Non-experimental research designs is a type of study that is essentially uncontrolled. The research has little to no ability to influence the variables at work, and therefore the research cannot be considered a controlled experiment. There are several types of non-experimental research designs, including correlational, descriptive and historical.
Different Types of Non-Experimental Research
The different types of non-experimental research are bound by the fact that in all cases, the researcher has no ability to control the variables. This contrasts with research where the researcher does control the variables in order to test the influence of one or more variables on the outcomes. Non-experimental research also implies that there are a wider range of outcomes than might be tested for in experimental research, where there is typically a narrow null hypothesis and any results not confirming that will result in a rejection of the null hypothesis.
But the different types of non-experimental research are otherwise quite a bit different from each other, as the antelope and the whale are both in the mammal kingdom but otherwise quite distinct species. Correlational research is the most similar to experimental research, where the researcher is looking for correlations between the variables. The difference, however, is that the researcher has no control over...
A good example would be to examine the correlation between weather and some outcome -- say the success of the corn crop. The researcher cannot control the key dependent variable, the weather, but still wants to establish whether there is a correlation between warmer weather and sweeter corn (or whatever). The researcher takes care to measure the two variables, but cannot control either, and is simply seeking evidence of correlation.
Descriptive research seeks to describe what is happening. This form of non-experimental research may involve a correlation, perhaps at a starting point, but it might not. Descriptive research, as the name implies, seeks to describe what is happening. An example might be a research project to determine what happens to ex-cons with addiction problems when they return to the community in a halfway house. You could run that as a correlational study, or you could simply describe a set of anecdotes and try to draw some conclusions about the effectiveness of the halfway house program from there. Such descriptive studies could be compared with other similar studies to increase knowledge about the subject matter.
Historical studies focus on gather information from the past and analyzing it. Again, this could be correlational in nature, or it could be descriptive. The difference…
E., contemporary or historical issues (Eisenhardt 1989; in Naslund, 2005); (3) the extent of control required over behavioral events in the research context (Yin 1994; as cited in Naslund, 2005); and (4) the researcher's philosophical stance, i.e., his/her understanding of the nature of social reality and how knowledge of that reality can be gained. (Naslund, 2005) Naslund (2005) states that qualitative research methods "primarily create meanings and explanations to research phenomena" and
Causation cannot be inferred from non-experimental designs, only relationships. This type of design allows researchers to observe how certain factors co-exist in a natural environment, without any experimental intervention. This allows researchers a first step in testing hypotheses and theories as to what causes a certain phenomenon. When a study is lacking in internal validity, it means that confounding variables within the study were not successfully eliminated. In other words,
Experimental Research Methods in Business Experimental Research Methods The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of
Experimental Study Design and Intention to Treat Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) association with HIV Infection in Gay Men The population for this research will comprise of persons enrolled in one out of five CPCRA (Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS) studies at sixteen CPCRA facilities across America. The five researches will take the form of four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for antiretroviral (ARV) therapy strategies and one natural history analysis of
Both qualitative and quantitative research methods have the potential to yield reliable, valid, and important information that can be used to inform public policy. Criminal justice researchers use a wide range of research methods, which vary depending on the research questions, the purpose of the study (applied versus pure research) and the overall paradigm and theoretical framework. Research can be used to validate or disprove an existing theory, alter or
By performing a test aimed at determining the statistical significance of the coefficients. EG - on page 612, the author's direct explanation of her findings is. Before you explain what is meant by these coefficients, please explain what is a "direct explanation." I thought all explanations are direct. Without considering the mediation variables. 5.4c. On page 609, the author states that she included variables because she needed to control their effects. In this context,