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Applied Behavior Analysis esearch and Application
When approaching the target behavior of teaching an autistic child to obey verbal commands, it is important to understand what previous research has presented about this target behavior, how it has defined autism, which treatment methodologies have been tried and shown effectiveness in the past, and which experimental designs can be utilized today to treat the behavior. This paper will examine each of these points and provide a standard for assessing validity.
Defining autism in the field has mainly been the result of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). As Wohr and Scattoni (2013) note, "autism is a behaviorally defined disorder" (p. 5). And as Ollendick and Cerny (2010) observe, the method used to define this behavior and to assess treatments are numerous: for example, rating scales can be utilized as well as observation methods, IQ tests and the examination of "the social-cultural-physical environment" in which…… [Read More]
Management on Productivity and Efficiency Within the Organization
In all organizations, the managers and the employees play an important role. In the present day, organizations incessantly experience and go through rapid technological changes, decreasing product life cycles, globalization, international global economic setting and also the extensive accessibility to information. As a result, in order for these organizations to continue surviving and being relevant in the market, style of management becomes a significant element in the success of the organization. The role of a manager as a leader within an organization can result in different styles of management chosen. The different styles selected by the managers have an influence on the behavior patterns within the organization, which in turn impacts the morale and motivation of the employee. In the end, the managerial style influences the level of satisfaction of the employee, which directly influences the level of productivity. Managers utilizing the…… [Read More]
This claim is supported by other researchers cited in the work including Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, & Flannery (1996).
The applied behavioral and positive behavior approach developed by Symon considers individual and family needs for patients with autism as part of the larger system and factors that might influence a child's behaviors, in order to develop more comprehensive support interventions.
The author supports use of applied behavioral analysis procedures where parents would work with their children via a clinic or at home in a controlled setting that encourages one-on-one interaction. The role of the parent in this situation would be to present children with "a variety of discrete instructional tasks" that would require on-step commands. The child participating would be rewarded for giving correct responses and punished for not giving correct ones, in order to train children to respond to different commands and reinforcing positive behavior.
The approach suggested by the…… [Read More]
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]
theory-building, applied research is conducted to solve a problem. Action research is conducted to solve an immediate problem experienced by a practitioner; the problems that are addressed through action research exist in the context or environment in which they conduct their professional work. A construct is an abstraction -- an idea that exists in the mind; if an abstraction is based on something concrete or tangible, it is a concept, but if it is based on something hypothetical or inferential, then the abstraction is a construct. The most important difference between qualitative research and quantitative research is that quantitative research is deductive in relation to the hypothesis, which is determined before the research has actually begun. Quantitative research uses a deductive approach that moves from the general case to the specific. In this manner, the deductive approach considers the potential cause of some phenomenon and explores whether its effect can…… [Read More]
("Applied Research") This involves primary sources, as Mary is going to be using actual cases to understand what is happening. ("What is the Difference between Primary and Secondary Sources")
Which two techniques of data collection do you feel would be more beneficial for Mary to use?
The primary data collection is more useful to Mary. The reason why, is because they are focusing on real cases and statistics surrounding juvenile crime. This will make her findings and analysis more realistic by looking at the actual numbers. ("What is the Difference between Primary and Secondary Sources")
Would this project be more suited to quantitative or qualitative research methods? Support your opinions with reasons.
Qualitative research would be more suitable for this kind of project. This is because we are looking at the environment that these individuals are living in. At which point, we are seeking to address the underlying problems by:…… [Read More]
Business Tools & Methods
Q1.What is business research? Why should there be any question about the definition of research?
The purpose of business research is to further the goals of a business, whether it is exploratory marketing research to determine the future needs of customers or more focused research such as determining which products were the most popular during the past season so the company can determine how to allocate specific assets. Depending on its purpose, research can fulfill very different functions -- unlike academic research, which does not necessarily have a particular purpose or objective other than to prove a hypothesis, business research is undertaken with the aim of improving profitability, not simply as an intellectual exercise or for the good of humanity.
Q2. What is the difference between applied research and basic or pure research? Use a decision about how a salesperson is to be paid, by commission…… [Read More]
Cloud Computing esearch Question and Experimental Design
Develop a research question that addresses one of the unknowns you identified in Part I of the literature review and sketch a quantitative or qualitative study that can answer the question about what is unknown and contribute to theory. Draw on the additional resources for this course for guidance in understanding the concepts (e.g., internal validity, threats to validity, and operationalization) needed to address this question.
After a thorough review of the prevailing research and literature on the adoption and implementation of cloud computing technology, it is clear that the base of knowledge on this emerging field is continually expanding. A number of critical questions are still left unanswered, however, as is befitting an innovation which was only recently made available for public and private use. Namely, what are the implications for widespread adoption of cloud computing on the overall information security management…… [Read More]
The main topic being studied in McIlvane's research paper, "Translational behavioral analysis: from laboratory science in stimulus control to interventions with persons with neurodevelopmental disabilities" is translational behavioral analysis. It is largely defined as a hybrid of the two conventional methods of behavioral analysis: basic and applied behavioral analysis. Its distinction between these two forms largely involves its hybridization of them, and its identification as "a subfield of behavior analysis" (McIlvane, 2009, p. 273).
There are no research questions in this paper for the simple fact that it does not contain original research and is merely the author's reflection and analysis of this particular subject. The rationale for the paper is that translational behavioral analysis is a relative newcomer to the modes of science that were previously stratified as either basic or applied behavioral analysis. As such, it is worthy of study because it can bridge the gap…… [Read More]
Q7. The survey should be demographically balanced: in other words, it should be representative of the consumers whose behavior the survey was designed to assess in terms of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The questions should be clear and simple, and free from misleading wording that could influence the results. The survey questions should be internally consistent -- in other words, responses that indicate wildly different views in the responses of the same individual raise questions about internal validity. There should be controls to prevent respondents from presenting themselves in an overly positive light. The survey should not draw overly broad conclusions, based upon what respondents were asked.
5a. The city should take public responsibility for its actions, stating that although it was trying to act in the best interests of the city, it crossed the line when it hired a private investigator to infiltrate the boating organization. Avoiding litigation…… [Read More]
Freuds work and researches which clearly indicate that they were developed through researches involving case studies. In a case study every aspect of the subject is researched and analyzed so that obvious and notable patterns and behaviors can be identified so that particular causes for behaviors and psychology in some cases can be identified. The main purpose is to learn what can be learned from one subject and some basic points in this way can be generalized and applied to others as well (Yin. 1984). However case studies happen to be very subjective since they are mostly based on one area of focus, so it makes there points or even them very hard to generalize and apply their results to a larger proportion of subjects.
Types of Case Studies
Explanatory: These types of case studies are used for investigations which are casual in nature.
Exploratory: these types of case studies…… [Read More]
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]
What is Environmental Design Research?
Design and art can accept scientific principles
Environmental Design Research (EDR) = the study of the mutual relationships between human beings and the physical environment at all scales, and applications of the knowledge thus gained to improving the quality of life through better informed environmental policy, planning, design, and education. (passive and active definition)
EDR is related to many other areas of the social sciences
EDR is NOT:
building science or structural engineering
Eg. An architect does research to apply to a single building project, but EDR applies research to things like job satisfaction and other measurable results that advance the whole field.
Basic Research (generation, discovery of knowledge)
Applied Research (answering specific questions related to specific social policy or context)
Research Applications (apply research to policy, plans, designs)
**Must communicate results to policy/professional applications
EDR = Environmental Psychology =…… [Read More]
Federal Government Funding
Federal funding has been at the heart of many breakthroughs in medical research in the 20th century (Angela & Chris, 2000). The NIH takes credit for leading the research campaign for many years. The achievements by NIH are many. They include (Angela & Chris, 2000):
educed time frames for the discovery and development of new cures
Lowered the incidence of disease rates among the sick
educed disability levels
Better quality of life through pain reduction and suffering.
Sustaining University research, education and future leading scientists through support
The federal government, through NIH, funds 36% of all the biomedical research in the U.S. The Non-Profit Organizations contribute 7% while the private sector funds 57% (Angela & Chris, 2000).
Although the federal government funds both basic and applied research, it has focused most of the resources on basic research. Basic research is essential in the discovery of…… [Read More]
passion for the project, natural curiosity, well-founded skepticism, and a good memory. Possessing all of these can actually aid in the ability to have more effective research. The passion will encourage the researcher to explore more thoroughly than one who is not passionate or interested. He will make use of the resources available to him -- such as the university library or the online databases where relevant literature is stored. His curiosity will prompt him to ask questions that others might not think to ask. Skepticism allows the researcher to distrust results and work to make sure they are conclusive, and memory helps to connect the dots of data and findings so that a clear picture can emerge (Holton, Swanson, 2005).
Another good practice is to have a good research design. A good design will serve as a quality frame that helps to keep the study together, whereas a poor…… [Read More]
Applied social psychology refers to the application of social psychological theories and research to practice. Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations. The field draws as much from sociology as psychology, to describe issues like gender, race, and power but from a more individualistic perspective. Whereas sociology is interested more in the macro processes shaping society and its institutions, social psychology is concerned with the role the individual plays and how social factors shape personal identity and behavior. The application of social psychology could be in a range of professional fields including private counseling, school counseling, or social work. Some of the most important applications of social psychology are in the realm of public policy analysis and development, or in administration. Issues such as attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms are probed in the research, as are problems related to criminality and aggression.
I will…… [Read More]
The term 'applied social psychology' is used to denote a methodical utilization of socio-psychological models, study approaches and outcomes, concepts, ideologies, and intervention approaches for comprehending or ameliorating social issues. Psychologists belonging to this subfield concentrate on comprehending and solving practical issues and coming up with intervention approaches to enhance individual, organizational and societal response to social issues. While this domain's chief concern is the generic tackling of practical and social issues revolving around the environment, education, and so forth, social psychology may also help enrich people's lives (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts, 2012). Social psychological theories offer prescriptions to solve practical and social challenges. This paper is presented as a review of literature on social psychological theories and their generic role in resolving practical and social problems.
A key applied social psychological theory is Cognitive Dissonance, whose main premise is that an individual is driven to remain consistent…… [Read More]
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…… [Read More]
International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security
The study will be based on the question that "What is the impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security." Answers will be sought to have this question addressed adequately.
The study feels that the ISPS Code has some impacts upon the Maritime Security in the world. Thus, the study seeks to uncover the various impacts that are realized by the Maritime Security as offered by the ISPS.
The influence and functionality of the existing ISPS Code run globally. Its effects, as part of its usefulness and importance, are felt by the Maritime Security among other agents of security in the world. Thus, the study will uncover the impacts caused by the ISPS Code on the Maritime Security in various parts of the world. The study will seek further knowledge from different materials; research…… [Read More]
Marketing research or market research refers to the activity whereby a certain group is targeted top gather information regarding its behavior towards a certain product or service. In other word, marketing research is the activity through which primary or secondary data is collected and this data pertains to the views, opinion and consumption attitude of users towards a specific product or service. For example if an automobile industry is planning to launch a new product i.e. A new vehicle that specifically meets the needs of large families then the first important thing would be to conduct a market research for the demand of the product.
Even of the company is vaguely aware of the need for such a vehicle in the market, it would still need to conduct a research through primary or secondary means in order to accurately estimate the future demand for the product. This helps the firm…… [Read More]
.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…… [Read More]
1. An operational definition helps the researcher maintain both internal and external validity. The researcher clearly defines terms, and shows how each variable is measured. In this way, concepts that are otherwise abstract like intelligence can be operationalized.
Intelligence needs to be operationalized because the researcher needs to show what specific type of intelligence is being measured, and how. An operational definition is “the particular method that we use to measure a variable of interest,” beyond the theoretical definitions that can be applied later (“Conducting Research in Social Psychology,” n.d., p. 1). Whereas the theoretical definitions of intelligence can be broad, like “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge,” operational definitions are narrower in scope because they need to be easily measured (Legg & Hutter, 2006, p. 2).
For example, if mathematical intelligence is being measured, then an established mathematical skills test needs to be administered to research participants. Social skills intelligence…… [Read More]
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…… [Read More]
Birth Problems: Expecting Mothers Taking Illicit Drugs
When women who are pregnant struggle with a drug problem, the drug use does not only affect the mother, it greatly affects the development of the fetus (Ornoy, 2002). This does not only stop during the fetal stage, it goes on until to after the child is born, and the child will then develop a number of physical and health problems during his or her lifetime. This is because the drugs which the mother is taking can cross the placenta, which is where the baby is and gets all his or her nourishments. These drugs can cause direct toxic affects to the fetus during the developmental stages.
A mother who is actively taking illicit drugs during her pregnancy can suffer from a number of high risk diseases, and this will contract to her unborn baby. These risks include: (1) Anemia, (2) Skin infections,…… [Read More]
Crop Insurance Subsidies
Crop insurance has become highly subsidized due to the private sector being unsuccessful in providing crop insurance products to the industry. There are concerns as to the efficiency of crop insurance subsidies due to the costs being high. ut, crop insurance is the greatest risk management tool used by producers.
The rationale for public crop insurance subsidies includes the inability of the private sector to successfully provide all risk crop insurance products (Smith, 2012). There are high loading costs of associated crop insurance and producers use other strategies of risk management, such as futures and options, contracting, cultural practices, such as irrigation, pesticide use, herbicides, crop and livestock diversification, non-farm income, saving and borrowing, leasing, government price and support programs, and government disaster assistance payments. Moral hazard monitoring can be costly and raise premiums too high. Systematic risk or yield losses tend to be positively correlated across…… [Read More]
Remotely-Based Sales Managers More Motivated and Effective Than Branch-Based Sales Managers?
In the debate over telecommuting, it would be useful to know whether remotely-based or branch-based sales managers were more motivated and effective in their jobs. The information would be useful for corporations considering implementing telecommuting programs, and for workers contemplating undertaking a telecommuting position.
Responses were collected from a group of GE Capital sales managers to determine their basic attitudes about their jobs and their interactions within the company and their perceptions of what was useful to their performance and what was not. Some respondents were branch-based; others were telecommuters. That their responses appeared to be similar lends credence to the idea that telecommuter are at least as motivated and effective as their branch-based counterparts,
However, these responses were evaluated within the framework provided by abundant previous studies in order to develop a basis for understanding the motivational factors…… [Read More]
role of research problem in choosing an appropriate methodology. It also presents the research questions, methodology, and design that can be used by the researcher to analyze the research problem and proceed with his research study. The third section of the paper identifies two major qualities of team leaders that contribute to successful leadership and explains strategies that organization leaders can implement to develop these two qualities in their team leaders in order to achieve maximum performance. The paper also explains some advantages and disadvantages of these leadership skills or qualities.
Vietnam -- The Economy, Marketing Landscape, and Brand Perception of Consumers
Economic System and Macro-Economic Environment of Vietnam and its esponse to Globalization:
After the recent financial crisis hit the world markets, Vietnamese economy revived itself and became a market-oriented economy (Vietnam Centre for Economic and Policy esearch, 2010). All its manufacturing, industrial, and trade sectors have seen tremendous…… [Read More]
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]
For example, an upscale restaurant, mid-market clothing store, hardware store, and general store could all be sampled, and over the course of four days shoppers could be asked to respond to a survey at the check-out counter about their perceptions of the store and shopping experience. The data could then be analyzed demographically, in terms of consumer perceptions, and also precisely what the different shoppers bought on different days, as opposed to what they said they would buy. This would also allow repeated testing -- using the same four-day musical format over different periods of the year at different stores. The article's study takes the form of a posttest only study design: the independent variable of the music (or in the case of the control group, the lack thereof) is applied, and then subjects record their responses.
The advantage to the test is that there is no 'learning,' necessary to…… [Read More]
This is one of the most common forms of research and, for some research questions is clearly a strong design (Ethics in Critical Care Nursing Research, 2005).
The research that was done in this article would be considered a non-experimental type. There were two types of observation that were conducted. The first type was that of focus groups and the second being the file audit, both of which are observational in nature. In this case this was the most appropriate type of research design to use. Since they were simply trying to see what was actually going on in this area and how that was affecting patients the only real way to tot this was by observation. From this article a nursing care issue that can be raised is that of how palliative care nurses manage family involvement with end of life issues. Are there any standard procedures that are…… [Read More]
Still, the concept of guided imagery tends to stray far from traditional methods of pain management. Pharmaceuticals have long been a major method of treatment for pain, but have resulted in major backlashes in regards to patients becoming addicted, especially in long-term and chronic cases of pain. If guided imagery could be a successful method, it may reduce pain or increase pain tolerance, without the threat of chemical dependence.
There are a number of benefits which are seen in the ongoing discourse today. As such, the expected improvements include things like drops in blood high blood pressure, lower heart rates, and reduction of chronic pain symptoms, lessoning of headache pain, and increasing overall pain tolerance (Cornelius, 2010). In situations were patients going into a major surgery were coached with guided imagery, it was "shown to decrease stress and anxiety before and after surgery," thus helping reduce additional pain issues during…… [Read More]
The problem being researched or evaluated
The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.
• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)
The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.
• ationale for the design based on the problem
The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…… [Read More]
It is helpful for oth the author and the readers. The literature review must identify works that have een pulished on the topic in case y accredited scholars and researchers (Taylor, 2010). Usually, the literature review is an introduction to the research project.
The purpose of the literature review consists in introducing the readers into the knowledge and ideas referring to the selected topic for the research project in case, and to help the readers adjust to the research topic. Also, a good literature review should not only list these issues, ut also identify and explain their strengths and weaknesses in order for the readers to e ale to develop a more clear idea on the researched topic.
As mentioned aove, conducing the literature review also helps the author of the research report to develop new directions that the research process can follow. This helps the author to develop more…… [Read More]
Trochim (2006) states that a quasi-experimental design is one that looks a bit like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient -- random assignment. He notes that his mentor [Don Campbell] used to refer to quasi-experiments as "queasy" (2006) experiments because they give the experimental purists a queasy feeling.
With respect to internal validity, they often appear to be inferior to randomized experiments. But there is something compelling about these designs; taken as a group, they are easily more frequently implemented than their randomized cousins (Trochim 2006).
The most important part of both experimental and quasi-experimental research is the measure of the dependent variable, which it allows for comparison. Some types of data are very straightforward, but there are other measures, but there are other types of data that are completely subjective. In cases where the data is highly subjective, the quasi-experiment will have to have various strategies to…… [Read More]
Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.
The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.
This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…… [Read More]
The price is at its level of five years ago, when the external environment was much more favorable for Starbucks. The price of arabica has increased significantly and while Starbucks is a major buyer, it is not the largest buyer and does not have significant pricing power. The competitive pressure that has been applied by McDonald's, Dunkin Donuts and a host of imitators has not eased. Given this, margins can be expected to remain at current levels. While the company can still achieve more improvements with respect to its internal metrics, those are unlikely to drive the stock much beyond its current level. The key driver for Starbucks' stock in the coming years is going to be more dependent on foreign market growth than any other single factor. Foreign market indicators are not a cause for intense optimism. Dubai's default calls into question the long-term growth potential of the Middle…… [Read More]
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…… [Read More]
The first step in doing proper legal research is to fully identify the legal issues. This involves determining what statutes are involved or what principles of common law might apply. This is where many researchers fall short and it is essential that the researcher fully identify the parameters of the case before beginning the research otherwise valuable time and effort will be wasted.
Once the legal issues have been identified the researcher is ready to begin the process of finding the cases that support the legal argument that he or she is attempting to formulate. This is where the value of the computer and internet comes into play. In today's legal environment this part of the process is greatly simplified and expedited. Unfortunately, amassing the necessary case law is only the first step and the only step where the computer is of any benefit.
After collecting the law that both…… [Read More]
H3: Credit historical data is prevalent in the available IB systems for SMEs.
Additionally, we find that the primary concern for banks is the trend of SME's short-term lines of credit.
H4: Among the SME credit history, the usage level of their short-term lines of credit represents their main determinant.
The financial structure as well as its effects is never the only determinants of the default probability as measured by rating systems. The profitability performances plays a relevant role in the credit evaluation process of a given (Edmister, 1972, Pagliacci,2006). This statement is then verified by the 5th hypothesis:
H5: An increase in profitability of an SME improves its rating.
The variables that plays a role in the failure prediction
The failure prediction models are based on a standard set of variables/indicators. Extant literature indicates that these variables can be divided into there main categories (Altman,1968; Caouette et al., 1998;…… [Read More]
Service Quality esearch
The research discussed in this paper is based on the application of the SEVQUAL model to the restaurant sector of the hospitality service industry. The SEVQUAL model was developed in 1985 and has been refined since for use in the service industry. In contrast to goods, service quality has been difficult to measure because of the intangibility, variability and heterogeneity of the service. Moreover, the service quality depends on the interaction between service provider and consumer. The SEVQUAL model was developed to overcome these limitations. The research articles discussed in the following sections were all conducted to apply the model in the restaurant sector to evaluate the service quality of various kinds of restaurants.
In addition to the SEVQUAL model, another useful model is the DINESEV model which has also been used by a couple of the researches discussed in this paper. The researches discussed in this…… [Read More]
MEDIATOR & MODERATOR EFFECTS
There are several goals of the article "Testing Moderator and Mediator Effects in Counseling Psychology Research." (Frazier et al., 2004) One of the primary goals of the piece is clear delineation of each term and clear explanation of the differences (and similarities) between the two. Another goal of the authors' research is to reveal to researchers and professionals the potential depth and precision their research could achieve with knowledge and application of mediators and moderators in their studies. ith awareness and tracking of mediators and moderators, researchers can make more precise predictions, compile richer data, and provide more insightful analyses & conclusions after the study.
Interaction effects are not only important for intervention studies, however. There are many other instances in which researchers are interested in whether relations between predictor and outcome variables are stronger for some people than for others. The identification of…… [Read More]
Ciminal Justice - Reseach Methods
Soucebook of ciminal justice statistics Online
Respondents' concen ove effects of illegal immigants
Gallup, Inc., The Gallup Poll [Online]. Available: http://www.gallup.com/poll/
127649/Ameicans-Value-Aspects-Immigation-Refom.aspx [June 16, 2010].
Table adapted by SOURCEBOOK staff.
Oveall, the suvey espondents indicate substantive concens with the pesence of illegal immigants in the U.S. Thee items elate to the oveall question: (1) Unfai buden on U.S. schools, hospitals, and govenment; (2) Encouages othe immigants to move hee illegally; (3) Low wages eaned by illegal immigants educes oveall wages paid to Ameican wokes. The oveaching question is how concened espondents ae fo each of the items, and the highest anking item was elated to the unfai buden immigants place on schools, hospitals, and govenment. Fo all thee items, thee is significant diffeence in the pecentage of esponses unde vey concened vs. unde somewhat concened. A majoity of U.S. citizens ae vey concened about…… [Read More]
Broadbent's esearch On Attention
Donald Eric Broadbent an influential English experimental psychologist who was the first person to pull together the mass of diverse work on information theory that gave the area the coherence it lacked. In his experimental work he demonstrated that there was a possibility of studying attention rigorously. The data he used was from behavioral experiments to make inferences on the functional stages of processing and their order of occurrence. In a nutshell he invented the modern study of attention with an experimental approach to it (Driver, 2001).
He brought about a revolution on how research on mental processes was conducted. He put emphasis on how psychological theory and research could come from putting into consideration practical problems. He truly bridged the gap that existed between the laboratory and field. He regarded all theories as temporary accounts of the current information, likely to need revision and improvement…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice -- Research Method & Theory
British Crime Survey (BCS) Review
The survey I reviewed is from primary research that provided a transcript for an interview, presumably to use in a face-to-face interview -- there are directions for showing cards to the respondents that give them a change to read response options and choices. Demographic data was collected at the beginning of the survey either to act as a screener or because it is essential to the data collection -- having this information at the start of the survey ensures that the interview will not conclude or be aborted without collecting this information. Demographic data tends to be categorized, which provides quantitative data analysis capability. A fairly consistent use of a 5-point Likert scale is used to record participants' responses. In other places, respondents are asked to choose from a list of distinct responses or simply answer yes or…… [Read More]
Purpose Statement: To determine whether or not one's political affiliation has an impact on their views regarding public policy.
Applicable Literature: The relationship between political affiliation and behavior has been studied extensively, dating back decades. Studies in the 1960s and 70s explored the impact of party affiliation on judge's decisions (Nagel, 1961), and on the war in Vietnam (Verba et al., 1967). In some of these studies, political affiliation is considered to be a demographic variable that can be measured and used to help analyze results, and this tactic has continued to be popular fifty years hence. For example, a recent study examined the impact of political affiliation on trade issues (hite, 2009). Recent literature in psychology and sociology has gone further, to study how political affiliation impacts on one's thinking process (Gerber et al., 2009; Baldassarri, 2008). This study will approach the issue again from a…… [Read More]
Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.
Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…… [Read More]
Unethical Business esearch Practices
What unethical research behavior was involved?
The antitrust case brought by Wal-Mart and other retailers against Visa and MasterCard in the U.S. Eastern District court, was settled in 2003 for $3 billion and primarily involved a dispute concerning the efficient pricing of access to payment information, including security data that confirmed or refuted the transactional identities of cardholders (oberds & Schreft, 2009). In their pleadings, Wal-Mart and other class action litigants argued that third-party providers such as Visa and MasterCard required them to accept both debit and credit cards issued by MasterCard but the interchange fees were higher for debit cards (Ulzheimer, 2012). In sum, the suit filed by Wal-Mart and other large retailers claimed that Visa and MasterCard "required all merchants who accept their credit cards to also accept their signature debit cards [which] constitutes an illegal tie-in in violation of antitrust law" (Peterson, 2002,…… [Read More]
This is yet another reason we cannot assume that data is 'objective' because it is quantitative in nature. For example, when constructing an experiment "an extreme groups design (e.g., assigning participants to high or low conditions) maximizes the variances of the components of the product term, it also results in much more power with respect to the interaction effect than would the corresponding observational design" (Cortina 2002: 343). Conversely, doing an experiment 'in the field' is likely to yield a less statistically-significant impact because of the inability to control the extremity of the variables. A recent study of the statistical power of research in the social sciences revealed that only 40% of all MIS studies had adequate statistical power to ensure that the probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected correctly at all times (Baroudi & Orlikowski 1989: 87). Significance criteria, sample estimate, and effect size, can all influence…… [Read More]
criminological research surpasses the mere act of searching and viewing material on a topic and writing an expressive paper. Before research is conducted, it is important to fully grasp and comprehend what it is that needs to be research, why it would be researched, why if it at all it has been researched, and how it may be performed. Types of research that can be performed are basic, multipurpose, or applied. The purpose for research is usually to gain information or knowledge. This information might be predictive, explanatory, intervening, or descriptive in nature.
All research follows basic steps. These steps can be interpreted in a variety ways, but normally follow the same structure, form hypothesis, state hypothesis, collect data, review and record results or conclusion. Fitzgerald, Cox, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p. 124). Different methods of inquiry help gather the data for the research. easoning, causal (observation), deduction, induction, and the…… [Read More]
History of Psychology Applied to Employee Selection" appears in Historical Perspectives in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Although it is a chapter in the book, it provides detailed information and can be used as a stand-alone text in an analysis of the subject. Vinchur (2007) divides the subject into chronological time periods, which is unusual for most essays in the field of organizational psychology. The first section is on the origins and early years of the application of psychological principles to employee selection. Surprisingly, this section covers the Industrial Age until 1930, an era in which psychology was barely recognized as a science let alone human resources being recognized as a field. The next section in the article is about Depression, World War II, and immediate postwar period employee psychology practices. Basically, this section covers 1930 until 1963. Finally, the civil rights era and "beyond" is the section that includes developments…… [Read More]
esearch company work ( school attending) write a paper: 1. Discuss apply negotiation strategies address potential conflicts workplace. 2. Determine evidence-based management applied work environment researched.
Negotiation strategies addressing potential conflicts in the workplace
In conventional parlance, negotiation implies the process of one party conferring or talking with another party with the hope of arriving at a particular settlement on some matter. In whichever respect, negotiation has the element of two parties coming together and trying to understand each other. However, for a negotiation process to be successful, particular requisites or strategies must be applied effectively. One of the most critical strategies is to understand emotions of each other. Inasmuch as feelings might be strong, it is advisable to recognize and understand the emotions of one another so as to give each other the liberty to speak their mind regarding the issue in question. Incase emotions are not…… [Read More]
The use of forecasting and supply chain management techniques is also pervasive throughout Dell's product life cycle planning programs (Fields, 2006).
How different Issues for Product Development are applied in the organization?
Dell is best known for its innovation of the direct sales model and rapid pace of innovation in the build-to-order sales model of personal computers, peripherals and entire networks (Salvador, de Holan, Piller, 2009). The build-to-order selling strategy which has successfully differentiated Dell for decades places tight tolerances for delivery and quality on its supply chain partners (Gunasekaran, Ngai, 2005). For the build-to-order model to be profitable, Dell has to take all variation or potential for disruption out of this strategy, starting with product development. The prioritization on creating product configurations that can quickly be componentized with parts transferrable across multiple product lines is also a high priority within Dell (Gunasekaran, Ngai, 2005). Implicit in the approach Dell…… [Read More]
e., contemporary or historical issues (Eisenhardt 1989; in Naslund, 2005);
(3) the extent of control required over behavioral events in the research context (Yin 1994; as cited in Naslund, 2005); and (4) the researcher's philosophical stance, i.e., his/her understanding of the nature of social reality and how knowledge of that reality can be gained. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund (2005) states that qualitative research methods "primarily create meanings and explanations to research phenomena" and include data collection methods such as:
(2) Fieldwork including interviews and questionnaires, diary methods, documents and texts, case studies; and (3) the researcher's impressions and reactions to observed phenomena. Quantitative research methods serve to make provision of a broad range of situations as well as being fast and economical.
Commonly utilized quantitative research methods include those of:
(1) Laboratory experiments;
(2) Formal methods; and (3) Numerical methods and techniques. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund states that analysis identifies…… [Read More]
The study methodology is predicated on a literature review of over two dozen previous studies, stratified across both the French and U.K.-based respondent populations. Of particular interest with regard to the methodology is the researcher's detailed work on defining variations in cultural differences, which is an area that Dr. Hofstede and the Model of Cultural Dimensions is specifically designed to take into account (Marieke, Hofstede, 2010). The study is highly qualitative in nature and uses academic databases as its primary research instrument (Gloria, Wulf, Mullen, 2013). The studies cited throughout the analysis indicate the potential to break out senior citizen segments by psychographics, an areas of emerging interest for Internet marketers. There is also a thorough analysis from numerous secondary studies of the correlation of income, gender, education and Internet usage. Demographics within the study are defined more in age-based terms when psychographic delineations create through primary research and factor…… [Read More]
In other words, if the study is inordinately time-consuming for the purpose of doing something non-academic or otherwise beneficial, is it responsible research to ask young people to participate?
External validity concerns "whether results from experiments in one setting (time and place) will be obtained in other settings" (Maxfield and Babbie 122). One external concern is the use of a middle-class suburban neighborhood. If this study was done in an upper-class neighborhood, a rural neighborhood, an urban neighborhood, or a low-income neighborhood, the results might vary greatly. In terms of internal validity, the causality of aggressive video games for aggressive behavior might be difficult to prove given all the other stimuli that can potentially cause aggression in children (including violence in other media like music, television, and film, violent or aggressive living circumstances which may not be disclosed to the researcher, etc.).
If boys are found to be…… [Read More]
Policing Action Plan for Mountain View, New Mexico
Police forces have to handle various operations and incidents, which are often resolved by the assignation of available resources. However, in certain operations or instances, a different police response strategy is required. Further, a specialized command structure may be needed. Control and command refers to an organization's capacity and power to guide its staff's actions and put its resources to use. Control and command standards are scalable and may be applied in operations and cases of different scope and size, right from the supervising of any local community occasion to a serious crime investigation (e.g., a multi-seated terror attack) that necessitates extensive police force mobilization (College of Policing, 2013).
In this paper, a novel action plan will be described, which may be utilized for the purpose of dealing with the growing crime rate of New Mexico's Mountain View (MV). In view of…… [Read More]
Hence, the suburban schools will exist in such circumstances sand will in turn have characteristics such as: students from low income rate family, low-paying job opportunities, limited government funds and resources, poor security, diversity of culture and discriminations amongst other things.
Violence. Violence is basically an aggressive form of an activity that can cause destruction of property or injuries if humans are involved. It usually is attributed to a strong sense of physically force that is applied from one person to another person or thing usually provoking a similarly destructive reaction. Violence can also be used a mechanism to intimidate or manipulate situations for personal gain or vendetta (Pinker, 2007).
Crime. Crime is basically an activity that has legal repercussions. It can and often is a result of violent acts being committed that the government and the law enforcement agencies need to intervene in order to eradicate or halt. Crime…… [Read More]
Every educational institution and population presents unique characteristics and requirements that make even the most comprehensive prior research incomplete in terms of the actual advisability of implementing changes in that educational environment (Lloyd, 2005).
Summative evaluation must begin from the moment of initial implementation (II, 2008). It should cover both the immediate apparent response of and effect on learners as well as the apparent efficacy and appropriateness of the operational approach implemented by teachers initially. The former allows teachers to gauge, in real time, the degree to which the new changes seem to be received by students and the degree to which they seem to benefit their teaching objectives and learning outcomes. Sometimes, that process allows educators to identify practical difficulties and complications in their chosen methods of delivery that might not have been anticipated prospectively. Other times, that process allows educators to identify problems, deficiencies, and complications…… [Read More]
E-Commerce Marketing Plan
Nielsen Media esearch was founded in the 1920s by Arthur Nielsen and it focused on assessing the success of advertisements within the consumer markets. During the following decade, the organization commenced to assess the success and popularity of radio programs. The means in which the organization assessed the ratings of television programs evolved and these were eventually applied to compute the ratings of television programs. Today, Nielsen is evolving to assess the ratings, popularity as well as other elements regarding radio and television programs, but also online efforts. Additionally, the company is also measuring ratings on novel equipments, such as TiVos. This very evolution of Nielsen and its ability to quickly adapt and ensure rating measurement on a variety of media creates its unique selling proposition. "You know you are a powerful research company when your results change the face of television programming. The king of TV…… [Read More]