Theory and Practice of TESOL Lesson Plan Essay
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A major challenge that the majority of English language learners will face is difficulties understanding new concepts with the various forms of verbal communication. Part of the reason for this, is because many people will often have to deal with issues associated with: the differences between English and their native language. At the same time, they will have to address challenges such as: cultural assimilation and adjusting to changes inside their new schools. This is problematic, because if some kind of lesson plan is not created to address these challenges many students will often become frustrated with the educational environment. Once this occurs, it means that they can begin to: lose interest in the subject matter and they will have more difficulties in adjusting to the various challenges that they are facing.
As a result, a number of different theories were developed over the years that were designed to help educators understand how to effectively address these issues. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than observations from Farrell (2008). Who said, "There are two stages of development for these students. The first stage is characterized by survival. While mastery is the second stage, which presents a dichotomy of development: either settling into a state of resistance to change or staying open to new ideas and practices." (Farrell 2008, pg. 3) This is significant, because it showing how English language learners will face a number of different challenges when it comes to understanding this new form of verbal communication.
For the educator, this can be particularly challenging, where they must engage in strategies that will reach out to these individuals. As, they have to address: the basic survival instincts of the student and then augment them with various tools. This is a part of an effort to ensure that they are able to master the language itself. Once this occurs, is when the educator is able to help the student master the language and adapt to the various cultural challenges that they are facing. To fully understand how to achieve this objective requires: designing a lesson plan that is unique for these students, understanding the rational for the approaches / methodology that is utilized, discussing the supporting materials that can be used during the process and conducting an analysis of the lesson plan itself. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how educators can effectively reach out to these individuals. This is the point that they will be able to help students to overcome the various challenges that they are facing.
Motivations for Learning
Designing a Full Lesson Plan that is used for English Language Learners
The first step in creating any kind of lesson plan is design specific elements that can be included in the course that will help to improve learning comprehension. This is accomplished through examining specific factors that can be used on a daily basis. While at the same time, you are creating a strategy that will promote the long-term objectives of helping the student to: assimilate and master the concepts. Over the course of time, this will allow educators to address the cultural and communication differences between English and their native language. Once this occurs, it will improve the effectiveness of the ability to reach out to each student in a format that they can relate to.
The Daily Lesson Plan
Before creating any kind of lesson plan, educators must understand that they need to be flexible in the approach that they are using. This is accomplished through looking at: the specific needs of the student and then augmenting certain techniques with them to improve learning comprehension. Most of the time, this will mean that educators must understand the different cultural traditions of the student and they need to have flexibility to adjust to the changes that are taking place. If this kind of philosophy can be embraced it will help to ensure that the student is able to maximize their understanding of the material and the concepts that are being presented.
The daily lesson plan that we will be using is going to build off of focusing on constant repetition and using various tools to help maximize the amounts of learning comprehension. This will take place, using a number of different elements to fully understand how this is impacting the students. To include: warm up exercises, pre-teaching techniques, controlled practices, semi-controlled practices and personalization. The below strategy illustrates how this will occur
to influence utilizing these different elements.
Warm up exercises: This will take place in the first three to five minutes of every class. What is occurring is that everyone will brainstorm their vocabulary assignment from their homework on the board. The basic idea with this approach is to ensure that there is way of building upon what they learned from the previous session. This will establish a foundation for moving into more advanced concepts later the class. While, allowing students to focus on what they learned and preparing them for new ideas that will be presented. (Lesson Plan 2011) (Carter, 2001)
Pre-teaching techniques: This is when you are going to be introducing students to new words in the English language. The way that this will be accomplished is by providing them with a pre-vocabulary discussion of the ideas and their underlying meanings. Some tools that are used to help improve learning comprehension include: the use of a flip chart from the student's book. At the same time, they are illustrating how these concepts are utilized in the real world through: what is known a concept check. This will take place for about 5 to 10 minutes with tremendous amounts of student and teacher interaction. (Lesson Plan 2011) (Carter, 2001)
Controlled practices: During this part of the class the students will practice using these different concepts through seeing various photos on the flip chart. At the same time, we will have various question that will be asked of the students to help improve their learning comprehension some the most notable include:
What's your job?
What's his job?
How do you start questions with the phrases 'are you'?
In what way would you use 'is he a'?
In general, this part of the learning process will occur for five minutes with having effective student on student interaction. (Lesson Plan 2011) (Carter, 2001)
Semi-controlled: This part of the lesson plan will take approximately 25 minutes to complete. It will involve the student and the teacher interacting with each other to improve learning comprehension. What will happen is the student will work on page 3 in their books. They will then write answers to the questions for the photos at the bottom of the page. After they finish, each person will proceed to answering the questions on pages: 4, 5, 6 and 7. At which point, we will discuss and correct the answers together. (Lesson Plan 2011) (Carter, 2001)
Personalization: In this part of the lesson plan, we will focus on having the student interact with each other. This will involve the students going around the classroom. Then answering the various forms, photos and worksheets from their books. This will occur for 20 minutes, with there being an emphasis on improving learning comprehension as much as possible. (Lesson Plan 2011) (Carter, 2001)
When you put these different elements together, they are highlighting how our strategy will be focused on providing the students with a number of different exposures to the material. At the same time, it is ensuring that everyone is able to relate to the various ideas that are presented in their own unique way. This is significant, because it is showing how if this kind of approach can be used it will help to improve the student's understanding of the various concepts that are presented. In many ways, one could argue that this is the key in being able to most effectively reach out to these students on a regular basis.
Mother Tongue and Culture
Rationale for the Approaches & Methodology
To fully understand how to improve learning comprehension requires examining the rationale and methods for using these approaches. This will help to provide specific insights about: how we can be able to achieve these objectives. As a result, we will be examining a number of different techniques to include: having a good opening for the class, simulation, instructional, closure and follow up. (Farrell 2008, pg. 22) (Carter, 2001)
The opening phase: During this part of the class the teacher will ask a number of different questions of the student. The basic idea is to review the material that was covered and begin introducing new ideas that can be utilized. This will allow everyone to begin focusing on what they have built off of during previous sessions. (Farrell 2008, pg. 22) (Carter, 2001)
Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than comments from Fathman (2006) who said, "Students often need explicit linking of their previous work to the activity…
Sources Used in Documents:
Lesson Plan, 2011.
My Notes, 2011.
Carter, R, 2001, The Cambridge Guide to Teaching, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Fathman, A, 2006, Science for English Language Learners, NTSA Press, Richmond.
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