Sociobiology offers an evolutionary approach to human behavior and psychology. The fundamental tenet of sociobiology is that psychological traits have adaptive functions and are often embedded in DNA. Psychological traits, like physical features, are passed down through the generations. Some traits will manifest with greater likelihood than others, and thus, traits evolve in a process of natural selection. The intellectual roots of sociobiology stem from the theory of evolution in biology, as well as from sociology and anthropology. The study of sociobiology originated with Wilson, who also refers to the field as behavioral ecology (Driscoll, 2013; Wilson, 2000). Methodologies include biological and genetics research, as well as the methods of data collection employed in the social sciences such as observation. To avoid complications with longitudinal studies and long-range data collection, sociobiologists use frequency models including those...
Thus, sociobiology is more akin to sociology and anthropology than to psychology. Although sociobiology relies heavily on empirical research in the field of genetics, the study of human behavior in social systems requires observational data and approaches that more closely resemble anthropology than biology. Furthermore, sociobiology can be applied to the non-human animal kingdom as well as to humans (Driscoll, 2013). Special attention may be paid to non-human primates, but sociobiology equally applies to members of other species. Thus, the field of sociobiology can complement zoology.
The strengths of sociobiology are its flexibility and interdisciplinary applications. It attempts to ground its theories in evidence, preferring quantitative data and eschewing qualitative data. Its weaknesses include the occasional reliance on speculative or projective data, and an association with "pop sociobiology" that may diminish the credibility of the field (Driscoll, 2013). Moreover, it proves difficult to develop a cohesive theory of human sociology and psychology that ignores the value of qualitative analysis.
From an ethical standpoint, there may also be a tendency for sociobiology to present a deterministic view of human behavior that is focused overly much on the past, rather than focused on proactive solution to current human problems. Moreover, sociobiology veers toward absolute materialism in that behaviors like altruism or emotions like love are explained solely in terms of their biological or functional relevance. One of the reasons Wilson (2000) offers for the lack of reciprocal altruism in the animal kingdom is that animal relationships are "not sufficiently enduring" to enable the usefulness of the trait; and yet altruism in the midst of unfortunate human…
Scientific Approaches to Hookup Culture On a practically day-to-day basis we are swamped with tales about the collapse of the current star marital relationship-- and cheating is usually the source of those who choose to separate. Is it even possible for 2 individuals to remain together gladly over a prolonged time frame? Since early evolution day, we've been informed that sexual monogamy comes normally to our types. However it does not
Unlike hardcore altruism, no assumption of relatedness is necessary. Soft-core altruism is directed beyond kin as a simple exchange of favors. (Gachter & Falk, 2002, pp1-25) Unlike hardcore altruism, the soft-core variety is less firmly triggered by the spontaneous calculus of the genes and more "deeply influenced by the vagaries of cultural evolution. (Yamagishi, 1992, pp267-87) Unlike the hardcore species in which the altruistic act is genuinely directed at
human personality is a complex process that has been tackled by a number of great psychologists, each with important contributions. Each theory outlined below offers something new to the study of personality, and as such, I feel that any "ultimate" theory of personality must try to incorporate the best parts of each theory. Gordon Allport, along with Maslow and Rogers was one of the early humanists. He argued that the
Till the period up to 11,000 BC every individuals remained Stone Age hunters/gatherers. Nearly that time, the roads of growth of human societies on various continents started to move away in a large scale. (Guns, Germs, and Steel- the Fates of Human Societies: (www.2think.org) During that period, when Stone Age hunter-gatherers comprised the total human population, a big segregation happened in the proportion that the human societies progressed. In
As this meme passed down through generations, it became more pervasive and it also became more complete. When slavery in the New World began, both blacks and whites were enslaved, black slaves could gain freedom, and slavery was not a condition of birth. However, as that changed, the memes surrounding African-Americans also changed. Not only were blacks seen as not equal to whites, but they were seen as incapable
Kin Selection The organization and functioning of human and animal societies has long been the subject of intense investigations by natural scientists, sociologists and geneticists. Darwin, who laid the foundation for modern theory of evolution, suggested 'kin selection' as an explanation for the existence of sterile females, the worker caste, in social insects like ants, bees and termites. Later, W.D. Hamilton mathematically established the Theory of Kin Selection as a mechanism