anger or resentment, and may create other undesirable behaviors if not used properly (Heffner, n.d.). Therefore, the punishment for not taking a nap must be consistent and appropriate. Examples of types of punishments that may be used when the child is not taking a nap include corporal punishments like spanking, or making the child do chores. Corporal punishment can easily cross over into physical...
Extinction is a type of punishment response, only instead of adding an undesirable stimulus to the situation, extinction involves taking something away. For example, if the child refuses to take a nap, the parent could take away the child's favorite toys or games. To implement this extinction procedure most effectively, the toys or games need to be taken away immediately following the child's verbal refusal to take a nap. One method would be to take away one toy at a time, or one privilege at a time and to let the child know that the privilege or toy will be reintroduced willingly after a nap. To further reinforce the napping behavior, the parent could also model the desired behavior by taking a nap.
Some punishments bear qualities of both extinctions and negative punishments such as ignoring the child. A "time out" is also a form of extinction that serves also as punishment. The child is temporarily deprived of human interaction: something that is both taking away a pleasurable item but also introducing the potentially negative stimulus of being alone. Some children will react…
Other forms of punishment that do not involve physical spankings or other types of physical torment include verbal admonishments.
Against Spanking as a Way of Disciplining Children Spanking is a subject that has sparked controversy for a long time. The debate has been raging in academic circles, among caregivers and psychologists alike. The idea of spanking is blended with cultural views, religious beliefs, laws imposed by government and a myriad of other factors. The practice of spanking has immense effects that are both psychological and physical. The issue of
Child Abuse: Child Abuse Reporting Describe some questions or observations you might make to determine if a child abuse report is in order The California Child Abuse Reporting Law imposes upon mandated reporters a duty to make immediate reports to the relevant agencies in case they suspect or are aware of a neglectful or abusive situation involving a child in their care or one that they interact with in the course of
Relying too much upon discipline create resentment in the mind and heart of the child because it is punitive, blatantly telling the child he or she is wrong (however lovingly) and does not solicit input from the child. It is also highly individualized in nature, which can make the child feel (rightly or wrongly) that he or she is being singled out and treated unfairly by an authority figure. Management Group management
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim. Sexual
Parenting Styles: In psychology, parenting styles can be described as mental constructs that represent typical strategies used by parents in child rearing. Generally, many parents tend to develop their own strategies through a mixture of factors, which emerge over time as children move across various stages of life and develop their own personalities. In essence, parenting styles are influenced by the personalities of parents and children but are largely influenced by
Child Abuse and Corporal Punishment 1. According to Barnett et al. (2011), there are mild to serious traumatic brain injuries that could result from the violent shaking of an infant. The shaken baby syndrome, as the authors point out, is one such traumatic brain injury. On the other hand, Munchausen by Proxy could be described as yet another form of child abuse in which case a caregiver falsifies symptoms (psychological or