School Retention Vs. Social Promotion Term Paper


Experience with the two aspects that are being studied, school retention and social promotion, are important for this study. Therefore these strategies will help to recognize the extent to which their experience provides insights to the responses they provide Hodges, Kuper, & Reeves, 2008() These two methods are also in depth analytic processes and will help the researcher to detect the main themes in the responses and how they are influenced by their experience with the aspects being studied. Though both methods greatly rely on the speech of the respondents as the major source of data, there are reasons why the two methods are chosen. These are that they involve critical thinking since the researcher is required to understand how experience comes into play in the responses. Therefore it helps to make the resulting analysis to be as thorough as possible.

Validity and reliability of data collection and analysis

Since the study uses the case study methodology, it is important that the validity and reliability of the data collected is ensured. In order to ensure the validity of the study, it will be important for the data that is collected to be verified. One way of ensuring this is member checks. Once the data is collected, coded and analyzed using content analysis, it will be important for independent observers or the actual respondents of the data to cross check the analyzed data to the collected data. This will ensure the validity and...


This means that data will be collected from other sources in order to check whether they relate to the data collected and analyzed in this study. It will also mean that in the analysis stage, similar steps of content analysis to those that are used in the other studies or sources of data are employed in order to compare the data effectively.
Validity and reliability of the data analysis methods can also be ensured by changing reliability to inter-coder reliability Neuendorf, 2002.

This is done by having several coders who do the actual analysis of the data then compare their results. Any discrepancies that arise in their data analysis procedures or results can then be resolved by discussion.

Sources Used in Documents:


Babbie, R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. Wadsworth: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Hodges, B.D., Kuper, a., & Reeves, S. (2008). Discourse analysis. BMJ, 337. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a879

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Neuendorf, K.A. (2002). The Content Analysis Guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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