Teaching Theory Adult Teaching Theory Term Paper

Excerpt from Term Paper :

This is the essence of Knowles' self-directed learning.

Question

The last sentence of Stephen Brookfield's Chapter on "Adult Learning: An Overview" states "To understand adult learning we need to know it's connections of learning in childhood and adolescence and to the formation during these periods of interpretive filters, cognitive frames and cultural values."

Brookfield's assertion is somewhat at odds with Knowles concept of the difference between child and adult learning, although it is developmental in nature. One possible way of reconciling the difference between Brookfield and Knowles is to propose a stage theory of learning that shows progression from childhood to adolescence to adulthood, incorporating different theorist's ideas about the relationship between learner and teacher at different developmental, emotional, and experiential stages.

Stage 1: Childhood. Child is eager to learn but not certain of how to go about it. Learns to please self 'in the moment' of experience, but without future-thinking objectives.

Stage 2: Childhood: Child is eager to learn. Develops relationship with instructor. Learns to please instructor/parents in Skinner-like fashion of rewards (approval) and punishment (withdrawal of approval).

Stage 3: Childhood/Early adolescence. Child, in Vygotsky's construction learns from peers. Rebellion sets in, as child allies with learning styles of peer group, pulls away from authoritarian relations.

Stage 4: Adolescence: Child learns to please self and for self-empowerment and interest, but without far-looking future objectives, although more forward-focused than early childhood.

Stage 5: Later adolescent/adult: Child learns for pleasure and long-term career objectives

Works Cited

Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy.' The encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.

Sources Used in Document:

Works Cited

Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy.' The encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.

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