How To Discipline A Child Term Paper

Length: 2 pages Sources: 2 Subject: Children Type: Term Paper Paper: #6890436 Related Topics: Spanking, Discipline, Positive Reinforcement, Positive And Negative Reinforcement
Excerpt from Term Paper :

¶ … child refuses to take a nap, punishment is one option of creating the desired behavior. A parent may rely on several classical behavioral learning techniques to gradually encourage the child to nap. The technique of punishment is one of many methods of reinforcement, based on basic operant conditioning and behaviorism.

With punishment, an aversive stimulus is added to decrease the behavior (Heffner, n.d.). The idea is that the subject associates the undesirable behavior with negative consequences and therefore avoids that behavior in the future. If it is applied immediately and directly after the behavior is exhibited, and applied consistently and clearly after each instance, punishment may be effective.

However, punishment can also lead to suppressed emotions like anger or resentment, and may create other undesirable behaviors if not used properly (Heffner, n.d.). Therefore, the punishment for not taking a nap must be consistent and appropriate. Examples of types of punishments that may be used when the child is not taking a nap include corporal punishments like spanking, or making the child do chores. Corporal punishment can easily cross over into physical...

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Other forms of punishment that do not involve physical spankings or other types of physical torment include verbal admonishments.

Extinction is a type of punishment response, only instead of adding an undesirable stimulus to the situation, extinction involves taking something away. For example, if the child refuses to take a nap, the parent could take away the child's favorite toys or games. To implement this extinction procedure most effectively, the toys or games need to be taken away immediately following the child's verbal refusal to take a nap. One method would be to take away one toy at a time, or one privilege at a time and to let the child know that the privilege or toy will be reintroduced willingly after a nap. To further reinforce the napping behavior, the parent could also model the desired behavior by taking a nap.

Some punishments bear qualities of both extinctions and negative punishments such as ignoring the child. A "time out" is also a form of extinction that serves also as punishment. The child is temporarily deprived of human interaction: something that is both taking away a pleasurable item but also introducing the potentially negative stimulus of being alone. Some children will react…

Sources Used in Documents:

References

Beck, H.P. (2001). General psychology. Retrieved online: http://www1.appstate.edu/~beckhp/reinforcementdefinitions.htm

"Corporal Punishment: Key Issues," (n.d.) Australian Institute of Family Studies. Retrieved online: https://aifs.gov.au/cfca/publications/corporal-punishment-key-issues

Heffner, C.L. (n.d.). Reinforcement and reinforcement schedules. AllPsych. Retrieved online: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/reinforcement/#.VdtPE9OrSRs


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