Vision 2030 Issue Of Child Essay

Length: 10 pages Sources: 20 Subject: Medical and Medicine - Health Care Type: Essay Paper: #57480038 Related Topics: Body Mass Index, Saudi Arabia, China One Child Policy, Diabetes Mellitus
Excerpt from Essay :

Indeed, obesity among children and adolescents is even associated with an increase in economic costs. It is estimated that the hospital costs for obesity-related disease among children and adolescents increased from $35 million in 1979-1981 to $127 million in 1997-1999, which represents more than three times the costs of 20 years ago (Wang & Dietz, 2002).

Numerous obesity-related health complications such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type II diabetes mellitus, coronary plaque formation, and serious psychosocial implications, are also affecting children and adolescents (Freedman & Stern, 2004; Pinhas-Hamiel, Dolan, Daniels, Standiford, Khoury & Zeitler, 1996; Ludwig & Ebbeling, 2001; Dietz, 1998; American Academy of Pediatrics, 2002). Since the increase in such health problems has generally paralleled that of the obesity epidemic, Anderson and Butcher (2006) remarked that there should be an association between these health problems and childhood obesity.

Guo, Wu, Chumlea & Roche (2002) indicated that overweight children often become overweight adolescents and adults. This notion only adds to the seriousness of childhood obesity. Indeed, the National Institute of Health (1998) identified that obesity is a serious health risk among children and adolescents of all age groups.

If particular causes of obesity could be known, then health experts, policymakers and others could design programs to reduce overweight and obesity among younger age groups. Therefore, it would be very helpful if a research based understanding regarding what social aspects encourages childhood obesity could be developed. This thesis intends to generate a knowledge base that could contribute to such an overall understanding.

Bearing this intention, this research paper aims to find out whether there are relationships between the likelihood of being overweight or obese among children and adolescents and the social factors. The literature suggests that the prevalence of overweight or obesity differs based on different social factors. For example, the literature suggests an inverse relationship between physical activities and the prevalence of overweight or obesity. The relationships, however, change when the prevalence of overweight or obesity is associated with other social factors like television watching, listening to music and playing computer games. In particular, this paper focuses on the in equal government policy towards allowing physical activity in boys and girls schools in Saudi Arabia. Further the research paper will explore main factors which are associated with overweight or obesity among children and adolescents: socio demographic factors, preference for certain activities, and health conditions.

Definition of Obesity

Typically, obesity and overweight in adults are defined in terms of body mass index (BMI), which in turn is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2000). Guidelines issued by the National Institutes of Health (1998) consider an adult underweight if his or her BMI is less than 18.5, overweight if BMI is 25 or more, and obese if BMI is 30 or more. These guidelines also indicate that the standard BMI for a healthy body is between 18.5 -- 25 kg/m..

BMI is also used to identify children who are overweight or at a risk of becoming overweight. The cutoff criteria, however, are mostly based on the age-and-sex-specific BMI growth charts for the United States produced by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2000 (Bouchard & Rankinen, 2005). CDC experts recommend that children with BMI values at the 85th percentile and at or above the 95th percentile of the age-and-sex-specific BMI growth charts be categorized as overweight and obese, respectively (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005).

Logically, the increase in childhood obesity is associated with the increase in adult obesity. That is, children who are overweight and obese during their childhood are more likely than normal weight children to remain and become overweight and obese during adolescence and adulthood (Anderson & Butcher,...


Whitaker and his colleagues (1997) found that 52% of children who were obese when they were at the ages of three to six remained obese at the age of twenty-five, compared to only 12% of children who were normal and underweight when they were at the ages of three to six becoming obese at the age of twenty-five.

The Causes and the Correlates of Obesity

The medical and sociological literatures suggest various factors associated with the obesity epidemic. Different researchers, however, have different views regarding the causes of obesity. Some researchers focus on the physical structures of communities. Suburban sprawl, absence of sidewalks, reliance on automobile are, thus, seen to be major causes of obesity (Bouchard & Rankinen, 2005; Corless & Ohland, 2005; Russonello & Stewart Research and Communications, 2003; Fertig, Glomm & Tchernis, 2005). Other investigators view the changes in the food market, the increase in advertising targeted toward children and adolescents, and the adaptation of fast foods by children and adolescents as major factors behind the causes of obesity (Paxson, Donahue, Oreleans & Grisso, 2006; Anderson & Butcher, 2006; American Academy of Pediatrics, 2004; Jeffery & Utter, 2003).

The literature also supports the idea that there have been many changes in the school environment today, particularly in the availability of fast foods and beverages in schools and the decline in physical education. Generally, most children and adolescents rely on vending machines for food during school time, which allow for the purchase of high-calorie foods like sodas, chips and candy (Anderson & Butcher, 2006; Anderson, Butcher & Levine, 2003). Logically, a greater consumption of high-calorie foods causes children and adolescents to be overweight and obese. Therefore, the greater reliance on vending machines food by children and adolescents is thought to be associated with increasing obesity or overweight rates. The lack of opportunities for exercise has also been associated with this trend of overweight or obesity among children and adolescents. Koplan, Liverman and Kraak (2005) remarked that many American schools have reduced their commitment to provide students with regular and adequate physical activities. This reduction has been attributed to budget cuts and the pressure to increase academic course offerings in order for schools to maintain standards and remain competitive with other schools.

Gender & Obesity

Research indicates that there are gender differences in the likelihood of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. Ogden and his colleagues (2006) reported that there is a significant relationship between the trend of overweight or obesity among male and female children and adolescents. They indicated that the prevalence of obesity in female children and adolescents increased from 13.8% in 1999-2000 to 16.0% in 2003-2004, whereas the prevalence of obesity in male children and adolescents increased from 14.0% to 18.2% over the same time period. Other studies have indicated that female children and adolescents are more likely to be overweight or .obese than male children and adolescents (Wang, 2002; Hill & Lissau, 2002; Gordon-Larsen et al., 2004; Stanton & Hills, 2004; Hills, 2006). It should be, however, noted that several investigations indicate that the likelihood of overweight and obesity between male and female children and adolescents vary according to their racial background (Freedman & Stern, 2004; Taylor et al., 2005; American Heart Association, 2004).

Research also pointed out that the differences in the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls might be due to the differences in the levels of physical activity. Boys are more likely to engage in outdoor games than girls, which might be due to the influence of a stereotypical notion that boys are strong and girls are delicate (Stanton & Hills, 2004). Often, due to this stereotypical perception, boys are more likely to be encouraged by parents, teachers and others to do vigorous activities, whereas girls are discouraged from engaging in such activities (Adkins, Sherwood, Story & Davis, 2004). However, other research indicates that girls who belong to families with higher education level and higher socioeconomic status are more likely to engage in various physical activities (Kimm & Glynn, 2006). Research also indicates that parental perception and parental support for physical activities plays a more important role in girls' participation in physical activities than for boys' participation in physical activities (Adkins, Sherwood, Story & Davis, 2004). However, Rushovich, Voorhees, Davis, Neumark-Sztainer, Pfeiffer, Elder, Going & Marino (2006) found that girls who are not supervised by their parents are more likely to be active than those girls who get continuous parental supervision for physical activities. Probably, those girls who are supervised for the physical activities might have certain guidelines for other activities as well, such as, doing homework, time spent on watching television and other food behaviors. Such guidelines by the parents might have resulted in the decreasing activity level of the girls who were supervised.


This research paper focused the issue of obesity in Saudi children particularly in girls and its link to health inequality policy by government towards girls sports. The paper discussed in detail the background of obesity, health risks related to obesity and reasons of high prevalence of obesity in children.

In summary, increased Saudi affluence over the last three decades has caused increased snacking and has changed the types of food consumed while snacking (Madani and Khashoggi, 1994).…

Sources Used in Documents:


Adkins, S., Sherwood, N.E., Story, M. & Davis, M. (2004). Physical Activity among African-American Girls: The Role of Parents and the Home Environment. Obesity Research, 12: 38S-45S.

Allison, K.R., Dwyer, J.J.M., Goldenberg, E., Fein, A., Yoshida, K.K., & Boutilier, M. (2005). Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation. Adolescence, 40 (157) [HIDDEN]

American Academy of Pediatrics (2004). Soft Drinks in Schools. Pediatrics, 113 (1): 152-154.

American Heart Association (2004). Overweight and Obesity -- Statistics. Retrieved in June, 2011 from the internet website:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2000). CDC Table for Calculated Body Mass Index Values for Selected Heights and Weights for Ages 2 to 20 Years. Retrieved in August, 2006, from the Department of Health and Health Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website:
Fertig, A., Glomm, G. & Tchernis, R. (2005). The Connection between Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity: Inspecting the Mechanism. Retrieved in June, 2011, from Population Association of America web site:
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2005). Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity? Retrieved in June 2006, from the internet website:

Cite this Document:

"Vision 2030 Issue Of Child" (2011, June 13) Retrieved November 28, 2021, from

"Vision 2030 Issue Of Child" 13 June 2011. Web.28 November. 2021. <>

"Vision 2030 Issue Of Child", 13 June 2011, Accessed.28 November. 2021,

Related Documents
Children, Grief, and Attachment Theory
Words: 22384 Length: 75 Pages Topic: Children Paper #: 77393541

Figure 1 portrays three of the scenes 20/20 presented March 15, 2010. Figure 1: Heather, Rachel, and Unnamed Girl in 20/20 Program (adapted from Stossel, 2010). Statement of the Problem For any individual, the death of a family member, friend, parent or sibling may often be overwhelming. For adolescents, the death of person close to them may prove much more traumatic as it can disrupt adolescent development. Diana Mahoney (2008), with the

Environmental Issues Faced in 21st Century Aviation
Words: 20526 Length: 62 Pages Topic: Transportation Paper #: 317773

Environmental Issues Faced in 21st Century Aviation Reducing Communication and Coordination Tools and Metrics Technology, Operations and Policy Demand Aviation and the Environment Effects on the health Local Air Quality Climate Change Total Climate impacts from aircraft Interdependencies Mobility, Economy and National Security Interactions between Government, Industry and Groups Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emissions Economic Impact SPCC Regulations Local Airport Issues De-icing Fluids A Framework for National Goals Realities and Myths Metrics Recommended Actions Environmental Issues Faced in 21st Century Aviation Environmental awareness in regards to 21st century aviation among the public and politicians has

Social Determinants of Health Which
Words: 4083 Length: 10 Pages Topic: Medical and Medicine - Health Care Paper #: 62544992

Obesity, overweight and underweight all have impacts that are negative on self-esteem of many children and adolescents that if not checked can have long-term effects on the success in lives of these children and their general happiness in the future (Moran, 1999). The persistence of chronic diseases in more in the developing than in the developed countries. The World Health Organization posits that by 2020, a quarter of deaths in

Defence and National Strategy
Words: 3037 Length: 10 Pages Topic: Military Paper #: 87077208

Introduction National strategy is the art and science of development and usage of informational, diplomatic and economic powers of a country in union with its armed forces for purposes of securing national objectives during war and peace times. National strategies are a key delivery mechanism for several new and existing nations. It was first introduced in the year 1998 with the aim of assisting in developing educational settings to improve the

Compare and Contrast in International Marketing Communication Perspective...
Words: 1871 Length: 4 Pages Topic: Business - Advertising Paper #: 18287944

International Marketing Communication Perspective There are challenges that face organizations, which engage in global marketing. This form of cross border marketing involves diversity cultural backgrounds. It is pertinent to note that each country has distinctive needs relating to producing goods for them. International marketing requires a comprehensive understanding of the needs of each target market. This study provides a comprehensive review of the differences and similarities that exist between the

Non-Traditional Families Exercise Questions the
Words: 5460 Length: 20 Pages Topic: Children Paper #: 55097141

General grade point averages, SAT scores, and school involvement tend to be lower than their peers coming from two parent homes (Park, 2008). Lower collegiate attendance is also another major issue that is seen within this growing population. On average individuals coming out of single parent homes go to college less than their counterparts with both parents present (Huan, 2003). This is often associated with the poorer grades that were