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Again, the piece does not shirk on color, spreading the artwork to give Marie de Medici a glorious entrance. The dark golds and the light blues, and even the deep red carpet on the plank give this painting vivid movement.
Gentileschi's Judith Slaying Holofernes moves on to the violent once again, though unlike the Rape of the Sabine Women, the colors are much darker, the action even more dramatic and ominous. This is quite a graphic scene, as it is a still of Judith cutting Holofernes' head off with a short sword. Meanwhile, her maid assists in the execution. The shading and the light make this painting breathe with life, almost like a photograph taken just as the crime was taking place.
We stray from the violent and return to a more humorous piece; Velazquez's Los Barrochos. Two of the drunks are looking straight at the viewer, perhaps inviting them…… [Read More]
Annotated… [Read More]
Imagery and metaphor were extremely important in Baroque works, and sometimes metaphors became their own metaphors yet again. This poem's images are strong, such as "the iron gates of life," and they create an elaborate and memorable work that is truly Baroque in style. Included are many natural elements common in life, like birds, gardens, and even the sun, which are also elements that point to a Baroque, romantic style.
Bernini's "David" is a fine example classical Baroque artwork. One element that is solidly Baroque is the power and movement of the piece. It is not static or frozen in time. "David" is active, getting ready to slay the giant, and this movement is quite representative of the Baroque style. So is the elaborate clothing David wears, while other versions were unclothed. Elaborate style is part of the Baroque era, and this statue is much more elaborate than any other…… [Read More]
In this regard it should also be noted that the architect faced a number of obvious constraints in his design of the Square. These constraints were from existing structures such as the Vatican Palace as well as the granite fountain. To incorporate these constraints into his design "
Bernini made the fountain appear to be one of the foci of the ovato tondo embraced by his colonnades and eventually matched it on the other side, in 1675, just five years before his death" and " the trapezoidal shape of the piazza, which creates a heightened perspective for a visitor leaving the basilica & #8230;is largely a product of site constraints. (Saint Peter's Square)
The construction of the square started in 1656 and was completed twelve years later, in 1667. A central aspect that formed a focal point of the contractions was the Vatican Obelisk. This has a long…… [Read More]
Baroque vs. Classical Music
Although music from the 17th, 18th, and 19th century is all often grouped under the designation of 'classical' music today, the Baroque and the Classical periods have distinctive features and stylization that are immediately apparent when listening to the great composers of both eras. When listening to a Baroque work, the contrast between different 'movements' is quite notable. The celebratory Baroque work Handel's Water Music, for example, has three distinct sections, with sharp breaks between the different suites. Each movement reflects a particular tone and musical atmosphere, followed by another movement with a very distinct, contrasting sound. In contrast, Classical composers "did not restrict themselves to the 'terraced' dynamics (abrupt shifts from loud to soft) characteristic of Baroque music" (Characteristics of Classical Music, 2011, Music Learning Center). Classical composers wanted to portray a full expression of human emotions, rather than simply create a mood.
During the…… [Read More]
Music is itself a structure, based upon a certain accepted range of tones that are pleasing, or intentionally discordant, to the ear. Even modern popular music obeys certain conventions that are determined by the demands of the marketplace and music executives. Like composers of the past had to please patrons and the public, as do musicians of today. Even things we take for granted, like the length of popular songs are often demanded by questions of radio playtime, the need for a song hook, and the decreased importance of CDs and the increased importance of downloadable singles.
Of course, it is true that modern music has certain innovations that would be unrecognizable to Baroque and Classical composers, like atonal music, music that makes use of Eastern as well as estern instruments and melodies, and even more experimental uses of sounds that defy what most people would call music. However, the…… [Read More]
Messiah:" What major cultural events could we say contribute to this rise of the individual?
Although oratorios were not staged like operas, they were composed many individual songs pieces when the singers would take on the roles of different characters. The focus was on the individual singer, not the chorus. Even the "Hallelujah" chorus is a chorus sung in the name of Christ's birth, a specific event in the life of Christ's story, not an abstract idea like a song that is just about the general glory of God. The singers and the music seems emotional than Renaissance music, as it is designed to express joy and celebration and the words and the swells of the music match, rather than simply stand paired against one another. The more personalized nature of oratorio is also due to the fact "Messiah" was also designed to be sung in a concert hall. People…… [Read More]
Also, the crowd seemed to enjoy the canon, since its melody is so familiar.
What did you not like about it?
Although the piece is enjoyable to listen to, even in performance it does not stir up strong emotions within me.
Does learning something about a concert piece before the concert affect the concert experience? If so, how?
Absolutely! I felt that this historical composition was much more accessible, and I had much more respect for the work, when I saw how many modern arrangements had been inspired by the cannon -- including some tunes from popular music, television theme songs, and even some themes to video games! Even if the original work does not set my toes tapping, it has inspired many works and pieces that I love or are a part of my culture.
Based on this concert experience and your studies this semester, describe your assessment…… [Read More]
Here, made sure his instruments within the orchestra were supreme and strictly oversaw his musicians and choir. Finally, in 1750, his illustrious career came to a close after he died following a serious infection from two cataract operations performed the same year. He continued composing even into the last few days before his death with the help of prescription drugs and his closest associated.
Several different characteristics stood out within the various performances Bach watched over in his career, whether as a composer or an organist. After attaining the position of Cantor in Leizberg, Bach made his discipline apparent in performances there. In order to curb previous bad reputations, many reported Bach's performances to be astounding presentations of organization and discipline on the behalf of both Bach and his musicians. This then helped earn his stern and forceful reputation which allowed him to gain so much fame within the German…… [Read More]
For the Baroque movement, the imperative of restoring and solidifying authority was based in the vestment of this to the Church through the Crown. Thus, the perspective of the Baroque movement as serving very particular objectives is captured in the political and cultural forces driving its chief composers. As we move into a discussion on some of these figures, it becomes increasingly apparent that success and notoriety depended largely on courtly patronage and that, consequently, those who achieved the greatest success and notoriety would be the most adept in the innovation of sacred music.
Key Figures in the Development of the Oratorio:
Perhaps none from this time can be said to have been so adept as Handel, who is seen to an extent as the key nexus point between the Renaissance and the Classical period. Living during the Baroque period stretching between these eras, he is often seen as a…… [Read More]
Each sculpture has a style and beauty all its own, and each shows the style and message of the artist.
It is clear the styles changed as these sculptures were created. Michelangelo's DAVID is classical Greek style, with fluid lines and a muscular body that is very pleasant to look at. Bernini's DAVID is a man, while Michelangelo's is clearly a young boy, and Donatello's looks like a dandy or a cavalier. Even his pose makes him look less manly than the other two sculptures, but does somehow manage to convey power, which is ultimately the goal of all the sculptures.
The message behind these sculptures is the same legend of David slaying Goliath, but they each convey that message very differently. Michelangelo's and Bernini's DAVID's both look like they could slay a giant, while Donatello's looks like the hand of God helped him along. All the statues convey power…… [Read More]
European music: Baroque vs. Romantic and Classical music
Any non-contemporary orchestral music is often called 'classical' in a colloquial fashion. However, there are many varieties of music between the eras of the 15th century and our own besides what is technically associated with the classical period. Perhaps the most notable movement which laid the foundation for our own contemporary era of music is that of the Baroque period. Rather than naturalness, the Baroque stressed ornamentation, artificiality, and technique, including its use of the human voice. "Generally, the qualities most valued in the Baroque voice were agility, purity and clarity, even at the expense of the power which characterizes today's operatic voice" (Thornburgh 1). The predominant instruments besides the human voice were the harpsichord, violins, recorders, and trumpets, which gave Baroque music its unique sound.
Stylistically, Baroque music is notable for its use of the basso continuo and its intense, ornamental…… [Read More]
The Baroque period of art that flourished in the seventeenth century. Although the focal point of Baroque art was Italy and France, its influence was felt throughout Europe. In Italy and other heavily Catholic countries, Baroque art is characterized by overtly strong religious themes, emphasizing the power of the Church during the counter-Reformation. Baroque architecture in Catholic countries was often ornate. In Protestant regions like the Netherlands, Baroque art manifested in completely different, mainly secular forms that included subject matters such as those depicting daily-life scenes and especially the burgeoning bourgeoisie.
Realism as an art movement flourished primarily in France in the 19th century. Landscapes, cityscapes, and depictions of ordinary life were common subjects, with no attempt to embellish or idealize. Realism preferred also to highlight the real lives of the poor and working class. However, Dutch realism flourished much earlier, in the 17th century and differed significantly from…… [Read More]
art are closely enmeshed in the social and political culture of any given time. Hence the significant differences in different periods of art, and also the ability to differentiate between these periods. While changes between adjacent time periods may seem minor, they eventually accumulate to form wide differentialities between periods. ecause human beings change, politics and society change, and therefore art will also be subject to change accordingly. As substantiation for this claim, one might consider the differences between the Renaissance and Romantic periods of art.
During the Renaissance, the church and a number of powerful families, such as the Medici, played a powerful role not only in politics, but also in influencing the arts. In the early fifteenth century, for example, Renaissance palaces changed from the rather austere designs of the past to include a more socially inclusive arcaded halls and family loggias. The focus of art during this…… [Read More]
At the time, the understanding was that state must be relatively autonomous from major religious concerns.
The post-reformation European political theorists believed that Europe had experienced the religious conflict within states and between states, with support from the church. This experience called for a change in the relations between European religious institutions and political institutions.
5. Conquest and Colonization of the New World
The centralization of Spain as a state within independent power from the nobles, led to its absolution from Western Europe. This led to the softened the estate system, released personnel and forces from commoner estate, with its effects having significant consequences in the conquest and colonization of the New World. The Spanish conquest and colonization of America was further fueled by their military struggle following its success with the Muslims in Europe. Their military strength implied that Spain, the conqueror and controller of America had the necessary…… [Read More]
In Spain, the work of Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez expressed the style of baroque art in works of oil on canvas painted by Velazquez during the period. Vermeer and Velazquez are associated with what is described as "third phase," in baroque, also referred to as the "classicistic phase."
The work of Velazquez is of interest when considering the feminist perspective, because it is his work where we find fewer religious themes and more free flowing works of art that nonetheless reflect the realistic and natural essence of the style, the darkness combined with the light to create the image of a the form, if not as divine, of a pureness in nature as he painted a large number of young children upon whose faces the use of that purity of light he employed stylistically. orks such as "Las Meninas, an oil on canvas (1656-1657), held at the Museo…… [Read More]
Thoenes, Christof. "St. Peter's as Ruins: On Some Vedute by Heemskerck. 25-39.
This source explicates the concept of the paradox known as modern ruins. It does so by examining the church at St. Peter's, which was initially conceived of an created during the Italian Renaissance. In this respect the church and the proposed effort of architect Martin van Heemskerck to restore St. Peter's functions as a case study for the blending of traditionally ancient Roman ruins with modern structures. The author takes great pains to emphasize that much of the architecture that is characteristic of ROmen is a synthesis of these two concepts of old buildings and modern ones incorporated atop and part of these older ones to result in modern ruins.
The author explores this notion by illustrating the challenge that Heemskerck encountered when he attempted to restore St. Peter's after the Italian Renaissance. Christof presents the notion…… [Read More]
King-Lenzmeier, A.H. (2001). Hildegard of Bingen. Liturgical Press.
In many ways, the biography of Hildegard of Bingen is a compelling starting point for the discussion on baroque music. his is a novel perspective because the German nun and convent prioress lived roughly 600 years prior to the peak of the baroque period. However, she is sometimes recognized as the first known and biographied composer, recognized for the religious musical performances staged at her own convent. As the research will explore through consideration of the King-Lenzimeier (2001), these works may have a legitimate claim as the first oratorios ever composed.
Music Academy Online (MAO). (2008). Franz Joseph Haydn. Music Academy Online.com.
he text published by Music Academy Online (2008) provides an excellent overview of the life and work of Franz Joseph Haydn. Particularly, it demonstrates the influence which contemporaries of the baroque period often bore on one another, even across national…… [Read More]
enaissance and Baroque Periods
The term enaissance describes, not only a movement in art, but also a corresponding social and cultural movement that moved through Europe at the conclusion of the Middle Ages. The enaissance period lasted from the 1400s to the 1600s, and spread through most of Europe, though it is probably the most heavily associated with Italy. The term "renaissance" means revival or rebirth, and the enaissance did mark a period of significant cultural revival. In order to truly understand the enaissance, it is important to understand that the Middle Ages, the time period preceding the enaissance was a period of retraction largely due to political instability. However, as Europe emerged from the Middle Ages and became more stable, the surrounding social landscape became supportive of an explosion in the arts and learning. The movement began in Italy in the 1400s and spread into France, northern Europe, and…… [Read More]
The compositional structure here is actually quite daring. Even though a viewer tends to "read" a painting left-to-right, as with a book, here the left side of the canvas seems to fade away into nothingness. It is not just the empty seascape on the left as compared with the dark richness of the forest on the right. The left half of the painting contains the subject of the painting after all -- Europa and the Bull. It is Rembrandt's genius to have the drama of Europa and the Bull taking place in the lower left corner of a very large painting, almost as though the moment of drama is on its way out, and the viewer is lucky to have caught it. But it is also clever how Rembrandt essentially balances the canvas with two central subjects, equally illuminated from above -- we have Europa and the Bull on the…… [Read More]
The geniuses strained the boundaries of the characteristic styles more evidently and more quickly than those of their contemporaries to bring about such seismic changes.
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Ludwig van Beethoven." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2007. 23 Apr 2008. http://plus.aol.com/aol/reference/Beethove/Ludwig_van_Beethoven?flv=1&ncid=fLHHQXUNeT0000000474&icid=rbox_ref_center.M
Posner, Howard. "hat is basso continuo?" Early Music FAQ. 1994. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/misc/continuo.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Baroque." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt Boynick. 1 Feb 1996. Revised 10 Oct 2000. 23 Apr 2008. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/g_epoch_baroque.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Classical." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Norton, 1994. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt…… [Read More]
Caravaggio: Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi -- "The Calling of St. Matthew"
Caravaggio has painted a Baroque masterpiece that depicts the reality of being a tax collector at the moment when Matthew is called by Christ to be a disciple. He looks up from the table where the "seedy" business of money collection is taking place and has an almost "incredulous" look in his eyes -- as if to say, "You want me?" Few people notice the presence of Our Lord -- the scene is dark -- but split down the middle, with Christ's emergence drawing the line between the light and the dark. A shaft of light falls on St. Matthew.
The video is very informative and gives a good take on the situation, providing context for the painting both as Caravaggio painted it and as it hangs in the chapel. The presenters discuss the significance of…… [Read More]
enaissance and Baroque
An Analysis of Two Davids
The humanism, nobility, and power of the enaissance are reflected in Michelangelo's David (1504). The emphasis on drama, movement, and action is demonstrated in Bernini's David (1624). Both emphasize the heroic and favorite themes of the High enaissance, but it is Vasari who gives the greatest compliment to Michelangelo's David, calling it more excellent than all sculpture of ancient Greece and ome and even contemporary works (Vasari, 1998, p. 424). This paper will analyze the two works and the eras of art that produced them.
Differences between enaissance and Baroque
The most important thing to remember about the difference between the enaissance and the Baroque is that the former rose to glory prior to the feverish pitch of Protestantism, which to some extent put out its flame; the latter was a kind of rejuvenation of the themes posed by the enaissance --…… [Read More]
Self-Images in Baroque Art
'Baroque' is a word that is employed to describe 17th- and early 18th- century European art. The art form signified a shift from Renaissance art's classism and linearity (though a few artists from that period carried on with creating artworks in the older style). Baroque was also characterized by a shift towards drama, motion, theatricality, unpredictability, and impulse. This style thrived in many areas of the European continent including Italy, Spain, Flanders, and the Netherlands, and was marked by some common elements despite the existence of major distinctions between regions and artists. Baroque sculptures and paintings were structured around unpredictable diagonal lines, instead of the traditional pyramid or triangle.[footnoteRef:1] Self-portraits grew into a progressively ambitious form that took the aspects of self-awareness and self-promotion to new heights.[footnoteRef:2] In this paper, three Baroque self-images will be discussed, namely, Rembrandt, 1660; Salvatore Rosa, 1647; and Anthony van Dyck,…… [Read More]
Lessons Plans for Teaching Baroque Artwork
Lesson Plan 1: Overview of Baroque Style Painting
Teacher Activity Description
Student Activity Description
Instruction Inquiry: A description of the learning activity and its objectives will be provided.
Teacher introduces the Baroque style of painting and describes the historical period in which it was most influential (early 16th century through the early 18th century) (Engel, 2012). For instance, according to Engel, "Baroque was generated when Italian art, as based on corporeal, exterior activity, aligned itself to northern or Germanic art with its emphasis on interior, psychological movements" (p. 3). In sum, Baroque paintings are characterized by several features, including dynamism (e.g., there is a sense of motion discernible in the artwork) that is complemented by distinctive artistic effects such as (a) strong curves, (b) elaborate decoration and (c) diminished lighting effects (Baroque painting, 2015. There were some regional difference in style, though,…… [Read More]
CATHOLIC BAOQUE VS. THE POTESTANT BAOQUE IN NOTHEN EUOPE
Catholic Baroque in Italy vs. the Protestant Baroque in Northern Europe
The following study compares the theatricality of the Catholic Baroque in Italy to the Protestant Baroque in Northern Europe. The discussion will focus on Caravaggio's "the Crucifixion of Saint Peter" to embrandt's "The eturn of The Prodigal Son." It also extends to include the way each artist handles the religious subject reflecting both the different sensibilities of these two artistic styles and the religious thinking of these two areas.
The Baroque period is argued to have taken place between the 1500s and 1700s. As the 16th approached, Western Europe experienced a reformation that divided Christianity between Protestants and Catholics. Most countries in Northern Europe (Switzerland, Holland and Britain) became Protestants whereas Southern countries (Spain and Italy) became Catholics. The sharp divide caused different art styles. In their churches, the Protestants…… [Read More]
According to Henry a. Millon, the sparkling gaiety of this style "was cultivated by a new age associated with the regency that followed upon the death of Louis XIV and then with the reign of Louis XV," meaning that these two French kings and their opulent lifestyles highly influenced the art that came about during the beginning and middle years of the 18th century in Europe (156).
Essentially, the Rococo is an interior style or, in other words, pertains mostly to the decoration of objects designed for the interior of palaces and royal residencies. As compared to the art of the aroque Era, that of the Rococo style is far removed from religious and national influences. Architecturally, one of the best examples of the Rococo style can be found in the Rococo room of the Salon de la Princesse at the Hotel de Soubise in Paris, decorated by Germain offrand…… [Read More]
renaissance -- Baroque Music
RENAISSANCE & BAROQUE MUSIC:
The music associated with the Renaissance Period, beginning circa 1450 and ending about 1600, brought about a number of significant changes as compared to its predecessor, being the Medieval Period. Musically, the Renaissance Period introduced the use of polyphony and saw the rise of the cantus firmus mass as Europe's first major musical form; in addition, there was an emergence of national schools of composition, a birth of new secular forms, the beginning of truly instrumental music and a series of inter-related developments, such as the use of monody and the bass continuo.
With polyphony, all of the musical parts are considered to be of equal importance and when combined produce not only an independent horizontal movement but also a vertical, being a combination of chords. The composers of the "ars nova," such as Guillaume de Machaut, created music of…… [Read More]
The twenty-one pieces of the work, minus the Overture, are divided into two acts, 8 pieces in the First Act, and 13 in the Second. 8 to 13 is an example of the Golden Ratio. There are also 49 entrances in The Magic Flute, divided up as 19 in Act I and 30 in Act II. This too is an example of the Golden Ratio. Furthermore, the Overture contains a division between 81 bars and 130, yet another Golden Ratio.
Golden Ratio is thus contained within Golden Ratio, an image of the endless repetition of the primordial forms. Each individual part of the Creation is complete unto itself. One can take apart the Cosmos and find perfect miniature "worlds" that can be put back together to form a coherent whole. According to the Classical canon of art, the human body is built upon the Golden Ratio. By drawing lines through…… [Read More]
art is changed by the changes that occur in political culture. The writer presents examples and contrasts two of the following areas Baroque, ococo, Neoclassicism, and omanticism and argues the point of how the eras drive changes in artwork. In addition the writer devotes two pages to comparing three works of famous artists.
Art has always been influenced by the masses. Political culture, and change have been driving forces behind the changes in art that history has witnessed. When political and cultural changes occur it is generally because of changing attitudes of those who live in the era and drive those changes. This extrapolates to changes in many things including taste in artwork. Two periods in history provide classic examples of such change occurring and being directly related to political and cultural changes that were taking place in society during the time.
The Neoclassical period and the omantic era are…… [Read More]
PETE PAUL UBENS & CAAVAGGIO
The artistic period known as the enaissance continued without any sharp stylistic changes well into the 17th and 18th centuries; however, the art of this later period is often called Baroque, although there is no single Baroque style or set of stylistic ideals. Yet within the last one hundred years or so, Baroque has taken on the overall designation for the art of the period from circa 1600 to 1750. More recently, scholars have come to understand that Baroque styles were very different from those linked to the enaissance. For example, during the enaissance, art tended to be rather static, but during the Baroque, art became very dynamic and encompassed passion, opulence, a taste for the theatrical and introduced the virtuoso, being an artist that stood out from his contemporaries as a truly gifted genius.
Historically, the Baroque Period entailed many artistic ideals,…… [Read More]
An examination of "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist" by Jacopo del Sellaio, 1480-85 and "St. Sebastian Attended by Holy omen" by Nicolas Regnier (called Nicolo Renieri) 1615-1626 reveal the differences between early and later Renaissance painting in Italy. Jacopo del Sellaio's word dates to the late fifteenth century, and Renieri painted more than a century after that. The historical context of their work also signals the differences between Sellaio and Renieri. Sellaio studied under Fra Filippo Lippi and his style inevitably reveals his connection with the Lippi school. Sandro Botticelli studied under Lippi at the same time; Renieri and Botticelli influenced each other and this is especially evident in "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist." For instance, Botticelli's style is evident in Sellaio's work "in such traits as the texture and color of hair, the tilt of the Virgin's head and the elongation…… [Read More]
Concerts Across Time
The performer that I watched in a pop music concert is named PJ Morton. He is a keyboardist and vocalist, who performed with what looked like the helping of a full band. There were two baroque concerts that I watched. The first was entitled "Little Baroque Suite," whereas the second one was entitled "Une Fete Baroque." On the whole I did not enjoy these concerts very much. I certainly did not enjoy the first two I have listed in this document. I found Morton's music and songwriting to be extremely bland, if not boring. This sentiment applied doubly so to "Little Baroque Suite." The music was extremely staid and just seemed to plod (if not march) along. The concert I liked best was "Une Fete Baroque," mostly because the various musicians and vocalists (and the conductor, especially) in this concert actually performed, complete with dancing and a…… [Read More]
ichter and Gardiner in Bach's Canata ecordings
The Baroque was a style expressed in art, music, architecture and even literature from the Age of Discovery in the 16th century until the early 18th century. Most describe it as more dramatic, florid, embellished and a move away from the total religiosity of the Middle Ages and into a more secular and emotional, time frame. However, the spread of the Baroque in music, art and architecture was certainly tied to the spread of Catholicism and how art was used in the Church to help express emotion and tell the Biblical stories through painting or music for those not literate. Later in the era, the idea of music and art being reflective of religiosity became even more important with the split between Catholics and Protestants. Just like the philosophical materials that arose, the Baroque in music tending to use the past as a…… [Read More]
Le Grand Hautbois
During the reign of Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the courts were alive with new Baroque music and instruments. Many new wind instruments were being created with a variety of innovations and some other instruments were being newly invented. It was a time of experimentation, as these just introduced instruments had to be tried out for their range, sound and quality. Louis XIV from his childhood on throughout his life was always surrounded by music. He and musicians such as Lully would create ballets and compositions (Palisca 1968). During this time, King Louis XIV also revived and updated Le Grand Hautbois with the new instruments. Although little is written about Le Grand Hautbois, with Whitwell the compiler of the information that is available from writers during that period, this does not negate the importance of this twelve-player band to the French royal court and other European…… [Read More]
In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…… [Read More]
In terms of Renaissance philosophy, Galileo Galilei is an example of a humanist who strongly defended the gradual flourishing and subsistence to the scientific revolution happening in his society during the Renaissance period. Galileo was a strong advocate for the usage of science in discovering truth and new knowledge, using the principles of mathematics and philosophy in strengthening the study of astronomy and physics in the society. Through Galileo, the nature of free scientific inquiry prevailed, challenging, though not condemning, philosophical and theological issues that cannot empirically answer truth and reality in life. Dante Alighieri's "Inferno," meanwhile, is a literary piece that represented his inquiry into the spiritual and humanistic foundations of human existence during his time. In a period wherein theological foundations and philosophies are being questioned, Dante's "Inferno" confronted the moral and spiritual issues being questioned by Dante and his society during this challenging period of Renaissance.
Following…… [Read More]
cultural movements of European art after the Renaissance, namely those style periods of Mannerism, Baroque, and Rococo. In the late sixteenth century, Mannerism was a unique artistic technique that made use of distortions of scale and viewpoint. The Baroque movement in art and architecture enhanced Europe between the early seventeenth and middle eighteenth centuries as it emphasized dramatic and at times tense affects. The Baroque artists and sculptures consistently used very bold, curving forms, and extremely elaborate ornamentation. However, unlike Mannerism, they emphasized balance of incongruent parts. The Baroque musicians of the period also flourished throughout Europe and were known for their expressive dissension and complex embellishment of tones. Rococo, which originated early in eighteenth century France and may be considered by some experts as merely an extension of the Baroque movement, was an artistic approach used to create beautiful architecture and art works that were often based on flora…… [Read More]
When geniuses are alive they make people uncomfortable in the ways that they challenge accepted artistic and intellectual concepts. People reject geniuses, and prefer more mainstream representations of art and literature in popular culture. But true geniuses still manage to affect the culture they live in, even if they do not gain fame and fortune. And after they die, people finally show respect to geniuses, and acknowledge their influence in culture and their ability to honestly tell the stories of people's daily lives. This has always been the case. Bach was an obscure church organist who is now one of the most famous composers who ever lived and Mozart was unappreciated and died in a pauper's grave. Jackson Pollock's Abstract Impressionism is reflected in advertising today, but its nonrepresentational style frightened people in his day, and even popular great artists like Picasso and Shakespeare were not fully appreciated, or at…… [Read More]
As the various are works are depicting the two as a perfect match. A good example of this can be seen in the painting the Meeting of Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon. Where, Rubens is showing the two in heaven, looking down on themselves when they were younger riding lions. This is important, because the image of them in heaven is highlighting how they are God's match. While the lions are an illustration, of how they are from the same kind of background. As a result, a sense of mysticism is embraced with: heaven and the lions. While reality is depicted by: showing the two people as they actually appeared in real life. Therefore, the aroque style is illustrated through the use of: mysticism and realism that are connected to one another. ("Marie de ' Medici and Henry IV at Lyon," 2011)
Artermisia Gentileschi. (n.d.)…… [Read More]
The Baroque was a dramatic period in Europe: the religious unity the continent had enjoyed for centuries had come to a crashing halt with the Protestant Reformation. King was turned against King, prince against pontiff. Persecution and war were dominant themes, especially following the excommunication of Henry VIII from the Church. Bernini's David, sculpted between 1623 and 1624, represents the swirling, dramatic, grim activity of the times (Avery). It is indeed a strong manifestation of the Baroque principles and themes: David is reared back, depicted in mid-action, like a lock ready to be sprung on his foe. He is full of conviction, bent on striking, Unlike Michelangelo's Renaissance Era David, which aimed mainly for a frontal view to show off the human form and which conveyed a sense of the confidence, leisure, pride and grandeur of the Renaissance Age, Bernini's David is a figure of determination -- a…… [Read More]
With the decline of the Church, other religious movements emerged dominant among Renaissance thinkers and followers, which included the movement of Protestantism, and later on, Reformation. Under the Protestantism movement, reformed Catholic churches established their own assembly, disassociating from the Catholic Church to form their own religious organization. Protestantism, in fact, preceded the Protestant Reformation, which culminated the Renaissance movement in the 16th century. Under the Protestant Reformation, socio-economic changes were put into place, which involved primarily the transfer of power from the Church to the civil society/citizenry. The Reformation gave birth to a more democratic, independent society, wherein people or the citizens are given more voice in decision-making concerning civil society. Primarily, decentralization of social, economic and political power took place because of the Reformation.
Scientific development became one of the most important areas that developed from the Renaissance. Apart from promoting humanism and intellectual thought, expressed through artworks,…… [Read More]
music and their relationship to either the Baroque or Classical Period. The two pieces of music to be analyzed are Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 by Karl Munchinger performed by the Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra and Jeffery Tate's Allegro con brio performed by the English Chamber Orchestra. A brief discussion of the comparison of the two periods of music will be presented to help contextualize the argument before describing both pieces as products of either of those periods.
Baroque Period Vs. Classical Period
The Baroque Period of Music began in 1600 and lasted until 1750. Philosophically, this period's music aligned with much of the social and intellectual enlightenment that was occurring at the same time. The musical styles of this era demonstrated complex layers of melody and appealed to an upper elite class of thought. The orchestra concept began in this period and large booming productions like many operas of the…… [Read More]
Period/date- enaissance 1501- 1504
Location or origin- Florence Italy
Medium and size- Sculpture
Period/date- Baroque 1610
Location or origin- ome
Medium and size- Painting
The story of David and Goliath is one that transcends time. In particular, the story appeals to a wide array of diverse individuals, each with its own views on religion, culture and values. Through the universal appeal of David, many different interpretations have arisen throughout time. These interpretations, although distinct, often convey a fundamental truth prevailing during the period of its creation. Aspects such as war, political policies, civil unrest, and culture values often matriculate into the interpretation of the David of Goliath. Art is no different in this regard. Both the Baroque and enaissance periods gave rise to new and distinct forms of belief and expression. These concepts ultimately matriculated into many of the more commonly know masterpieces of today's time. The…… [Read More]
On the other hand, he is also referring to the rigorous formation of a cantata. He saw through the rigorous formation of the cantata an instrument to bring a certain order into individual existence as well, with the Lutheran religion as the middle element (Schrade, 1946).
In reference to the previous subchapter on Lully, we should point out towards the fact that, while for Lully, royal patronage was essential for the characteristics of his creation and, in fact, the direct source of inspiration and ultimate goal, ach used the civic appointment to rise above the actual demands and only use the pretext of needing to compose cantatas for a perspective to go beyond and ensure that his musical vision was reached. In Lully's case, patronage determined musical vision, for we cannot see Lully's music otherwise than in the role of a grandiose propaganda instrument for the French absolute monarchy. In…… [Read More]
Modernism made its mark on Berlin's architectural trends, too. The Bauhaus style of modernism is characteristic of many of Berlin's social housing projects that sprouted up in the 1920s, and which recently became designated UNESCO orld Heritage Sites. The early twentieth century marked the birth of the eimar Republic, which gave rise to an industrial aesthetic that has become a hallmark of Berlin's look as well as symbolic of socialist ideology (Hake). For example, the Potzdammer Platz was conceived of as a symbolic collective space, a sentimental communal property made manifest in a massive public square.
Throughout Berlin's history, architectural development has paralleled social and political realities, and the Nazi years were no exception. Nazi monumentalist structures mirrored the warped dreams of the party. Hitler and his team of architects, designers, and builders helped create a network of structures in Berlin that enabled massive demonstrations and also imposed party ideology…… [Read More]
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…… [Read More]
Works of religious art have gone through changes during different art periods. The paper will look at three different works of religious art. These works of art will be from the Early enaissance period, the High enaissance period and the Baroque period.
The Early enaissance period
One artist who did religious art in the early enaissance period Domenico Ghirlandaio .the title of this art work was the last supper. This work was done in 1480's within the 15th century. The medium that was used in this painting was fresco. Currently the painting is located in Ognissanti, Florence.
This work of art was very large the dimensions being Height: 400 cm (157.5 in). Width: 880 cm (346.5 in).the artist uses the existing shape of the rom to create extra space. The view in the background, painting of the ceiling in the work of art and the shape of the…… [Read More]
Errogenous Zones in Middle Ages, Renaissance, And Baroque
Art has always been used to showcase the desired and desirable in nature and in imagination. The definition of the erogenous zone is any body part that causes sexual desire or stimulation to increase. These zones can be located at various parts of the body and their sensitivity will be less or more depending on the individual. It has been argued that even before doctors made studies of these zones on the human body, the artists were already utilizing them in art to add a symbolic message of sexual desire and stimulation.
Besides the male and female genitalia, the most commonly known erogenous zones are the mouth and neck, chest and abdomen. Next to that are the fingers. Some find the feet and particularly the toes equally stimulating.
In the Middle Ages and entering into the early Renaissance, appreciation for the human…… [Read More]
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]
The one odd detail of the painting is the blazon that appears in the lower half in the center. It is cut off at the bottom of the painting, so we are unable to see the whole thing, but we can tell that it is shaped like a diamond and black with red and yellow tracings on the inside. This gives it almost an occult-like appearance. According to Krajewski, the blazon hanging from the window displays an emblem of a particular rederijker group. The emblem [not visible in this image of the painting] consists of crossed pipes and a wineglass, which are underneath an inscription that reads, "the green laurel shoot." The emblem tells us that the rederijkers were "as much social as literary."
The rhetoricians played a major role in entertaining the populace of Holland in the 1600s. This is one of many paintings Steen produced in homage to…… [Read More]
Question: Why are we shown the rear of the horse so predominantly?
Life is ordinary -- even during seismic events there is always humor, ugliness, and the everyday -- and the rear ends of animals. A horse in the Bible had the same basic anatomy as a horse today! The perspective is slightly distorted, to reflect Saul's own confused view of the world, and also the two other protagonists' view of Saul. They do not see what has happened to Saul's soul, only that a man has fallen off of his horse. Saul does not look dignified, because he has fallen off of his horse, and looks like a drunken man, thus the back view of the animal reinforces this perception in the eyes of the viewer. The undignified position of Saul and his horse also reminds the viewer of Saul's undignified life before he was converted to Christianity. Before…… [Read More]
Handel's Messiah was composed in 1741. The musical period is baroque.
An oratorio is a large musical work that includes an orchestra, choir, soloists, and staging. Operas are musical theater and oratorios are exclusively concert or musical only pieces.
An aria is a melody or musical piece that is made exclusively for one voice and there is orchestral accompaniment. Arias are most commonly found in operas.
There is a kind of call and response between the lyrics and the music in Ev'ry Valley. The singer guides the music and the instruments complement and mimic what the singer does with his voice. Handel was probably considering rhythm, structure, and movement when considering the lyrics.
The texture of the refrain of the Hallelujah chorus is strong. The texture is rich and vibrant. The syllables hang in the air, especially the "ha," yet there is a definite swiftness and movement to…… [Read More]
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…… [Read More]
It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.
Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…… [Read More]
In the video I am showing how to paint like a Baroque artist, teaching the students the art of chiaroscuro, dynamism, impasto, and sprezzato. This would be lesson plan no. 5 and incorporates various aspects of the art technique.
Promoting a Positive Learning Environment
Demonstrating Respect, Rapport, and Responsiveness
I demonstrated respect for students with varied needs and backgrounds by taking time to ask them each whether they saw how the four different methods of painting helped to produce the desired effects. This allowed them to show that they could see the effects of light and shadow, movement, thickness, and quickness. We developed rapport by talking about other techniques that could be used and the students each contributed by suggesting a technique, such as blotting, dotting, etc. that could add something to the style. I demonstrated responsiveness by locating those techniques in other art movements, such as…… [Read More]
Architecture through the Ages
Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;
228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…… [Read More]
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…… [Read More]
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]